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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11624.
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Page 125
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11624.
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Page 126
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11624.
×
Page 127
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11624.
×
Page 128
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11624.
×
Page 129
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11624.
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Page 130
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11624.
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Page 131

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125 Index A AASCU. See American Association of State Colleges and Universities AAUP. See American Association of University Professors ACE. See American Council on Education ACE Fellows Program, 105 ACE Network, 106 Action steps, 114–117 for deans and provosts, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 115–116 for department chairs, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 115 for faculty, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 114 for presidents, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 116– 117 Administrative positions, policies to advance women into, 3 Admissions process, revising, 36 Advanced placement (AP) examinees, 15– 17 in computer science, 33 Advice networks, 59. See also Student advising Adviser, Teacher, Role Model, Friend: On Being a Mentor to Students in Science and Engineering, 60 African American female students, 18–23, 37 Alienation within departments, a cultural barrier facing women faculty, 91–93 American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), 104–106 American Association of University Professors (AAUP), 6 American College President Study, 101 American Council on Education (ACE), 101, 106–107 AP. See Advanced placement examinees Asian American female students, 18–23, 37 ASPIRE (Alabama Supercomputing Program to Inspire Computational Research in Education) project, 33 Assessments, collecting statistics needed for, 82 Association of American Universities, 66 Audits. See Institutional audits B Bachelor’s degrees awarded by field and gender, 17–18 in science and engineering, number of women receiving, 28 Baylor University, 63 Benefits access to medical and dental, 45–46 lower for women faculty, 102

126 INDEX Big sister/little sister programs, 59 Black female students, 18–23, 37 Bridging programs, developing, 39 Bring Your Daughter to Work Day, 36 Bryn Mawr College, 105 C Candidates casting a broader net to identify, 81–82 improving the positions of, 83–84 Career Day for Girls, 36 Carnegie Corporation, 106 Carnegie Mellon University, 56 Celebration of women in computing, 59 Center for Policy Analysis, 107 Challenges, faced by female students and faculty, 5–8, 30, 55, 77, 93, 103, 111– 112 Chicana students, 18–23 Child care policies establishing, 45, 82–83 reinforcing, 95 Chronicle of Higher Education, 102 Committee on Graduate Education, 66 Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), 11, 68 Committee on the Guide to Recruiting and Advancing Women Scientists and Engineers in Academia, 1 Committee on the Status of Women in Computing Research, 42 Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE), 1, 8–9, 100 Computer science and engineering (CSE) celebration of women in, 59 majors in, 42 Computing Research Association, 42 Constructive feedback, providing, 68 COSEPUP. See Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy CSE. See Computer science and engineering D Day-to-day policies, changing, 96 Deans and provosts, action steps for, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 115–116 Departmental issues action steps for chairs, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 115 cultural alienation women faculty face, 53–54, 91–93 funding, 54 Diversity. See also Inclusiveness advisory councils for, 32 setting targets for, 32 Doctoral degrees awarded by broad field and gender, 72 in science and engineering, number of women receiving, 28 DOE. See U.S. Department of Education Duke University, 48 Duties, allowing modification of, 96 E Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies, 30 EQUALS, 33–34 Equity of salaries and resources, instituting regular studies to determine, 45 Executive leadership training, to help women advance to executive positions, 105–106 Executive positions, recruiting and advancing women to, 108 F Faculty members, action steps for, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 114 Faculty recruitment programs casting a broader net to identify candidates, 81–82 collecting statistics on hiring processes and outcomes to aid in assessments, 82 engaging in focused faculty recruiting, 81 having institutional executives intervene, 82 modifying or expanding, 81–82 policies to enhance, 3 providing incentive grants, 81 taking steps to diversify search committees, 81

INDEX 127 Family-friendly policies, 27, 45–46 Feedback, providing constructive, 68 Freshmen intending to major in S&E, by race/ethnicity, gender, and field, 20–24 Funding for graduate students. See also Research assistantships providing secure, 67–68 G Gender disparities, in U.S. academia, 5–8 Gender inclusiveness, 2 Graduate S&E programs, enhancing and improving, 44–45 Graduate S&E students, 39–43, 47, 70 challenges of recruiting women, 25–29, 111 challenges of retaining women, 53–54 enhancing and improving undergraduate S&E programs, 42 identifying prospective students, 42 offering financial aid, 43 organizing on-campus orientations, 42– 43 signaling the importance of women, 40– 41 strategies for recruiting women, 39 strategies for retaining women, 65 women underrepresented among, 1 Grants, providing incentive, 81 H Harassment by gender, perception and experience of, 52, 89 Henry Luce Foundation, The, 88 High school graduates, percentage taking mathematics and science in high school, by gender, 16 Hiring processes and outcomes, collecting statistics to aid in assessments, 82 Housing subsidies, offering, 45–46 I Incentive grants, providing, 81 Inclusiveness, 2 “Inspired” individuals, 77 Institutional audits, to help women advance to executive positions, 104 Institutional executives, intervention by, 82 Institutional policies and practices creating spousal hiring programs, 83 establishing parental leave policies and child care, 82–83 extending the tenure clock, 82 improving to recruit women faculty, 82–83 instituting sexual harassment sensitivity programs, 83 Institutional resources, fewer available to women faculty, 90–91 J Job satisfaction, among women faculty, 88 Johns Hopkins University, 88 Junior faculty, limiting service among, 95– 96 L Leadership positions. See also Executive leadership training strategies for advancing women into, 113–114 Low-income parents, 95 M Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 90–91 Master’s degrees awarded, in science and engineering, number of women receiving, 28 Medical and dental benefits, offering access to, 45–46 Mentoring programs establishing, 58–60 to help “presidents-in-training,” 104– 105 to help women faculty, 96–98 improving, 66–67 Methodology issues, 9–11 Mexican American female students, 18–23 Millennium Leadership Initiative (MLI), 105

128 INDEX MIT. See Massachusetts Institute of Technology MLI. See Millennium Leadership Initiative Modified duties, allowing for, 96 N National Academies, 1, 9, 11, 60, 66 National Center for Education Statistics, 49 National Council of Chief Academic Officers, 104 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 46 National Research Council, 30 National Research Service Awards (NRSA), 46 National Science Foundation (NSF), 6, 27, 33–35, 87 National Survey of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF), 89n National Survey of Recent College Graduates, 35n Networking. See also Advice networks to help women advance to executive positions, 106 NIH. See National Institutes of Health NRSA. See National Research Service Awards NSF. See National Science Foundation NSOPF. See National Survey of Postsecondary Faculty O Office of Women in Higher Education (OWHE), 106 On-campus orientations, organizing, 36–38, 42–43 Orientations, organizing on-campus, 36–38, 42–43 OWHE. See Office of Women in Higher Education P Parental leave policies establishing, 45, 82–83 reinforcing, 95 Pedagogical changes needed, 60–61 Policies and practices that advance women faculty, 3 allowing modified duties, 96 changing day-to-day policies, 96 equity of salaries and resources, 45 female- and family-friendly policies, 45–46 limiting service among junior faculty, 95–96 offering housing subsidies and access to medical and dental benefits, 45–46 parental leave policies and child care, 45, 82–83, 95 periodic reviews and adjustments of salaries, 96 sexual harassment sensitivity programs, 45, 95 Postdoctoral S&E students challenges of recruiting women, 29–30, 111 enhancing and improving the graduate experience, 44–45 establishing female- and family-friendly policies and practices, 45–46 by gender, 29 identifying prospective students, 45 increasing salaries of, 46 signaling the importance of women, 44 strategies for recruiting women, 43–47 strategies for retaining women, 70 women underrepresented among, 1 Presidents, action steps for, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 116–117 “Presidents-in-training,” 104–105 Princeton University, 38, 103 Professional socialization, increasing, 63– 65, 67 Program for Gender Equity, 34n Promotion rates, women faculty facing lower, 87 Prospective students, identifying, 42, 45 Provosts. See Deans and provosts Puerto Rican American female students, 18–23 R Recruiting women faculty, 1, 71–85 challenges of, 72–77 strategies for, 78–84

INDEX 129 Recruiting women students, 14–47 challenges of, 14–30 strategies for, 30–47 Research assistantships, 43 Research questions, 8–9 Research time, of women faculty, inadequate protection of, 89–90 Resources, determining equity of access to, 45 Retaining women graduate students, 65–68 improving mentoring, 66–67 increasing professional socialization, 67 providing constructive feedback, 68 providing secure funding for graduate students, 67–68 signaling the importance of women, 65– 66 Retaining women postdoctoral fellows, 68– 69 Retaining women students, 3, 48–70 challenges of, 49–55 strategies for, 55–69 Retaining women undergraduate students, 55–65 establishing mentoring programs, 58–60 increasing engagement with women students, 61–63 increasing professional socialization, 63–65 making pedagogical changes, 60–61 signaling the importance of women, 56– 57 strengthening student advising, 57–58 Retention rates, women faculty facing lower, 88 Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 62 S Salaries instituting regular studies to determine equity of, 45, 110 undertaking periodic reviews and adjustments of, 96 Science, 44 Science and engineering (S&E) enterprise, 1–3 doctoral degrees awarded to women, by field, 74–75 enhancing education and outreach efforts at the K-12 level, 33–35 female graduate students, by field, 26 national “talent” in finding talent for, 40 number of women receiving degrees in, 28 preparation for, 51–52 showing interest in high school, 48 Search process for applicants, broadening, 35–36 changing to help women advance to executive positions, 107 diversifying committees for, 81 Service, limiting among junior faculty, 95– 96 Sexual harassment instituting sensitivity programs for, 45, 83 reinforcing sensitivity programs for, 95 Smith College, 38 Social events, 36–38, 42–43, 59 Society of Women Engineers (SWE), 36, 63 Spousal hiring programs, creating, 83 Statistics needed for assessments, collecting, 82 Strategies for advancing women faculty, 94–98 creating and reinforcing policies and practices, 95–96 engaging women faculty more fully in the institution, 98 signaling the importance of women, 94– 95 strengthening mentoring, 96–98 Strategies for advancing women to executive positions, 103–107 changing the search process, 107 conducting an institutional audit, 104 developing executive leadership training, 105–106 engaging in networking, 106 mentoring “presidents-in-training,” 104–105 Strategies for recruiting women faculty, 78–84 improving institutional policies and practices, 82–83 improving the positions of candidates, 83–84

130 INDEX modifying or expanding faculty recruitment programs, 81–82 signaling the importance of women faculty, 78–80 Strategies for recruiting women students, 30–47 graduate student recruitment, 39–43 policies to enhance, 2–3 postdoctoral recruiting, 43–46 undergraduate student recruitment, 30– 39 Students. See also Graduate S&E students; Postdoctoral S&E students; Undergraduate S&E students; Women students strengthening advising of, 57–58 Summer Institute for Women in Higher Education Administration, 105 T Team-oriented courses, 60n Tenure-track faculty issues, 72 extending the tenure clock for women, 82 males and females tenured at top 50 U.S. educational institutions, 76 women faculty facing lower tenure rates, 87 Tilghman, Shirley, 38, 103 Time to promotion, women faculty facing longer, 87 Training. See Executive leadership training U Undergraduate S&E programs, enhancing and improving, 42 Undergraduate S&E students broadening the search for applicants, 35–36 celebrating research work of, 64 challenges of recruiting women, 15–25, 111 challenges of retaining women, 49–53 developing bridging programs, 39 enhancing S&E education and outreach efforts at the K-12 level, 33–35 freshmen intending to major in S&E, 20–24 organizing on-campus orientations, 36– 38 residence halls for women in, 62 revising the admissions process, 36 signaling the importance of women, 32– 33 strategies for recruiting women, 30–39, 47 strategies for retaining women, 55, 70 University of Pennsylvania, 82 University of Southern California, 64 University of Southern Colorado, 37 U.S. Department of Education (DOE), 15, 25, 49 U.S. News and World Report, 13 W White female students, 18–23 Why So Slow, 77 WIE. See Women in Engineering WISE. See Women in Science and Engineering Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering, 6 Women advancing in four institutions, 11–13, 109–110 signaling the importance of, 32–33, 40– 41, 44, 56–57, 65–66, 94–95 Women advancing to executive positions, 100–108 challenges faced by, 101–103 strategies for, 103–107 Women faculty, challenges faced by, 86–99, 112 alienating departmental cultures, 91–93 fewer institutional resources, 90–91 isolation, 92–93 longer time to promotion, 87 lower benefits, 102 lower job satisfaction, 88 lower retention rates, 88 lower tenure and promotion rates, 87 marginalization, 92 research time inadequately protected, 89–90 work-family conflicts, 91

INDEX 131 Women faculty, strategies for advancing, 1, 86–99. See also Policies and practices that advance women faculty engaging more fully in the institution, 54, 98 recruitment strategies, 85, 113 retention and advancement strategies, 94–99, 113 signaling the importance of women, 78– 80 Women in Engineering (WIE), 63 Women in Science and Engineering (WISE), 63 Women Presidents Network, 104, 106 Women Professionals from Industry, 36 Women students, 3, 14–30, 49–55 challenges faced by, 111 increasing engagement with, 61–63 race and ethnicity of, 18–23 recruiting graduate students, 25–29 recruiting postdocs, 29–30 recruiting undergraduates, 15–25 retaining graduate students, 53–54 retaining undergraduates, 49–53 strategies to advance, 112–113 Work-family conflicts, women faculty facing, 91

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