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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future (2007)

Chapter:Appendix F K–12 Education Recommendations Supplementary Information

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F K–12 Education Recommendations Supplementary Information." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Appendix F
K–12 Education Recommendations Supplementary Information

JUSTIFICATION FOR NUMBERS OF TEACHERS AND STUDENTS IN THE AP/IB AND PRE-AP/IB PROGRAMS RECOMMENDED IN ACTION A-2

Students

The goal is to have 1,500,000 high school students taking at least one Advanced Placement (AP) or International Baccalaureate (IB) mathematics or science exam by 2010, an increase to 23% from 6.5% of US high school juniors and seniors who took at least one AP math or science exam in 2004, with 700,000 passing the exam1 (see Exhibit 1). AP/IB classes must be open to all students.

1

AP passing score is 3-5; note that some colleges do not allow credit for AP coursework unless a score of 5 is achieved. IB scores on a 7-point scale, and 5 or higher is considered passing.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F K–12 Education Recommendations Supplementary Information." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Exhibit 1 US Public School Enrollment and AP Participation

 

Projected 2004a

Projected 2010b

Total Grade 9–12 Enrollment

Total Grade 11–12 Enrollment

14,700,000

14,600,000

6,500,000

 

Actual 2004c

Projected 2010

Number of High School Jr./Sr. Taking at Least One AP Mathematics or Science Exam

380,000

1,500,000

Percent of Jr./Sr. Taking at Least One AP Mathematics or Science Exam

6.5%

23%

AP Mathematics or Science Teachers Students per AP Teacher

33,000 11.5

100,000 15

aThe College Board.

bStatistical Abstract of the United States: 2004-2005. Table 202.

cThe College Board.

The proposed AP incentive program (APIP) has increased the number of students taking AP exams. To measure AP participation in a school, district, state, or nation, we calculated the number of students taking AP exams per 1,000 juniors and seniors. In 2005, the number of students taking AP exams in all math, science, or English in the Dallas 10 districts was 2.3 times that of the national level (see Exhibit 2).

Exhibit 2 Students Taking AP Math, Science, and English Exams per 1,0002 Juniors and Seniors Enrolled

Dallas 10 APIP Schools

245 students

Texas Public Schools

131 students

US Public Schools

105 students

Teachers—AP/IB

The AP and pre-AP programs as proposed would provide professional development for 150,000 teachers now in the classroom to teach rigorous math and science courses in middle and high schools. Of these, 70,000 will

2

“Per 1,000” is calculated on the best enrollment data available at the time.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F K–12 Education Recommendations Supplementary Information." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

teach Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate courses in mathematics and science.3 In addition, 80,000 teachers in grades 6–11 who are now in the classroom will receive training, teachers guides, and assessments instruments, such as those available in the Laying the Foundation program, to prepare them to teach pre-AP mathematics and science courses that lead up to AP or IB courses. The proposed professional development program for AP/IB teachers is 7 days a year for 4 years; for Laying the Foundation teachers it is 8 days a year for 4 years.

Assuming 10% attrition among the current 33,000 AP mathematics and science teachers and by training an additional 70,000 teachers, public high schools would have an estimated 100,000 mathematics and science teachers capable of teaching AP or IB courses in place by 2010. This number is based on a realistic goal with the capacity to provide quality professional training for teachers on a large scale. As they become more productive and confident as teachers, they will recruit more students into demanding mathematics and science courses. We then realistically can expect steady increases in the numbers of junior and senior students who will take AP/IB mathematics and science exams to 1.5 million students by 2010, with increases well beyond 2010.

Teachers—Pre-AP/IB

This proposal will provide pre-AP math and science training in content and pedagogy for 80,000 teachers who are currently in grades 6–11 classrooms. The 4-year training program includes 8 days of training each year for 4 years and the classroom materials (vertically aligned curriculum, lesson plans, laboratory exercises, and diagnostics) needed to teach the more demanding math and science courses. By 2010, these teachers will help an estimated 5 million students each year develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills in order to enlarge the AP pipeline in math and science. This represents an estimated 20% of US students who will be enrolled in grades 6–11 in 2010 (see Exhibit 3).

3

Including AP calculus, computer science, statistics, biology, chemistry, physics, and environmental science.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F K–12 Education Recommendations Supplementary Information." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Exhibit 3 K–12 Students, Teachers, and Salariesa

 

# Students

# Teachers

Average Salary

# Science and Math Teachers

K–5

6–8

29,627,634

1,781,900

$46,408

350,702b (191K in science, 160K in mathematics)

9–12

18,504,864

1,264,723

$47,120

 

High School Grads (2003-2004)

2,771,781

 

 

 

Total (Fall 2003)

48,132,518

3,046,623

$46,752

(1,700,000)c

aUnless otherwise noted, figures, excerpts, and charts are for the 2003-2004 school year, as reported by National Education Association. Rankings and Estimates. Atlanta, GA: NEA Research, 2005. Available at: http://www.nea.org/edstats/images/05rankings.pdf.

bFor the 1999-2000 school year.

cFrom Glenn Commission report, 2000. Includes ALL primary school teachers, as well as specialty teachers in middle and upper grades.

NOTE: In 2003, there were 15,397 US school districts, and the average amount spent per K– 12 student from all revenue sources was $8,248.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F K–12 Education Recommendations Supplementary Information." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
Page513
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F K–12 Education Recommendations Supplementary Information." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
Page514
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F K–12 Education Recommendations Supplementary Information." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
Page515
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F K–12 Education Recommendations Supplementary Information." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
Page516
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In a world where advanced knowledge is widespread and low-cost labor is readily available, U.S. advantages in the marketplace and in science and technology have begun to erode. A comprehensive and coordinated federal effort is urgently needed to bolster U.S. competitiveness and pre-eminence in these areas. This congressionally requested report by a pre-eminent committee makes four recommendations along with 20 implementation actions that federal policy-makers should take to create high-quality jobs and focus new science and technology efforts on meeting the nation's needs, especially in the area of clean, affordable energy:

1) Increase America's talent pool by vastly improving K-12 mathematics and science education;

2) Sustain and strengthen the nation's commitment to long-term basic research;

3) Develop, recruit, and retain top students, scientists, and engineers from both the U.S. and abroad; and

4) Ensure that the United States is the premier place in the world for innovation.

Some actions will involve changing existing laws, while others will require financial support that would come from reallocating existing budgets or increasing them. Rising Above the Gathering Storm will be of great interest to federal and state government agencies, educators and schools, public decision makers, research sponsors, regulatory analysts, and scholars.

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