Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff
Harold T. Shapiro, Chair
Dr. Shapiro is president emeritus of Princeton University and a professor of economics and public affairs in the Woodrow Wilson School. He received his Ph.D. in economics from Princeton in 1964 and his bachelor’s from McGill University in 1956. He served as president of the University of Michigan from 1980 to 1988. Dr. Shapiro’s expertise is in econometrics. A member of the Institute of Medicine, he has been widely recognized and decorated for his shrewd judgment in policy situations, from his chairing of the National Bioethics Advisory Committee under President Clinton to his service on the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology under President Bush. Other distinctions include chairing the Association of American Universities, service on the board of directors of the National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc., and the board of trustees of the Universities Research Association, Inc. He has chaired and served on numerous NRC committees, including the most recent Committee on the Organizational Structure of the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Shapiro was recently awarded the 2006 William D. Carey Lecture of the American Association for the Advancement of Science for his leadership in science policy.
Sally L. Dawson, Vice-chair
Dr. Dawson is chair of the Physics Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory and an adjunct professor at the Institute for Theoretical Physics at SUNY at Stony Brook. She received her Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1981 under Howard M. Georgi. Dr. Dawson was recently chair of the American Physical Society’s Division of Particle and Fields, the primary professional society for elementary particle physics, a position to which she was elected by her peers. Her primary scientific expertise is in the area of theoretical high-energy physics, specializing in studies of the Higgs boson, electroweak symmetry breaking, and physics beyond the Standard Model. She is a fellow of the American Physical Society and was awarded the Woman of the Year in Science by the Town of Brookhaven in 1995. Her committee service includes the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel of the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation, the American Physical Society Committee on the Status of Women in Physics, and the International Committee on the Future of Accelerators.
Norman R. Augustine
Mr. Augustine retired in 1997 as chair and chief executive officer of Lockheed Martin Corporation. Previously he served as chair and CEO of the Martin Marietta Corporation. Upon retiring he joined the faculty of the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Princeton University. Earlier in his career he had served as under secretary of the Army and before that as assistant director of Defense Research and Engineering. Mr. Augustine served 9 years as chairman of the American Red Cross. He has also been president of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and served as chairman of the Henry M. “Scoop” Jackson Foundation for Military Medicine. He has served as a trustee of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Johns Hopkins University, and Princeton University. He serves on the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and is a former chairman of the Defense Science Board. He currently serves on the corporate boards of Black and Decker, Procter and Gamble, and ConocoPhillips. He has been presented the National Medal of Technology and the Department of Defense’s highest civilian award, the Distinguished Service Medal, five times; in 2006, he was awarded the National Academy of Sciences’ Public Welfare Medal. Mr. Augustine holds an M.S. in aeronautical engineering from Princeton University. He has been elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering; he served as chairman of the National Academy of Engineering for 2 years.
Jonathan A. Bagger
Dr. Bagger is Krieger-Eisenhower Professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the Johns Hopkins University. He received his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1983. His primary research interests are in theoretical particle physics, particularly in the theory and phenomenology of supersymmetry, supergravity, and superstrings. Dr. Bagger has twice been a member of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. He held a Sloan Foundation Fellowship and a National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator award. He is vice-chair of the Department of Energy/National Science Foundation High Energy Physics Advisory Panel and a member of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory board of overseers. He has served on the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Scientific Policy Committee and as chair of the Division of Particles and Fields of the American Physical Society. Dr. Bagger is a member of the Board on Physics and Astronomy. He also helped organize the first “Frontiers of Science” symposium of the National Academies.
Philip N. Burrows
Dr. Burrows is the professor of accelerator physics at the John Adams Institute, University of Oxford. He received his Ph.D. in particle physics in 1988 from Oxford University. His areas of expertise include experimental particle physics and accelerator science and technology. He is one of the world’s experts on the science and technology possibilities for future accelerator-based particle physics projects. He has been involved in the design and testing of several fast-feedback systems that are critical for future accelerator projects. He also co-chaired a working group on quantum chromodynamics at the Snowmass 2001 meeting of the high-energy physics community. As a member of the European particle physics community who has also participated in experiments at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Professor Burrows is familiar with the international context of particle physics.
Sandra M. Faber
Dr. Faber is a professor of astronomy at the University of California at Santa Cruz with the Lick Observatory. Her research focuses on the formation and evolution of galaxies and the evolution of structure in the universe. She utilizes ground-based optical data obtained with the Lick 3-meter and Keck 10-meter telescopes. She is a member of the Wide-Field Camera (I) Team of the Hubble Space Telescope. Dr. Faber is also a core member of the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe project, a large-scale survey of distant, faint field galaxies using the Keck twin telescopes
and the Hubble Space Telescope. She is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences and has served as a member of the National Research Council Astronomy Survey Study, the Board on Physics and Astronomy, the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, and the Committee on Physics of the Universe. Dr. Faber is also a current member of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory’s board of overseers.
Stuart J. Freedman
Dr. Freedman is a Luis W. Alvarez Chair of Experimental Physics at the University of California at Berkeley with a joint appointment to the Nuclear Science Division of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1972. His research experience spans nuclear and atomic physics, neutrino physics, and small-scale experiments in particle physics, all focused on fundamental questions about the Standard Model. He recently co-chaired the American Physical Society’s physics of neutrinos study and currently co-chairs the National Research Council’s Rare Isotope Science Assessment Committee. Dr. Freedman is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
Jerome I. Friedman
Dr. Friedman is an institute professor emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Chicago in 1956. He completed his post-doctoral work at the High Energy Physics Laboratory of Stanford University before joining the MIT faculty. His work at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center was famously celebrated with the joint award of the 1990 Nobel prize in physics for demonstrating the substructure of the proton, a discovery that helped confirm the quark model of hadrons. Dr. Friedman is an expert in experimental particle physics and has served as head of the Physics Department and director of the Laboratory of Nuclear Science at MIT and on many advisory panels, including the joint Department of Energy/National Science Foundation High Energy Physics Advisory Panel, the Board of the University Research Association, the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council, and as chair of the Scientific Policy Committee of the Superconducting Collider. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
David J. Gross
Dr. Gross is director of the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of California at Santa Barbara. He received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1966. Dr. Gross was co-discoverer of the asymptotic freedom
of non-Abelian gauge theories and played a central role in initiating quantum chromodynamics as the modern theory of strong interactions. His incisive papers on field theory and particle physics have been widely influential. Recently, he has made seminal contributions to the theory of superstrings. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a member of National Academy of Sciences. He is the recipient of the J.J. Sakurai Prize of the American Physical Society, a MacArthur Foundation fellowship prize, the Dirac medal of the International Center for Theoretical Physics, the Oskar Klein medal, and the Harvey prize of the Israel Institute of Technology. In 2004 David Gross was selected to receive France’s highest scientific honor, the Grande Médaille d’Or, for his contributions to the understanding of fundamental physical reality. Dr. Gross was awarded the 2004 Nobel prize in physics for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of strong interactions.
Joseph S. Hezir
Mr. Hezir is the cofounder and managing partner of the EOP Group, Inc., a consulting firm that specializes in federal government regulatory strategy development and budget policy. He previously served 18 years in the White House Office of Management in positions of increasing responsibility, serving for 6 years as deputy associate director for energy and science. He has also served on a number of advisory bodies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Advisory Council and the Metropolitan Area Board of Directors for the Red Cross. He also was a member of the National Research Council’s Burning Plasma Assessment Committee.
Dr. Holtkamp is director of the Accelerator Systems Division for the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The facility is under construction and will be completed in 2006. He received his Ph.D. from the Technical University at Darmstadt. His research interests include high-energy colliders, linear accelerators, storage rings, and accelerator-based neutrino physics. Dr. Holtkamp was a senior staff member at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Laboratory in Germany and was also a member of the technical staff at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. He has served on panels of the joint Department of Energy/National Science Foundation High Energy Physics Advisory Panel and has chaired technical advisory studies examining the feasibility of various large projects.
Dr. Kajita is a professor of physics and director of the Research Center for Cosmic Neutrinos at the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research at the University of Tokyo. He is an expert on neutrino physics and proton decay and was a leader of the Super Kamiokande experiment that first observed evidence of neutrino oscillations. He is the author of many articles on the topic of non-accelerator-based particle physics, including several aimed at the broader public. He is also an organizer of the American Physical Society’s physics of neutrinos study and a member of the Particle and Nuclear Astrophysics and Gravitational International Committee of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, which discusses the international organization and coordination of particle physics. He has participated in many Japanese and U.S.-based studies on the future of particle physics.
Neal F. Lane
Dr. Lane is the Malcolm Gillis University Professor, a professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the senior fellow for science and technology at the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy at Rice University. He earned his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Oklahoma in 1964. His research expertise is in the area of atomic and molecular physics. Dr. Lane has served as provost of Rice University, chancellor of the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, and director of the Division of Physics at the National Science Foundation. He also directed the National Science Foundation from 1993 to 1998 and served as a member (ex officio) of the National Science Board. From 1998 to 2001, he served as assistant to the President for science and technology and director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. Dr. Lane is currently serving on the National Academies’ Policy and Global Affairs Committee and has been a member of multiple past panels covering atomic and molecular physics. He has a distinguished academic and teaching career in physics in addition to his years of outstanding administrative service in national science policy.
Nigel S. Lockyer
Dr. Lockyer is a professor of physics at the University of Pennsylvania. He received his Ph.D. from the Ohio State University in 1984. Dr. Lockyer is an experimental high-energy physicist with experience that spans both electron-positron and proton-antiproton colliders. Dr. Lockyer has broad experience in large-scale high-energy physics collaborations as well as small-scale experiments. He is the former co-spokesperson of the CDF experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
and was spokesperson for the Mark II experiment at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. His research has focused on measurements of bottom quark properties.
Sidney R. Nagel
Dr. Nagel is the Stein-Freiler Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Physics at the University of Chicago. He received his Ph.D. in physics from Princeton in 1974. Dr. Nagel served as director of the University of Chicago Materials Research Laboratory from 1987 until 1991. His research expertise lies in the area of nonlinear and disordered systems far from equilibrium, including jamming, structural glasses, granular materials, and fluids. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, a fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and was the recipient of the 1999 Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Physics Prize. He has also served as chair of the American Physical Society’s Division of Condensed Matter Physics.
Homer A. Neal
Dr. Neal is the Samuel A. Goudsmit Distinguished University Professor of Physics at the University of Michigan. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1966. His current research is based on the D0 experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva. His expertise is in detector development, software development, spin physics, top quark studies, and inclusive hadron physics. Dr. Neal is the institutional leader of the University of Michigan team for ATLAS at the LHC. He has held many administrative posts at the University of Michigan, including interim president (1996-1997) and vice president for research (1993-1996). He has served as a regent of the Smithsonian Institution, as a member of the National Science Board, and as chairman of the National Science Foundation’s Physics Advisory Committee. He has served on the Boards of Argonne National Laboratory, Fermi National Acceleratory Laboratory, the SSC Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
J. Ritchie Patterson
Dr. Patterson is a professor of physics at Cornell University. She received her Ph.D. in particle physics from the University of Chicago in 1990. Dr. Patterson has been involved with the CLEO electron-positron experiment studying b- and c-quark physics, and her research has covered many aspects of accelerator physics, especially simulations of beam dynamics. Dr. Patterson has been a member of the joint
Department of Energy/National Science Foundation High Energy Physics Advisory Panel, as well as the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory’s Long-Range Planning Committee, the International Organizing Committee of the Worldwide Study of Physics and Detectors for Future Linear e+e- Colliders, and the Department of Energy/National Science Foundation High Energy Physics Facilities Committee. She is also a member of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva. She is a leading expert on the technical and scientific issues of the proposed International Linear Collider project.
Helen R. Quinn
Dr. Quinn is Education and Public Outreach Manager and a senior staff scientist at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. She received her Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1967 in elementary particle physics. Dr. Quinn’s accomplishments include authoring the first paper to discuss the unification of coupling constants in a grand unified theory, investigating ground-breaking phenomenological analysis of CP violation in B meson systems, and introducing the principle of quark-hadron duality. She is also well known for her work on science education standards in the state of California. Dr. Quinn is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and received the 2002 Dirac Medal for her seminal contributions to the field. She is also president of the Contemporary Physics Education Project, a non-profit group that produces materials discussing modern physics for high school and college use.
Charles V. Shank
Dr. Shank has served as Director of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California, since September 1989 until his recent retirement. He received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1969. In addition to his duties as Laboratory Director, Dr. Shank has a unique triple appointment as professor at the University of California at Berkeley in the Department of Physics, Department of Chemistry, and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences. Dr. Shank’s scientific and service contributions in optical science and engineering have been recognized through honors that include the R.W. Wood Prize of the Optical Society of America, the David Sarnoff and Morris E. Leeds awards of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the Edgerton Award of the International Society for Optical Engineering. He was the chair of the National Research Council’s Committee on Optical Science and Engineering, which published its report in 1998.
Paul J. Steinhardt
Dr. Steinhardt is the Albert Einstein Professor of Science in the Department of Physics at Princeton University. He has made outstanding contributions in cosmology and condensed matter physics. He is a leading expert on inflationary cosmology and other events in the very early universe. His work led to the first inflationary models for the universe, to the discovery that quantum fluctuations could seed galaxy formation, and to new observational tests of these models. Using concepts of string theory, he has developed an alternative, known as the cyclic model of the universe. He also introduced the concept of quasicrystals and pioneered the study of their structural and elastic properties in condensed-matter physics. He is a fellow of the American Physics Society and an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences.
Harold E. Varmus
Dr. Varmus is president of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York and a former director of the National Institutes of Health. He received an M.D. from Columbia University and an M.A. in English from Harvard University. He served for many years on the faculty of the University of California at San Francisco before directing the NIH under President Clinton for 6 years. Dr. Varmus is co-recipient of a Nobel prize in physiology or medicine for studies of the genetic basis of cancer and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine. He received the National Medal of Science in 2001.
Dr. Witten is a professor of physics in the School of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. He earned his Ph.D. in 1976 from Princeton University in high-energy physics. Dr. Witten is a theoretical physicist whose solution of outstanding problems in string theory greatly advanced its status as one of the leading candidates for the grand unified theory of elementary particle physics. He has received the Dirac medal of the International Center for Theoretical Physics, the Fields medal of the International Mathematical Union, the Madison medal of Princeton University, and the Einstein medal of the Albert Einstein Society. He has been elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
Donald C. Shapero, Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy
Dr. Shapero received a B.S. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1964 and a Ph.D. from MIT in 1970. His thesis addressed the asymptotic behavior of relativistic quantum field theories. After receiving the Ph.D., he became a Thomas J. Watson Postdoctoral Fellow at IBM. He subsequently became an assistant professor at American University, later moving to Catholic University, and then joining the staff of the National Research Council in 1975. Dr. Shapero took a leave of absence from the NRC in 1978 to serve as the first executive director of the Energy Research Advisory Board at the Department of Energy. He returned to the NRC in 1979 to serve as special assistant to the president of the National Academy of Sciences. In 1982, he started the NRC’s Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA). As BPA director, he has played a key role in many NRC studies, including the two most recent surveys of physics and the two most recent surveys of astronomy and astrophysics. He is a member of the American Physical Society, the American Astronomical Society, and the International Astronomical Union. He has published research articles in refereed journals in high-energy physics, condensed-matter physics, and environmental science.
Timothy I. Meyer, Senior Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy
Dr. Meyer is a senior program officer at the NRC’s Board on Physics and Astronomy. He received a Notable Achievement Award from the NRC’s Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences in 2003 and a Distinguished Service Award from the National Academies in 2004. Dr. Meyer joined the NRC staff in 2002 after earning his Ph.D. in experimental particle physics from Stanford University. His doctoral thesis concerned the time evolution of the B meson in the BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. His work also focused on radiation monitoring and protection of silicon-based particle detectors. During his time at Stanford, Dr. Meyer received both the Paul Kirkpatrick and the Centennial Teaching awards for his work as an instructor of undergraduates. He is a member of the American Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Materials Research Society, and Phi Beta Kappa.
David B. Lang, Research Associate, Board on Physics and Astronomy
Mr. Lang is a research associate at the NRC’s Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA). He received a B.S. in astronomy and astrophysics from the University of Michigan in 2002. His senior thesis concerned surveying very young galaxies in a
field beside the irregular galaxy Sextans-A using the Hubble Space Telescope. His mentors were Robbie Dohm-Palmer, University of Minnesota, and Mario Mateo, University of Michigan. Mr. Lang came to the BPA after having worked in an intellectual property law firm in Arlington, Virginia, for 2 years and began at the BPA as a research assistant. He performs supporting research for studies ranging from radio astronomy to materials science and recently received the “Rookie” award of the NRC’s Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences. He is a member of the American Astronomical Society.