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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11395.
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GLOBALIZATION OF MATERIALS R&D

TIME FOR A NATIONAL STRATEGY

Committee on Globalization of Materials Research and Development

National Materials Advisory Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11395.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was supported by the Department of Defense under Award No. MDA972-01-D-0001. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11395.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11395.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11395.
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COMMITTEE ON GLOBALIZATION OF MATERIALS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

PETER BRIDENBAUGH, Chair

MILLER ADAMS,

The Boeing Company

ASHISH ARORA,

Carnegie Mellon University

GILBERT BENAVIDES,

Sandia National Laboratories

UMA CHOWDHRY,

DuPont Company

EDWARD DOWLING,

DeBeers Group

GORDON GEIGER,

University of Arizona

JENNIE HWANG,

H-Technologies Group, Inc.

MICHAEL JAFFE,

Rutgers University

ROBERT PFAHL,

International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative

NATALIA TAMIRISA,

International Monetary Fund

XISHAN XIE,

University of Science and Technology Beijing

Staff

MICHAEL MOLONEY, Study Director (from September 2004)

TONI MARECHAUX, Study Director (December 2003–September 2004)

EMILY ANN MEYER, Research Associate (December 2003–April 2004)

MARTA VORNBROCK, Research Associate

LAURA TOTH, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11395.
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NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD

KATHARINE G. FRASE, Chair,

IBM

JOHN ALLISON,

Ford Motor Company

PAUL BECHER,

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

CHERYL R. BLANCHARD,

Zimmer, Inc.

BARBARA D. BOYAN,

Georgia Institute of Technology

L. CATHERINE BRINSON,

Northwestern University

DIANNE CHONG,

The Boeing Company

FIONA DOYLE,

University of California, Berkeley

HAMISH L. FRASER,

Ohio State University

JOHN J. GASSNER,

U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center

SOSSINA M. HAILE,

California Institute of Technology

THOMAS S. HARTWICK

ARTHUR H. HEUER,

Case Western Reserve University

ELIZABETH HOLM,

Sandia National Laboratories

ANDREW T. HUNT,

nGimat Company

FRANK E. KARASZ,

University of Massachusetts

CONILEE G. KIRKPATRICK,

HRL Laboratories

TERRY LOWE,

Los Alamos National Laboratory

LINDA SCHADLER,

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

LYLE H. SCHWARTZ

JAMES C. SEFERIS,

University of Washington

SHARON L. SMITH,

Lockheed Martin Corporation

T.S. SUDARSHAN,

Materials Modification Inc.

Staff

GARY FISCHMAN, Director

JAMES KILLIAN, Senior Program Officer

MICHAEL MOLONEY, Senior Program Officer

TAMAE MAEDA WONG, Senior Program Officer

BONNIE SCARBOROUGH, Program Officer

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

TERI THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator

EUGENE CHOI, Research Associate

MARTA VORNBROCK, Research Associate

COLLEEN BRENNAN, Senior Program Assistant

LAURA TOTH, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11395.
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Preface

The Committee on Globalization of Materials Research and Development was appointed by the National Research Council (NRC) in December 2003 to assess the status and impacts of the globalization of materials science and engineering (MSE) research and development (MSE R&D). The panel was charged to do the following:

  • Evaluate existing benchmarks as appropriate to assess the current situation and trends in materials research and development in the global community.

  • Identify reasons why U.S. companies may or may not choose to depend on materials research carried out abroad. Assess current laws, policies, and regulations that affect these decisions.

  • Identify advances in technology that are driving globalization of materials R&D.

  • Assess the impact of the factors mentioned above on the U.S. economy and national security. Include the effect of foreign participation in domestic R&D and the effect of U.S. participation in foreign R&D.

  • In light of the above, recommend actions to ensure U.S. access to current materials research and development.

The committee met four times during the course of the study to hear detailed presentations on the issues surrounding globalization and globalization’s impact on the current state of MSE R&D, the U.S. economy, and national security. In

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11395.
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addition, numerous private interviews were conducted with individuals and colleagues in academia, the federal research agencies, and industry. The committee also organized a poll of a self-selected sample of members of the materials community. The committee is grateful to several professional societies—the American Ceramic Society, the American Physical Society, the Federation of Materials Societies, the Materials Research Society, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, the Society for Biomaterials, and the Society of Manufacturing Engineers—for their assistance and to John Armor, Tia Benson-Tolle, Keith Bowman, James Daley, Duane B. Dimos, Robert Hawsey, Terry Lowe, John E. Marra, Ozden Ochoa, Greg Schoeppner, Robert Shull, and Kathleen Taylor for their valuable suggestions and their critical input to the committee’s report.

Chapter 1 of this report defines MSE and globalization in the broadest sense and examines the history of globalization and R&D in general. Chapter 2 focuses on indicators for the emergence of global research activity in MSE. Chapter 3 updates the NRC report Experiments in International Benchmarking of U.S. Research Fields (2000) in some of the materials subfields. Chapter 4 examines various U.S. regulatory regimes—export, technology transfer, intellectual property, tax policy, immigration, environmental safety and health, and product approval—that might influence corporate R&D globalization decisions. Chapter 5 discusses the economic and national security impacts for the United States of the globalizing trends in MSE R&D. Chapter 6 presents a series of recommendations based on the conclusions drawn in each of the chapters and aimed at defining a strategy for maintaining access to critical, cutting-edge MSE R&D. Because this study was sponsored by the Department of Defense (DOD), the committee focused much of its attention on analyzing and recommending particular actions for DOD and its agencies.

It is clear to the committee that the United States and other leading industrial nations are experiencing the globalization of MSE R&D. While R&D is moving offshore to support manufacturing facilities in central Europe and Asia, a much more important aspect of globalization is the massive and accelerating investments that foreign governments, most notably China and India, are making in their own R&D infrastructures, particularly education. This trend is occurring at a time when such investments in the United States are falling. The enrollment of foreign students in graduate science and engineering education at U.S. universities is dropping rapidly and that of U.S. students is in free fall. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) reports that in 2000, the share of students in China graduating with engineering degrees was about 40 percent while for the United States it was about 5 percent. Clearly, the United States has a serious problem in education that must be addressed at the national/ federal level if it is to maintain its leadership in innovation. The solution to this

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11395.
×

problem is too important to our future to be left to local decision makers. Like much of U.S. commerce, the U.S. defense and intelligence communities have been successful because they have had access to a one- or two-generation lead in critical technologies.

It is the committee’s hope that the conclusions and recommendations in this report will help prepare the United States to deal effectively with the globalization of MSE R&D, secure the nation from future threats, and ensure continued access to the best domestic or foreign MSE R&D in the world.

Finally, I wish to thank all the committee members for their insights, inputs, and various contributions to this study. I also wish to thank the staff of the National Materials Advisory Board for their assistance in the development and execution of this study and in the production of this report.

Peter Bridenbaugh, Chair

Committee on Globalization of Materials Research and Development

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11395.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11395.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

John Allison, Ford Motor Company,

Siegfried S. Hecker, Los Alamos National Laboratory,

Don Hillebrand, Argonne National Laboratory,

Conilee G. Kirkpatrick, HRL Laboratories,

Neil E. Paton, private consultant,

Rustum Roy, Pennsylvania State University

Lyle H. Schwartz, private consultant

Richard S. Stein, University of Massachusetts,

Ellen D. Williams, University of Maryland,

Albert F. Yee, University of California, Irvine, and

Joel S. Yudken, AFL-CIO.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11395.
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Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Elsa Garmire, Dartmouth College. Appointed by the National Research Council, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11395.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11395.
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Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) R&D is spreading globally at an accelerating rate. As a result, the relative U.S. position in a number of MSE subfields is in a state of flux. To understand better this trend and its implications for the U.S. economy and national security, the Department of Defense (DOD) asked the NRC to assess the status and impacts of the global spread of MSE R&D. This report presents a discussion of drivers affecting U.S. companies' decisions about location of MSE R&D, an analysis of impacts on the U.S. economy and national security, and recommendations to ensure continued U.S. access to critical MSE R&D.

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