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Hispanics and the Future of America (2006)

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Hispanics and the Future of America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11539.
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HISPANICS AND THE FUTURE OF AMERICA

Marta Tienda and Faith Mitchell, Editors

Panel on Hispanics in the United States

Committee on Population

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Hispanics and the Future of America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11539.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139, TO #123 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Cancer Institute, the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health; the U.S. Census Bureau; the National Center for Health Statistics; the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the California HealthCare Foundations, and the California Endowment.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Hispanics and the future of America / Marta Tienda and Faith Mitchell, editors ; Panel on Hispanics in the United States [and] Committee on Population, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.

p. cm.

ISBN 0-309-10051-8 (pbk.)—ISBN 0-309-65478-5 (PDFs) 1. Hispanic Americans—Social conditions. 2. Hispanic Americans—Economic conditions. 3. United States—Ethnic relations. 4. Hispanic Americans—Statistics. 5. United States—Population. I. Tienda, Marta. II. Mitchell, Faith. III. National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on Hispanics in the United States. IV. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Population.

E184.S75H593 2006

305.868’073—dc22

2005034173

Additional copies of this report are available from the
National Academies Press,
500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); http://www.nap.edu.

Printed in the United States of America

Copyright 2006 by the National Academies. All rights reserved.

Cover credit: Freddy Rodriguez, Until When/Hasta Cuando (1991) Copyright by the artist; used with permission.

Suggested citation: National Research Council (2006). Hispanics and the Future of America. Panel on Hispanics in the United States. Marta Tienda and Faith Mitchell, eds. Committee on Population, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Hispanics and the Future of America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11539.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Hispanics and the Future of America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11539.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Hispanics and the Future of America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11539.
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PANEL ON HISPANICS IN THE UNITED STATES

MARTA TIENDA (Chair),

Department of Sociology, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and Office of Population Research, Princeton University

LOUIS DeSIPIO,

Department of Political Science and Chicano/Latino Studies Program, University of California, Irvine

JORGE DURAND,

Social Anthropology, University of Guadalajara, Mexico

JOSÉ J. ESCARCE,

David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA and RAND, California

V. JOSEPH HOTZ,

Department of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles

NANCY S. LANDALE,

Department of Sociology, Pennsylvania State University

CORDELIA W. REIMERS,

Department of Economics, Hunter College and the Graduate School, City University of New York

RUBÉN G. RUMBAUT,

Department of Sociology and Center for Research on Immigration, Population, and Public Policy, University of California, Irvine

BARBARA SCHNEIDER,

Department of Sociology, University of Chicago

EDWARD TELLES,

Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles

STEVEN J. TREJO,

Department of Economics, University of Texas at Austin

PETER WARD,

Department of Sociology, University of Texas at Austin*

National Research Council Staff

BARNEY COHEN, Director,

Committee on Population

FAITH MITCHELL, Senior Program Officer

ANA-MARIA IGNAT, Senior Program Assistant**

ANTHONY S. MANN, Senior Program Assistant

AMY GAWAD, Research Associate***

*  

Until January 2004

**  

Until November 2004

***  

Until December 2004

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Hispanics and the Future of America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11539.
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COMMITTEE ON POPULATION

KENNETH W. WACHTER (Chair),

Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley

ANNE C. CASE,

Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University

CHARLES B. KEELY,

Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University

DAVID I. KERTZER,

Department of Anthropology, Brown University

BARTHÉLÉMY KUATE DEFO,

Department of Demography, University of Montreal

CYNTHIA B. LLOYD,

Policy Research Division, Population Council, New York

THOMAS W. MERRICK,

Center for Global Health, George Washington University

RUBÉN G. RUMBAUT,

Department of Sociology and Center for Research on Immigration, Population, and Public Policy, University of California, Irvine

JAMES W. VAUPEL,

Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany

ROBERT J. WILLIS,

Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan

BARNEY COHEN, Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Hispanics and the Future of America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11539.
×

Acknowledgments

The sponsors of this project recognized the timeliness of a study on Hispanics and in doing so made possible a far-reaching and provoking look at the nation’s fastest-growing minority population. We gratefully acknowledge support of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Cancer Institute, the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health; the U.S. Census Bureau; the National Center for Health Statistics; the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the California HealthCare Foundations, and the California Endowment. Along with this volume, their support resulted in a committee report, Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future, for which this is a companion volume.

We also acknowledge the following individuals for their workshop presentations and other contributions to the material in this volume: Jorge Del Pinal, Patricia Fernández-Kelly, Claudia Galindo, John Gallegos, Eugene Garcia, Roberto Gonzalez, John Iceland, J. Gerardo Lopez, Maria Lopez-Freeman, Elizabeth Martin, Jeff Morenoff, Charles V. Morgan, Chandra Muller, Jeff Passel, Yasmin Ramirez, Sean Reardon, Catherine Riegle-Crumb, Jerry Valadez, William A. Vega, Bruce Western, and Marilyn Winkleby.

The papers in this volume have been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Com-

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Hispanics and the Future of America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11539.
×

mittee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of one or more papers in this volume: Frank D. Bean, Center for Research on Immigration, Population, and Public Policy, University of California, Irvine; Bruce E. Cain, Institute of Governmental Studies, University of California, Berkeley; Janet Currie, Department of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles; Rodolfo de la Garza, Tomas Rivera Policy Institute, Columbia University; Nancy A. Denton, Center for Social and Demographic Analysis, University at Albany, SUNY; Reynolds Farley, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan; Eugene E. Garcia, College of Education, Arizona State University; James S. House, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan; Wendy D. Manning, Center for Family and Demographic Research, Bowling Green State University; Eliseo Perez-Stable, General Internal Medicine, University of California, San Francisco; Richard Santos, Department of Economics, University of New Mexico; William A. Vega, Behavioral and Research Training Institute, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School; John R. Weeks, International Population Center, San Diego State University; and David R. Williams, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.

Although the reviewers listed have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of any of the papers nor did they see the final version of any paper before this publication. The review of this volume was overseen by Charles Hirschman, Department of Sociology, University of Washington. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the papers was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Hispanics and the Future of America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11539.
×

Contents

1

 

Introduction: E Pluribus Plures or E Pluribus Unum?
Marta Tienda and Faith Mitchell

 

1

2

 

The Making of a People
Rubén G. Rumbaut

 

16

3

 

The Demographic Foundations of the Latino Population
Jorge Durand, Edward Telles, and Jennifer Flashman

 

66

4

 

Redrawing Spatial Color Lines: Hispanic Metropolitan Dispersal, Segregation, and Economic Opportunity
Mary J. Fischer and Marta Tienda

 

100

5

 

Hispanic Families in the United States: Family Structure and Process in an Era of Family Change
Nancy S. Landale, R. Salvador Oropesa, and Cristina Bradatan

 

138

6

 

Barriers to Educational Opportunities for Hispanics in the United States
Barbara Schneider, Sylvia Martinez, and Ann Owens

 

179

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Hispanics and the Future of America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11539.
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7

 

Hispanics in the U.S. Labor Market
Brian Duncan, V. Joseph Hotz, and Stephen J. Trejo

 

228

8

 

Economic Well-Being
Cordelia Reimers

 

291

9

 

The Health Status and Health Behaviors of Hispanics
José J. Escarce, Leo S. Morales, and Rubén G. Rumbaut

 

362

10

 

Access to and Quality of Health Care
José J. Escarce and Kanika Kapur

 

410

11

 

Latino Civic and Political Participation
Louis DeSipio

 

447

 

 

APPENDIXES

 

 

A

 

Contents: Multiple Origins, Uncertain Destinies: Hispanics and the American Future

 

481

B

 

Biographical Sketches of Contributors

 

484

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Hispanics and the Future of America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11539.
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HISPANICS
AND THE FUTURE
OF AMERICA

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Hispanics and the Future of America presents details of the complex story of a population that varies in many dimensions, including national origin, immigration status, and generation. The papers in this volume draw on a wide variety of data sources to describe the contours of this population, from the perspectives of history, demography, geography, education, family, employment, economic well-being, health, and political engagement. They provide a rich source of information for researchers, policy makers, and others who want to better understand the fast-growing and diverse population that we call “Hispanic.” The current period is a critical one for getting a better understanding of how Hispanics are being shaped by the U.S. experience. This will, in turn, affect the United States and the contours of the Hispanic future remain uncertain. The uncertainties include such issues as whether Hispanics, especially immigrants, improve their educational attainment and fluency in English and thereby improve their economic position; whether growing numbers of foreign-born Hispanics become citizens and achieve empowerment at the ballot box and through elected office; whether impending health problems are successfully averted; and whether Hispanics’ geographic dispersal accelerates their spatial and social integration. The papers in this volume provide invaluable information to explore these issues.

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