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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future (2007)

Chapter:Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Appendix E
Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables

The following tables provide each implementation action and a “back of the envelope” estimate of the incremental annual cost to the federal government for each. These cost estimates are to illustrate the size of the program the committee is proposing and are not definitive. To obtain a more definitive estimate, economic modeling would be necessary.

Since the prepublication version of the report was released on October 12, 2005, policy-makers have requested a 10-year annual cost estimate for the committee’s recommendations. That estimate is what is presented here. In developing this estimate, the committee collected more detailed information than it had at that time to develop these cost estimates. In addition, we have attempted to provide sufficient information so that the cost estimates could be re-created.

In many cases, programs are phased in over a number of years. In addition, some of the scholarship and fellowship programs take 3-4 years to reach steady state.

The aggregate cost estimate of all the recommendations remain in the same range as the committee developed in October 2005. The cost estimate at that time was $9.2 to $23.8 billion. The current aggregate cost estimate is $8.6 to $19.8 billion.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Gathering Storm Annual Cost Estimate, by Recommendation, 2007-2016 (millions of dollars)

Recommendation

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

K–12

376

747

1219

1689

1976

Research

1670

2790

4010

5430

6850

Higher Education

1100

1700

2300

2675

2675

Innovation

5423

5423

5423

5423

5423

TOTAL

8569

10660

12952

15217

16924

Gathering Storm Annual Cost Estimate, by Action Item, 2007-2016 (millions of dollars)

Action Item

Recommendation

2007

2008

2009

2010

A-1

Recruit 10,000 Teachers

110

295

550

815

A-2a

Summer Institutes

40

80

120

120

A-2b

Master’s Program

46

92

158

224

A-2c

AP/IB Teacher Incentives

100

179

265

363

A-2d

Science and Math Curriculum

20

20

20

20

A-3

AP/IB Student Incentives

60

81

106

147

Total (K–12)

376

747

1219

1689

B-1

Long-Term Basic Research

800

1700

2700

3900

B-2

Early-Career Research Award

20

40

60

80

B-3

Research Infrastructure

500

500

500

500

B-4

High-Risk Research

0

0

0

0

B-5

ARPA-Energy

300

500

700

900

B-6

Presidential Innovation Award

50

50

50

50

Total (Research)

1670

2790

4010

5430

C-1

Undergraduate Scholarships

375

750

1125

1500

C-2

Graduate Portable Fellowships

225

450

675

675

C-3

Continuing Educ. Tax Credit

500

500

500

500

C-4

Expedite Visa Processing

0

0

0

0

C-5

Intl Student Work Permits

0

0

0

0

C-6

Skills-Based Immigration Policy

0

0

0

0

Total (Higher Education)

1100

1700

2300

2675

D-1

Intellectual Property Protection

323

323

323

323

D-2

R&D Tax Credit

5100

5100

5100

5100

D-3

Innovation Tax Incentives Study

0

0

0

0

D-4

Ubiquitous Broadband Internet

0

0

0

0

Total (Incentives for Innovation)

5423

5423

5423

5423

 

 

2007

2008

2009

2010

Grand Total (Billions of Dollars)

8.6

10.7

13

15.2

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

5-Year Total

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

% of Total in 2016

6007

2071

2091

2091

2091

2091

10.5

20750

8250

9650

9650

9650

9650

48.6

10450

2675

2675

2675

2675

2675

13.5

27115

5423

5423

5423

5423

5423

27.3

64322

18419

19839

19839

19839

19839

99.9

2011

5-Year Total

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

965

2735

1040

1040

1040

1040

1040

120

480

120

120

120

120

120

290

810

310

330

330

330

330

400

1307

400

400

400

400

400

20

100

20

20

20

20

20

181

575

181

181

181

181

181

1976

6007

2071

2091

2091

2091

2091

5200

14300

6600

8000

8000

8000

8000

100

300

100

100

100

100

100

500

2500

500

500

500

500

500

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1000

3400

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

50

250

50

50

50

50

50

6850

20750

8250

9650

9650

9650

9650

1500

5250

1500

1500

1500

1500

1500

675

2700

675

675

675

675

675

500

2500

500

500

500

500

500

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2675

10450

2675

2675

2675

2675

2675

323

1615

323

323

323

323

323

5100

25500

5100

5100

5100

5100

5100

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5423

27115

5423

5423

5423

5423

5423

2011

10045

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

16.9

64.4

18.4

19.8

19.8

19.8

19.8

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Action A-1 (Recruit 10,000 Teachers) Detailed Analysis

Year

2007

2008

2009

2010

Millions of Dollars

 

 

 

 

Scholarships

75

225

450

675

Bonuses

0

0

0

40

Institutional Awards

35

70

100

100

Total

110

295

550

815

Scholarship if $15,000 per Year

 

 

 

 

Number of Old Students

5000

5000

15000

30000

Number of New Students

 

10000

15000

15000

Scholarship $

15000

15000

15000

15000

Total $M

75

225

450

675

Bonuses

 

 

 

 

Number of Teachers

0

0

0

4000

Bonus $

0

0

0

10000

Total $M

0

0

0

40

Institutional Matching Grants

 

 

 

 

Number of Institutions

35

70

100

100

Grant $M

 

 

 

1111

Total $M

35

70

100

100

Action A-2a (Summer Institutes) Detailed Analysis

Year

2007

2008

2009

2010

Number of Teachers

16500

33500

50000

50000

Cost per Teacher ($)

2400

2400

2400

2400

Total ($M)

40

80

120

120

Action A-2b (Master’s Program) Detailed Analysis

Year

 

2007

2008

2009

Number of Programs

100

200

300

400

Students per Program

20

20

20

20

Number of Students/Program

2000

4000

6000

8000

Cost per Student

23000

23000

23000

23000

Cost per Program ($M)

46

92

138

184

Number of Graduates

 

 

2000

4000

Cost per Bonus

 

 

10000

10000

Bonus Cost ($M)

 

 

20

40

Total ($M)

46

92

158

224

 

Breakdown of Program Cost ($) (100 students over a 5-year period)

Course Development

100,000

Administrative Staff Cost

500,000

Tuition

1,500,000

Transportation Reimbursement

150,000

Equipment

50,000

Total $/Student

23,000

NOTE: Program cost estimate based on email from Hai-Lung Dai of the University of Pennsylvania to Deborah Stine dated December 20, 2005.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

2011

2012

2013

Steady State

825

900

900

900

40

40

40

40

100

100

100

100

965

1040

1040

1040

45000

55000

60000

60000

10000

5000

 

 

15000

15000

15000

15000

825

900

900

900

4000

4000

4000

4000

10000

10000

10000

10000

40

40

40

40

100

100

100

100

 

 

111

1

100

100

100

100

2011

2012

2013

Steady State

50000

50000

50000

50000

2400

2400

2400

2400

120

120

120

120

2010

2011

2012

2013

Steady State

500

500

500

500

 

20

20

20

20

 

10000

10000

10000

10000

 

23000

23000

23000

23000

 

230

230

230

230

 

6000

8000

10000

10000

 

10000

10000

10000

10000

 

60

80

100

100

 

290

310

330

330

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Action A-2c (AP/IB Teacher Incentive Program) Detailed Analysis

Year

2007

2008

2009

Number of Math and Science AP/IB Teachers

14000

28000

42000

Number Laying the Foundation (LTF) (Pre-AP/IB) Teachers

16000

32000

48000

Training Fee per Teacher

800

800

800

Total Training Cost ($M)

24

48

72

Stipend Fee/AP/IB Teacher

1800

1800

1800

Total Stipends for AP/IB Teachers ($M)

25

50

76

Stipend Fee/LTF Teacher

1000

1000

1000

Total Stipends for LTF Teachers ($M)

16

32

48

Estimated Number of Passing AP/IB Scores

313500

385000

495000

Teacher Bonus for Passing AP/IB Scores

100

100

100

Total AP/IB Teacher Bonuses ($M)

31

39

50

Estimated Number of Passing LTF Scores

160000

384000

768000

Teacher Bonus for Passing LTF Scores

25

25

25

Total LTF Teacher Bonuses ($M)

4

10

19

Total ($M)

100

179

265

Action A-2d (Curriculum Standards)

Cost: $100 million over 5 years


Action A-3 (AP/IB Student Incentive Program) Detailed Analysis

Year

2007

2008

Number of Math and Science AP/IB Students

570000

700000

Exam Fee (50% of $82 fee)

41

41

Total AP-IB Exam Fee Cost

23

29

Estimated Number of Passing AP/IB Scores

313500

385000

Student Mini-Scholarship for Passing AP/IB Scores

100

100

Total Mini-Scholarships

31

39

Number of Pre-AP/IB Students Taking Test

640000

1280000

Exam Fee (50% of $20 fee)

10

10

Total Pre-AP/IB Exam Fee Cost

6

13

Total ($M)

60

81

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

2010

2011

2012

2013

Steady State

56000

56000

56000

56000

56000

64000

64000

64000

64000

64000

800

800

800

800

800

96

96

96

96

96

1800

1800

1800

1800

1800

101

101

101

101

101

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

64

64

64

64

64

700000

870000

870000

870000

870000

100

100

100

100

100

70

87

87

87

87

1280000

2080000

2080000

2080000

2080000

25

25

25

25

25

32

52

52

52

52

363

400

400

400

400

2009

2010

2011

2012

Steady State

900000

1250000

1500000

1500000

1500000

41

41

41

41

41

37

51

62

62

62

495000

700000

870000

870000

870000

100

100

100

100

100

50

70

87

87

87

1920000

2560000

3200000

3200000

3200000

10

10

10

10

10

19

26

32

32

32

106

147

181

181

181

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Action B-1 (Research Funding) Detailed Analysis: The base for this cost estimate was determined using information from the following National Science Foundation (NSF) publication: Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 2002, 2003, and 2004 (Publication No: NSF 05-307), which identifies the amount of basic research funding, by agency, in the physical sciences, mathematics, computer sciences, and engineering. (FY 2004 is the most recent year this information is available.) This is summarized in the table below:

Preliminary federal obligations for basic research in the physical sciences, mathematics, computer sciences, and engineering, by agency, FY 2004a

AGENCY

Funding (Billions)

Percent of Total

All agencies

$7.4

 

Department of Defense

$1.1

15%

Department of Energy

$2.1

28%

NASA

$1.5

21%

NSF

$1.9

26%

aOther agencies which fund these areas are Department of Commerce, Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), US Department of Agriculture, Department of Homeland Security, Department of Interior, Veteran’s Administration, and Environmental Protection Agency. HHS is largest at 6%; remainder at 1% or less for a total of 10%.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation. Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 2002, 2003, and 2004. NSF 05-307. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 2005.

The committee also proposed that all of DOD basic research funding be increased. The following number provides the amount of DOD basic research funding included and not included in the table above (i.e., not in the research fields identified):


DOD Basic Research Funding (including above): $1.6 billion (not including above): $0.5 billion


This provides a total base: $7.9 billion ($7.4B + $0.5B), which is that increased at a rate of 10% per year over the next 7 years as indicated in the recommendation.

Year

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Millions of Dollars

800

1700

2700

3900

5200

6600

8000

Action B-2 (Early-Career Research Grants) Detailed Analysis: As with the scholarship programs, this estimate gradually increases over time as the $500,000 research grants are payable over 5 years.

Year

2007

2008

2009

2010

Steady State

#Previous Researchers

 

200

400

600

800

#New Researchers

200

200

200

200

200

Research $

100000

100000

100000

100000

100000

Total $M

20

40

60

80

100

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Action B-3 (Advanced Research Instrumentation and Facilities) Detailed Analysis: This proposed action indicates that the funding will be $500 million per year for the next 5 years.

Year

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Millions of Dollars

500

500

500

500

500

Action B-4 (High-Risk Research) Detailed Analysis: No new funds required for this action—just a specification that 8% of existing funds will be directed toward high-risk research.


Action B-5 (ARPA-E) Detailed Analysis: This recommendation indicates that ARPA-E will be funded at $300 million per year, gradually increasing over 5-6 years to $1 billion per year at which time it would be evaluated.

Year

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Millions of Dollars

300

500

700

900

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

Action B-6 (Presidential Innovation Award) Detailed Analysis: This program for a Presidential Innovation award would not require a monetary award, but one may be provided as indicated here.

Year

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Millions of Dollars

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

Action C-1 (Undergraduate Scholarships) Detailed Analysis: The committee recommends that up to $20,000/year be provided for scholarships. This analysis focuses on the mid-range scholarship of $15,000/year. This allows the amount of the scholarship to vary relative to an institution’s tuition. Because scholarship programs provide funding for a number of years, this program will take several years to reach steady state (when the number of new students entering is equal to the number of old students graduating and no longer receiving a scholarship).

Year

2007

2008

2009

2010

Steady State

#Old Students

 

25000

50000

75000

100000

#New Students

25000

25000

25000

25000

 

Scholarship $

15000

15000

15000

15000

15000

Total $M

375

750

1125

1500

1500

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Action C-2 (Graduate Fellowships) Detailed Analysis: As with the undergraduate scholarships, the committee recommends that up to $20,000/year be provided for fellowships. This analysis focuses on the mid-range fellowship of $15,000/year. This allows the amount of the fellowship to vary relative to an institution’s tuition. Because fellowship programs provide funding for a number of years, this program will take several years to reach steady state. This program also provides a stipend for the graduate student at $30,000/year.

Year

2007

2008

2009

Steady State

#Old Students

 

5000

10000

15000

#New students

5000

5000

5000

 

Fellowship $

15000

15000

15000

15000

Stipend $

30000

30000

30000

30000

Total $M

225

450

675

675


Action C-3 (Continuing Education) Detailed Analysis: Based on a similar existing credit, the budget for this action is assumed to be $500 million per year. Education tax credits are available to individual families to help defray the cost of college. According to the College Board, the federal government provided $81.5 billion in student aid during 2003-2004. This can be roughly disaggregated as follows: 70% loans, 21% grants, 8% tax benefits. The tax benefits (Hope and Lifetime Learning Credits) amounted to approximately $6.3 billion. The $500 million the committee proposes is a modest amount in this context designed to spur corporate sponsorship of continuing education. The cap on tax credits could be increased over time or even lifted altogether. The following Web page provides an overview of existing tax credits: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OPE/PPI/HOPE/index.html.


Actions C-4 to C-7 (International Students and Scholars) Detailed Analysis: These are assumed to have no major cost as they involve only a policy change.


Action D-1 (Enhance Intellectual Property Protection) Detailed Analysis: The base amount for this estimate is the FY 2006 request for the US Patent and Trademark Office which was $1.7 billion, a 10% increase from FY 2005. The proposed $340 million per year, reflects a 20% increase in FY 2007 in order to institute a post-grant review system and enhance other capabilities aimed at increasing the quality and timeliness of patent examinations. The other proposed changes do not require funding.

Year

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Millions of Dollars

340

340

340

340

340

340

340

340

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Action D-2 (Strengthen the R&D Tax Credit) Detailed Analysis: Tax credits vary from year to year. In FY 2005 the R&D tax credit was forecast to cost $5.1 billion. Since the amount of the R&D tax credit in any given year depends on overall corporate profitability and tax liability, as well as on R&D spending decisions, the overall cost cannot be determined precisely in advance. Maintaining the existing R&D tax credit, therefore, is assumed to result in no incremental cost. The proposed doubling of the existing R&D tax credit is assumed to cost about the same as the existing R&D tax credit, but the actual increment could be larger or smaller. In addition, the proposed expansion of the number of companies eligible for the R&D tax credit is not reflected in the $5.1 billion figure as the number of companies who might potentially be involved is unknown.

Year

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Millions of Dollars

5100

5100

5100

5100

5100

5100

5100

5100

Action D-3 (Innovation Tax Incentive Study) Detailed Analysis: The proposed studies should be able to be performed within existing budgets.


Action D-4 (Ubiquitous Broadband Internet) Detailed Analysis: The most important steps would not necessarily entail federal outlays.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Page511
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Estimated Recommendation Cost Tables." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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In a world where advanced knowledge is widespread and low-cost labor is readily available, U.S. advantages in the marketplace and in science and technology have begun to erode. A comprehensive and coordinated federal effort is urgently needed to bolster U.S. competitiveness and pre-eminence in these areas. This congressionally requested report by a pre-eminent committee makes four recommendations along with 20 implementation actions that federal policy-makers should take to create high-quality jobs and focus new science and technology efforts on meeting the nation's needs, especially in the area of clean, affordable energy:

1) Increase America's talent pool by vastly improving K-12 mathematics and science education;

2) Sustain and strengthen the nation's commitment to long-term basic research;

3) Develop, recruit, and retain top students, scientists, and engineers from both the U.S. and abroad; and

4) Ensure that the United States is the premier place in the world for innovation.

Some actions will involve changing existing laws, while others will require financial support that would come from reallocating existing budgets or increasing them. Rising Above the Gathering Storm will be of great interest to federal and state government agencies, educators and schools, public decision makers, research sponsors, regulatory analysts, and scholars.

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