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Asbestos: Selected Cancers (2006)

Chapter:APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables

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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

APPENDIX D
Cohort Results Tables

TABLE D.1 Pharyngeal Cancer and Exposure to Asbestos—Cohort Studies

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Mining

 

 

 

Reid et al. 2004

5,685 male crocidolite mining and milling workers in western Australia (incidence 1980-2000—pharynx)

16

1.88 (1.15-3.07)

Piolatto et al. 1990

1,058 male chrysotile miners in northern Italy (oropharynx)

6

2.31 (0.85-5.02)a

 

Duration of exposure (years)

 

 

 

< 10

5

4.55 (1.47-10.61)a

 

10-20

1

2.00 (0.05-11.14)a

 

> 20

0

0.0 (0.0-4.10)a

Sluis-Cremer et al. 1992

7,317 male amosite and crocidolite miners in South Africa (lip, oral cavity, pharynx)

10

2.14 (1.03-3.94)

 

Amosite subcohort

1

0.42 (0.0-1.97)

 

Crocidolite subcohort

5

2.94 (1.16-6.18)

Insulation Manufacture/Insulators (laggers)

Berry et al. 2000

1,400 male asbestos factory workers in east London, UK (pharynx, buccal cavity) (laggers)

0

0.0 (0.0-8.79)a

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Selikoff and Seidman 1991

17,800 male members of asbestos insulation unions in Canada and US in 1967 (oropharynx)

48

2.18 (1.62-2.91)a

Levin et al. 1998

783 white male asbestos pipe insulation factory in Tyler, TX (pharynx, buccal cavity)

1

1.07 (0.03-5.95)

Asbestos Textile Workers

 

 

Pira et al. 2005

1,966 textile employees in Italy (oral, pharynx)

7

2.26 (0.90-4.65)

 

Duration of employment (years)

 

 

 

< 1

4

3.89 (1.06-9.96)a

 

1 to < 5

2

2.52 (0.30-9.10)a

 

5 to < 10

0

0

 

10+

1

1.33 (0.03-7.41)a

 

Time since first employment (years)

 

 

 

< 15

3

3.36 (0.69-9.83)a

 

15 to < 25

4

3.63 (0.99-9.30)a

 

25 to < 35

0

0

 

35+

0

0

 

Time since last exposure (years)

 

 

 

Ongoing to < 3

1

1.86 (0.05-10.38)a

 

3 to < 15

2

1.79 (0.22-6.46)a

 

15 to < 25

4

4.72 (1.29-12.08)a

 

25 to < 35

0

0

 

35+

0

0

 

Age at first exposure (years)

 

 

 

< 25

0

0

 

25 to < 35

2

2.57 (0.31-9.27)a

 

35+

5

2.62 (0.85-6.12)a

 

Sex

 

 

 

889 men

7

2.54 (1.0-5.23)a

 

1,077 women

0

0

Asbestos Cement

 

 

Raffn et al. 1989

7,996 male asbestos-cement industry workers in Denmark (buccal cavity, pharynx) (incidence)

13

0.79 (0.42-1.35)

Giaroli et al. 1994

3,341 male asbestos-cement workers in Italy (mouth, pharynx)

 

00 (0-1.37)b

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Hughes et al. 1987

5,492 male asbestos-cement manufacturing plant employees in New Orleans, LA (buccal, pharynx)

 

 

 

Plants combined (20 year lag)

11

0.90 (0.45-1.61)a

 

Plant 1

5

1.13 (0.37-2.64)a

 

Plant 2

6

0.77 (0.28-1.67)a

Parnes 1990

2,057 male brake-lining and disk- manufacturing workers in Albany, NY (buccal cavity, pharynx)

3

1.83 (0.37-5.19)a

Generic “Asbestos Workers”

 

 

Berry et al. 2000

Asbestos factory workers in east London, UK (buccal cavity, pharynx)

 

 

 

3,000 men

5

2.17 (0.70-5.07)a

 

Low/mod < 2 years

1

1.59 (0.04-8.84)a

 

Low/mod > 2 years

1

2.04 (0.05-11.37)a

 

Severe < 2 years

2

2.94 (0.36-10.62)a

 

Severe > 2 years

1

2.00 (0.05-11.14)a

 

700 women

0

0.00 (0.00-7.10)a

Enterline et al. 1987

1,074 white male production and maintenance workers at US asbestos company (buccal cavity, pharynx)

5

1.39 (0.45-3.24)a

Other Occupations with Substantial Asbestos Exposure

 

 

Battista et al. 1999

734 male railway carriage construction and repair workers in Italy (mouth, pharynx)

3

2.65 (0.72-6.86)b

Puntoni et al. 2001

3,984 male shipyard workers in Genoa, Italy (oropharynx)

16

0.97 (0.56-1.58)

NOTE: CI = Confidence interval; RR = relative risk. Figures are for mortality unless otherwise indicated. Data points included in meta-analyses are bolded.

* Full citations can be found in the reference list for Chapter 6.

a95% CIs calculated with standard methods from observed and expected numbers presented in original paper.

b90% CIs reported.

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

TABLE D.2 Laryngeal Cancer and Exposure to Asbestos—Cohort Studies

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Patients with Asbestos-Related Disease

 

 

Germani et al. 1999

631 women compensated for asbestosis in Italy

1

8.09 (0.21-45.08)

 

Textile industry (n = 276)

0

0.0 (0.0-60.10)a

 

Asbestos cement industry (n = 278)

1

16.09 (0.42-89.66)

Karjalainen et al. 1999

Asbestos-related disease patients in Finland (incidence)

 

 

 

Men

 

 

 

1,287 with asbestosis

5

4.2 (1.4-9.8)

 

4,708 with benign pleural disease

1

0.5 (0.0-2.7)

 

Women

 

 

 

89 with asbestosis

 

00 (0.0-340.0)

 

179 with benign pleural disease

0

0 (0.0-460.0)

Szesznia- Dabrowska et al. 2002

902 male workers compensated for asbestosis in Poland

1

0.43 (0.01-2.40)a

Mining

 

 

 

Armstrong et al. 1988

6,505 male crocidolite miners and millers in Western Australia (mortality to 1980)

2

0.68 (0.17-2.74)

Reid et al. 2004

5,685 male crocidolite mining and milling workers in western Australia (incidence 1980-2000)

19

1.82 (1.16-2.85)

Liddell et al. 1997

8,923 male chrysotile miners and millers in Quebec (mortality 1950-1992)

36

1.11 (0.79-1.55)a

 

Cumulative exposure to age 55 (million particles per cubic foot-yrs) among 7,728 living to age 55

30

1.04 (0.70-1.48)a

 

< 300

24

1.03 (0.66-1.53)a

 

< 3

7

1.45 (0.58-2.99)a

 

3 to < 10

6

1.71 (0.63-3.72)a

 

10 to < 30

2

0.51 (0.06-1.84)a

 

30 to < 60

1

0.34 (0.01-1.89)a

 

60 to < 100

3

1.11 (0.23-3.24)a

 

100 to < 200

2

0.59 (0.07-2.13)a

 

200 to < 300

3

1.45 (0.30-4.24)a

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

 

> 300

6

1.08 (0.40-2.35)a

 

300 to < 400

4

3.12 (0.85-7.99)a

 

400 to < 1000

2

0.64 (0.08-2.31)a

 

1000+

0

0.00 (0.00-3.24)a

Meurman et al. 1994

Anthophyllite asbestos miners in Finland (incidence)

 

 

 

736 men (3+ months of exposed time)

4

1.75 (0.48-4.47)

 

Moderate exposure

1

1.33 (0.03-7.40)

 

Heavy exposure

3

1.95 (0.40-5.69)

 

5+ years of exposed time

2

3.03 (0.37-10.9)

 

Moderate exposure

0

0 (0.00-36.2)

 

Heavy exposure

2

3.60 (0.44-13.0)

 

167 women (3+ months of exposed time)

0

0 (0.00-123.0)

Piolatto et al. 1990

1,058 male chrysotile miners in northern Italy

8

2.67 (1.15-5.25)a

 

Duration of exposure (years)

 

 

 

< 10

3

2.31 (0.48-6.75)a

 

10-20

0

0 (0.00-6.15)a

 

> 20

5

4.55 (1.47-10.61)a

 

Age at first exposure (years)

 

 

 

< 30

5

3.57 (1.16-8.34)a

 

30+

3

1.88 (0.39-5.48)a

 

Time since first exposure (years)

 

 

 

< 20

2

4.00 (0.48-14.44)a

 

20-30

2

2.50 (0.30-9.02)a

 

≥ 30

4

2.35 (0.64-6.02)a

 

Time since last exposure (years)

 

 

 

Ongoing

2

4.00 (0.48-14.44)a

 

≤ 10

3

4.29 (0.88-12.53)a

 

> 10

3

1.67 (0.34-4.87)a

 

Cumulative dust exposure (fiber-years)

 

 

 

< 100

1

1.43 (0.04-7.96)a

 

100-400

2

2.22 (0.27-8.02)a

 

> 400

5

3.85 (1.25-8.98)a

Sluis-Cremer et al. 1992

7,317 male amosite and crocidolite miners in South Africa

5

1.86 (0.60-4.34)

 

Amosite subcohort

2

1.44 (0.25-4.52)

 

Crocidolite subcohort

3

3.09 (0.84-7.98)

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Insulation Manufacture/Insulators (laggers)

 

 

Selikoff and Seidman 1991

17,800 male members of asbestos insulation unions in Canada and US in 1967

18

1.70 (1.01-2.69)a

Berry et al. 2000

1,400 male asbestos factory workers in east London, UK (laggers)

0

0.00 (0.0-15.38)a

Levin et al. 1998

753 white male workers in asbestos pipe insulation factory in Tyler, TX

1

2.21 (0.06-12.29)

Asbestos Textile Workers

 

 

Pira et al. 2005

1,966 textile employees in Italy

7

2.38 (0.95-4.90)

Duration of employment (years)

 

 

 

< 1

1

1.05 (0.03-5.87)a

 

1 to < 5

3

3.98 (0.82-11.63)a

 

5 to < 10

2

3.90 (0.47-14.09)a

 

10+

1

1.38 (0.03-7.67)a

 

Time since first employment (years)

 

 

 

< 15

1

1.06 (0.03-5.92)a

 

15 to < 25

1

0.98 (0.02-5.46)a

 

25 to < 35

5

7.32 (2.37-17.09)a

 

35+

0

0

 

Time since last exposure (years)

 

 

 

Ongoing to < 3

0

0

 

3 to < 15

3

2.71 (0.56-7.93)a

 

15 to < 25

2

2.67 (0.32-9.62)a

 

25 to < 35

2

4.99 (0.60-18.00)a

 

35+

0

0

 

Age at first exposure (years)

 

 

 

< 25

1

3.84 (0.10-21.38)a

 

25 to < 35

1

1.57 (0.04-8.76)a

 

35+

5

2.44 (0.79-5.71)a

 

Sex

 

 

 

889 men

7

2.46 (0.99-5.06)a

 

1,077 women

0

0

Peto et al. 1985

Asbestos textile factory workers in Rochdale, UK

 

 

 

283 women

0

0.0 (0.00-61.50)b

 

3,211 men

4

1.55 (0.42-3.97)b

 

< 10 years in scheduled areas

 

 

 

Time since first employment

 

 

 

< 20 years

0

0.0 (0.00-4.24)b

 

20+ years

4

3.70 (1.01-9.48)b

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

 

10+ years in scheduled areas

 

 

 

Time since first employment

 

 

 

< 20 years

0

0.0 (0.00-19.42)b

 

20+ years

0

0.0 (0.00-8.20)b

Dement et al. 1994

3,022 asbestos textile plant workers in South Carolina

4

1.55 (0.53-3.55)

 

White males

3

2.31 (0.63-5.96)

 

White females

0

0.0 (0.00-12.72)b

 

Black males

1

1.02 (0.05-4.84)

Asbestos Cement

 

 

Raffn et al. 1989

7,996 male asbestos-cement industry workers in Denmark (incidence)

14

1.66 (0.91-2.78)

 

Duration of employment, 15 years latency

 

 

 

< 5 years

2

0.81 (0.09-2.94)

 

≥ 5 years 6

6

2.27 (0.83-4.95)

 

First employment 1928-40, 15 years latency

5

5.50 (1.77-12.82)

Giaroli et al. 1994

3,341 male asbestos-cement workers in Italy

2

0.82 (0.15-2.59)

Botta et al. 1991

Asbestos-cement workers in Italy

 

 

2,608 men

5

0.70 (0.23-1.64)

 

759 women

0

0.0 (0.00-369.0)b

Smailyte et al. 2004

1,285 male asbestos-cement producers in Lithuania (incidence)

7

1.4 (0.7-2.9)

 

Duration of employment (years)

 

 

 

< 1

0

0.0 (0.0-4.1)b

 

1-4

3

1.6 (0.5-4.8)

 

5-9

2

3.0 (0.8-12.5)

 

≥ 10

2

1.3 (0.4-5.7)

 

25+ years since first exposure

3

1.4 (0.29-4.09)a

Gardner et al. 1986

2,090 chrysotile asbestos cement products workers in England

1

0.91 (0.02-5.06)b

Hughes et al. 1987

5,492 male asbestos-cement manufacturing plant employees in New Orleans, LA

 

 

 

Plants combined (20 year lag)

3

0.56 (0.11-1.62)a

 

Plant 1

2

1.00 (0.12-3.61)a

 

Plant 2

1

0.30 (0.01-1.64)a

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Friction Materials

 

 

Finkelstein 1989

1,314 male workers in automotive parts factory in Ontario

3

8.54 (1.76-24.97)a

 

Duration of employment (years)

 

 

 

1 to < 20

0

0.00 (0.00-36.27)a

 

≥ 20

3

1.90 (2.46-34.79)a

Berry 1994

9,104 male friction materials factory workers in the UK

6

0.64 (0.23-1.39)

Parnes et al. 1990

2,057 male brake-lining and disk- manufacturing workers in Albany, NY

3

4.03 (0.80-11.39)a

 

Duration of employment (years)

 

 

 

0-4

2

6.64 (0.76-22.70)a

 

5+

1

2.24 (0.06-12.41)a

Generic “Asbestos Workers”

 

 

Berry et al. 2000

Asbestos factory workers in east London, UK

 

 

 

3,000 men

3

2.05 (0.42-6.01)a

 

Low/mod

0

0.00 (0.00-5.27)a

 

Severe < 2 years

2

4.65 (0.56-16.79)a

 

Severe > 2 years

1

3.03 (0.08-16.88)a

 

700 women

0

0.00 (0.00-26.36)a

Enterline et al. 1987

1,074 white male production and maintenance workers at US asbestos company

2

1.14 (0.14-4.13)a

Other Occupations with Substantial Asbestos Exposure

 

 

Finkelstein and Verma 2004

25,285 male pipe-trade workers in Ontario 20+ years since start of membership (latency)

14

1.32 (0.72-2.21)

Tola et al. 1988

7,775 male shipyard workers in Finland (incidence)

24

1.20 (0.77-1.79)

Battista et al. 1999

734 male railway carriage construction and repair workers in Italy

5

2.40 (0.95-5.05)c

Puntoni et al. 2001

3,984 male shipyard workers in Genoa, Italy Time since first exposure (years)

32

1.64 (1.12-2.32)

 

0-19

5

1.36 (0.44-3.17)a

 

20-29

4

0.93 (0.25-2.38)a

 

30-39

6

1.58 (0.58-3.44)a

 

≥ 40

17

2.20 (1.28-3.52)a

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

 

Duration of exposure (years)

 

0-14

6

1.14 (0.42-2.48)a

15-24

8

1.59 (0.69-3.13)a

≥ 25

18

1.96 (1.16-3.10)a

Age at hire (years)

0-24

15

2.36 (1.32-3.89)a

25-34

9

1.89 (0.87-3.59)a

≥ 35

8

0.96 (0.41-1.89)a

Period of hire ≤ 1940

22

2.36 (1.48-3.57)a

Insulation workers

3

8.52 (1.76-24.91)a

NOTE: CI = Confidence interval; RR = relative risk. Figures are for mortality unless otherwise indicated. Data points included in meta-analyses are bolded.

* Full citations can be found in the reference list for Chapter 6.

a95% CIs calculated with standard methods from observed and expected numbers presented in original paper.

bSMR and 95% CIs calculated with standard methods from observed and expected numbers presented in original paper.

c90% CIs reported.

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

TABLE D.3 Esophageal Cancer and Exposure to Asbestos—Cohort Studies

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Patients with Asbestos-Related Disease

Karjalainen et al. 1999

Asbestos-related disease patients in Finland (incidence)

 

 

 

Men

 

 

 

1,287 with asbestosis

1

1.0 (0.0-5.5)

 

4,708 with benign pleural disease

1

0.5 (0.0-2.7)

 

Women

 

 

 

89 with asbestosis

1

10.5 (0.3-58.2)

 

179 with benign pleural disease

0

0.0 (0.0-92.6)

Szesznia- Dabrowska et al. 2002

902 male workers compensated for asbestosis in Poland

1

0.65 (0.01-2.40)a

Mining

Armstrong et al. 1988

6,505 male crocidolite miners and millers in Western Australia (mortality to 1980)

3

0.72 (0.23-2.22)

Reid et al. 2004

5,685 male crocidolite mining and milling workers in western Australia

 

 

 

Incidence

10

1.11 (0.60-2.07)

 

Mortality

8

0.89 (0.44-1.78)

McDonald et al. 1993

5,335 chrysotile miners and millers in Quebec (1976-1988)

10

0.73 (0.35-1.34)a

Meurman et al. 1994

Anthophyllite asbestos miners in Finland (incidence)

 

 

 

736 men (3+ months of exposed time)

3

1.99 (0.41-5.81)

 

Moderate exposure

1

1.70 (0.04-9.44)

 

Heavy exposure

2

2.18 (0.26-7.88)

 

5+ years of exposed time

2

5.00 (0.61-18.1)

 

Moderate exposure

0

0 (0.00-61.0)

 

Heavy exposure

2

5.92 (0.72-21.4)

 

167 women (3+ months of exposed time)

1

2.86 (0.07-15.9)

 

Moderate exposure

1

8.68 (0.22-48.4)

 

Heavy exposure

0

0 (0.00-16.1)

Insulation Manufacture/Insulators (laggers)

Selikoff and Seidman 1991

17,800 male members of asbestos insulation unions in Canada and US in 1967

30

1.68 (1.13-2.40)a

Seidman et al. 1986

820 men producing amosite asbestos insulation in Paterson, NJ, US

1

0.49 (0.01-2.70)b

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Selikoff et al. 1979

632 male insulation workers in New York and New Jersey, US before 1943

1

0.71 (0.02-3.98)b

 

<35 years

0

0.0 (0.00-9.04)a

 

35 + years

1

1.00 (0.03-5.57)b

Acheson et al. 1984

4,820 male insulation board factory workers in Uxbridge, UK

2

1.00 (0.12-3.61)a

Berry et al. 2000

1,400 male asbestos factory workers in east London, UK (laggers)

0

0.0 (0.00-4.79)b

Levin et al. 1998

753 white male workers in asbestos pipe insulation factory in Tyler, TX

2

2.32 (0.28-8.39)

Asbestos Textile Workers

 

 

Peto et al. 1985

Asbestos textile factory workers in Rochdale, UK

 

 

 

283 women

0

0.0 (0.00-11.53)b

 

3,211 men

11

1.67 (0.83-2.99)b

 

< 10 years in scheduled areas

 

 

 

Time since first employment

 

 

 

< 20 years

2

1.11 (0.13-4.01)b

 

20+ years

6

1.92 (0.70-4.17)b

 

10+ years in scheduled areas

 

 

 

Time since first employment

 

 

 

< 20 years

0

0.0 (0.00-9.71)b

 

20+ years

3

2.36 (0.49-6.91)b

Asbestos Cement

 

 

Albin et al. 1990

Asbestos cement workers in southern Sweden (esophagus, stomach, duodenum—too broad for meta-analysis)

23

1.0 (0.5-2.0)

 

≥ 40 fiber-years/ml

na

1.7 (0.2-3.3)

Gardner et al. 1986

2,090 chrysotile asbestos cement products workers in England

1

0.29 (0.01-1.59)b

Hughes et al. 1987

5,492 male employees at two asbestos- cement manufacturing plants in New Orleans, LA (20 year lag)

12

0.93 (0.48-1.62)a

 

Duration of exposure (20 year lag)

 

 

 

≤ 1 year

7

0.88 (0.35-1.80)a

 

> 1 year - 5 years

3

1.25 (0.26-3.65)a

 

> 5 years - 15 years

0

0.0 (0.00-4.61)a

 

> 15 years

2

1.11 (0.13-4.01)a

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Generic “Asbestos Workers”

 

 

Woitowitz et al. 1986

Asbestos-exposed workers in Germany (esophagus/stomach—too broad for meta)

 

 

 

3,070 workers with exposure after 1972

13

1.82 (0.97-3.12)a

 

665 workers with exposure complete by 1972

2

1.42 (0.17-5.13)a

Berry et al. 2000

Asbestos factory workers in east London, UK

 

 

 

3,000 men

7

1.70 (0.68-3.50)b

 

Low/mod < 2 years

2

1.80 (0.22-6.50)b

 

Low/mod > 2 years

2

2.27 (0.28-8.20)b

 

Severe < 2 years

2

1.59 (0.19-5.73)b

 

Severe > 2 years

1

1.15 (0.0-6.40)b

 

700 women

5

5.62 (1.82-13.11) b

 

Low/mod

1

6.25 (0.16-34.81)b

 

Severe < 2 years

2

3.92 (0.47-14.16)b

 

Severe > 2 years

2

9.09 (1.10-32.82)b

Hodgson and Jones 1986

31,150 male asbestos workers in England and Wales, UK

6

0.64 (0.23-1.39)a

Cumulative exposure (years)

 

 

 

< 10

0

0.00 (0.00-2.64)a

 

10-20

2

0.65 (0.08-2.33)a

 

≥ 20

4

0.80 (0.22-2.05)a

Enterline et al. 1987

1,074 white male production and maintenance workers at US asbestos company

4

1.36 (0.37-3.47)a

Other Occupations with Substantial Asbestos Exposure

 

 

Finkelstein and Verma 2004

25,285 male pipe-trade workers in Ontario 20+ years since start of membership (latency)

30

1.27 (0.86-1.81)

Puntoni et al. 2001

3,984 male shipyard workers in Genoa, Italy

11

0.77 (0.38-1.38)

NOTE: CI = Confidence interval; na = not available; RR = relative risk. Figures are for mortality unless otherwise indicated. Data points included in meta-analyses are bolded.

* Full citations can be found in the reference list for Chapter 6.

a95% CIs calculated with standard methods from observed and expected numbers presented in original paper.

bSMR and 95% CIs calculated with standard methods from observed and expected numbers presented in original paper.

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

TABLE D.4 Stomach Cancer and Exposure to Asbestos—Cohort Studies

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Patients with Asbestos-Related Disease

 

 

Germani et al. 1999

631 women compensated for asbestosis in Italy

2

0.45 (0.05-1.61)

 

Textile industry (n = 276)

2

1.09 (0.13-3.93)

 

Asbestos cement industry (n = 278)

0

0.0 (0.0-1.41)a

Karjalainen et al. 1999

Asbestos-related disease patients in Finland (incidence)

 

 

 

Men

 

 

 

1,287 with asbestosis

4

0.7 (0.2-1.9)

 

4,708 with benign pleural disease

11

1.3 (0.6-2.3)

 

Women

 

 

 

89 with asbestosis

1

2.2 (0.1-12.1)

 

179 with benign pleural disease

0

0.0 (0.0-17.4)

Szesznia- Dabrowska et al. 2002

902 male workers compensated for asbestosis in Poland

5

0.70 (0.23-1.63)

Mining

 

 

 

Armstrong et al. 1988

6,505 male crocidolite miners and millers in Western Australia (mortality to 1980)

17

1.16 (0.72-1.87)

de Klerk et al. 1989

Nested analysis of 17 cases vs 343 controls among Western Australian miners

 

 

 

5+ years of employment

0

0.0 (0.0-6.4)

 

50+ average f/ml at worksites

1

0.4 (0.0-4.2)

Reid et al. 2004

5,685 male crocidolite mining and milling workers in western Australia

 

 

 

Incidence (1980-2000)

27

1.31 (0.82-1.75)

 

Mortality

21

1.39 (0.91-2.14)

Liddell et al. 1997

8,923 male chrysotile miners and millers in Quebec (mortality 1950-1992)

183

1.24 (1.07-1.44)a

 

Cumulative exposure to age 55 (million particles per cubic foot—yrs) among 7,728 living to age 55

158

1.26 (1.07-1.48)a

 

< 300

118

1.16 (0.96-1.39)a

 

< 3

32

1.41 (0.98-2.01)a

 

3 to < 10

22

1.38 (0.87-2.09)a

 

10 to < 30

15

0.89 (0.50-1.47)a

 

30 to < 60

13

1.07 (0.57-1.83)a

 

60 to < 100

13

1.16 (0.62-1.98)a

 

100 to < 200

16

1.15 (0.66-1.87)a

 

200 to < 300

7

0.80 (0.32-1.65)a

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

 

> 300

40

1.69 (1.22-2.32)

 

300 to < 400

7

1.29 (0.52-2.66)a

 

400 to < 1000

16

1.21 (0.69-1.96)a

 

1000+

17

3.21 (1.87-5.14)a

Meurman et al. 1994

Anthophyllite asbestos miners in Finland (incidence)

 

 

 

736 men (3+ months of exposed time)

13

1.42 (0.76-2.43)

 

Moderate exposure

6

1.71 (0.63-3.72)

 

Heavy exposure

7

1.24 (0.50-2.56)

 

5+ years of exposed time

3

1.26 (0.26-3.68)

 

Moderate exposure

1

2.86 (0.07-15.9)

 

Heavy exposure

2

0.99 (0.12-3.56)

 

167 women (3+ months of exposed time)

1

0.67 (0.02-3.71)

 

Moderate exposure

1

1.89 (0.05-10.5)

 

Heavy exposure

0

0.00 (0.00-3.81)

Piolatto et al. 1990

1,058 male chrysotile miners in northern Italy

12

0.94 (0.49-1.65)a

 

Duration of exposure (years)

 

 

 

< 10

4

0.69 (0.19-1.77)a

 

10-20

5

1.79 (0.58-4.17)a

 

> 20

3

0.75 (0.15-2.19)a

Amandus et al. 1987

575 male tremolite-exposed vermiculite miners in Libby, MT

2

1.24 (0.15-4.49)

Insulation Manufacture/Insulators (laggers)

 

 

Selikoff and Seidman 1991

17,800 male members of asbestos insulation unions in Canada and US in 1967

38

1.29 (0.92-1.78)a

Seidman et al. 1986

820 men producing amosite asbestos insulation in Paterson, NJ, US

11

1.90 (0.95-3.40)a

Selikoff et al. 1979

632 male insulation workers in New York and New Jersey, US before 1943

19

3.52 (2.12-5.49)b

 

Duration of exposure (years)

 

 

 

< 20

0

0.00 (0.00-36.9)b

 

20-35

6

4.00 (1.47-8.71)b

 

> 35

13

3.42 (1.82-5.85)b

Acheson et al. 1984

4,820 male insulation board factory workers in Uxbridge, UK

7

0.94 (0.38-1.94)a

Berry et al. 2000

1,400 male asbestos factory workers in east London, UK (laggers)

2

0.77 (0.09-2.78)a

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Levin et al. 1998

753 white male workers in asbestos pipe insulation factory in Tyler, TX

0

0.0 (0.00-3.35)a

Asbestos Textile Workers

 

 

Pira et al. 2005

1,966 textile employees in Italy

15

1.20 (0.67-1.98)

Duration of employment (years)

 

 

 

< 1

5

1.42 (0.46-3.31)a

 

1 to < 5

2

0.63 (0.08-2.27)a

 

5 to < 10

6

2.64 (0.97-5.75)a

 

10+

2

0.57 (0.07-2.06)a

 

Time since first employment (years)

 

 

 

< 15

5

1.37 (0.44-3.20)a

 

15 to < 25

6

1.48 (0.54-3.22)a

 

25 to < 35

3

1.00 (0.21-2.92)a

 

35+

1

0.57 (0.01-3.17)a

 

Time since last exposure (years)

 

 

 

Ongoing to < 3

2

0.87 (0.11-3.14)a

 

3 to < 15

6

1.29 (0.47-2.81)a

 

15 to < 25

4

1.21 (0.33-3.10)a

 

25 to < 35

2

1.20 (0.15-4.33)a

 

35+

1

1.90 (0.05-10.58)a

 

Age at first exposure (years)

 

 

 

< 25

2

1.31 (0.16-4.73)a

 

25 to < 35

1

0.38 (0.01-2.12)a

 

35+

12

1.45 (0.75-2.53)a

 

Sex

 

 

 

889 men

11

1.16 (0.58-2.08)a

 

1,077 women

4

1.34 (0.37-3.43)a

Peto et al. 1985

Asbestos textile factory workers in Rochdale, UK

 

 

 

283 women

2

1.85 (0.22-6.69)a

 

3,211 men

29

1.00 (0.67-1.44)b

 

< 10 years in scheduled areas

 

 

 

Time since first employment

 

 

 

< 20 years

9

0.89 (0.41-1.69)b

 

20+ years

9

0.77 (0.35-1.46)b

 

10+ years in scheduled areas

 

 

 

Time since first employment

 

 

 

< 20 years

2

0.92 (0.11-3.31)b

 

20+ years

9

1.80 (0.82-3.42)b

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Dement et al. 1994

3,022 asbestos textile plant workers in South Carolina

9

0.90 (0.47-1.56)

 

White males

3

0.77 (0.21-2.00)

 

White females

0

0.00 (0.00-1.55)b

 

Black males

6

1.60 (0.69-3.15)

Asbestos Cement

 

 

Raffn et al. 1989

7,996 male asbestos-cement industry workers in Denmark (incidence)

43

1.43 (1.03-1.93)

 

Duration of employment, 15 years latency

 

 

 

< 5 years

13

1.77 (0.94-3.02)

 

≥ 5 years

15

1.27 (0.70-2.07)

 

First employment 1928-40, 15 years latency

8

1.69 (0.73-3.33)

Botta et al. 1991

Asbestos-cement workers in Italy

 

 

2,608 men

17

0.81 (0.47-1.30)

 

759 women

4

1.36 (0.37-3.48)

Smailyte et al. 2004

Asbestos-cement producers in Lithuania (incidence)

 

 

 

602 women

4

1.2 (0.4-3.2)

 

1,285 men

14

0.9 (0.5-1.5)

 

Duration of employment (years)

 

 

 

< 1

1

0.4 (0.1-2.6)

 

1-4

8

1.4 (0.7-2.8)

 

5-9

2

0.8 (0.2-3.3)

 

≥ 10

3

0.6 (0.2-1.9)

 

25+ years since first exposure

4

0.6

Albin et al. 1990

Asbestos cement workers in southern Sweden (esophagus, stomach, duodenum—grouping too broad for inclusion in meta-analysis)

23

1.0 (0.5-2.0)

 

≥ 40 fiber-years/ml

na

1.7 (0.2-3.3)

Gardner et al. 1986

2,090 chrysotile asbestos cement products workers in England

15

1.09 (0.61-1.81)b

Hughes et al. 1987

5,492 male asbestos-cement manufacturing plant employees in New Orleans, LA (20 year lag)

22

1.13 (0.71-1.71)a

 

Duration of exposure (20 year lag)

 

 

 

≤ 1 year

14

1.20

 

> 1 year-5 years

5

1.35

 

> 5 years-15 years

2

1.54

 

> 15 years

1

0.37

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Friction Materials

 

 

Kogan et al. 1993

2,834 friction product workers in Yaroslavl, Russia

14

0.58 (0.32-0.98)a

 

Males

3

0.45 (0.09-1.33)a

 

Females

11

0.70 (0.35-1.25)a

Generic “Asbestos Workers”

 

 

Zhu and Wang 1993

5,893 chrysotile factory workers in China

28

2.40 (1.60-3.47)a

Pang et al. 1997

Chrysotile asbestos plant workers in China

5

4.40 (1.43-10.27)b

160 men

5

7.87 (2.55-18.38)b

 

370 women

0

0.00 (0.00-7.37)b

Woitowitz et al. 1986

Asbestos-exposed workers in Germany (esophagus/stomach—too broad for meta)

 

 

 

3,070 workers with exposure after 1972

13

1.82 (0.97-3.12)a

 

665 workers with exposure complete by 1972

2

1.42 (0.17-5.13)a

Berry et al. 2000

Asbestos factory workers in east London, UK

 

 

 

3,000 men

21

1.24 (0.77-1.89)a

 

Low/mod < 2 years

4

0.89 (0.24-2.29)a

 

Low/mod > 2 years

3

0.82 (0.17-2.39)a

 

Severe < 2 years

9

1.82 (0.83-3.44)a

 

Severe > 2 years

5

1.30 (0.42-3.03)a

 

700 women

5

1.42 (0.46-3.32)a

 

Low/mod

1

1.50 (0.04-8.31)a

 

Severe < 2 years

1

0.51 (0.01-2.84)a

 

Severe > 2 years

3

3.41 (0.70-9.97)a

Acheson et al. 1982

1,327 women in gas-mask manufacture in Lancashire, UK

9

1.20 (0.55-2.28)a

Hodgson and Jones 1986

31,150 male asbestos workers in England and Wales, UK

27

1.00 (0.66-1.46)a

Cumulative exposure (years)

 

 

 

< 10

6

1.50 (0.55-3.27)a

 

10-20

10

1.16 (0.56-2.14)a

 

≥ 20

11

0.77 (0.38-1.38)a

Enterline et al. 1987

1,074 white male production and maintenance workers at US asbestos company

20

1.80 (1.10-2.78)a

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Other Occupations with Substantial Asbestos Exposure

 

 

Finkelstein and Verma 2004

25,285 male pipe-trade workers in Ontario 20+ years since start of membership (latency)

21

0.67 (0.41-1.02)

Tola et al. 1988

7,775 male shipyard workers in Finland (incidence)

63

0.80 (0.61-1.02)

Battista et al. 1999

734 male railway carriage construction and repair workers in Italy

13

1.31 (0.77-2.08)c

Puntoni et al. 2001

3,984 male shipyard workers in Genoa, Italy

67

1.14 (0.89-1.45)

Sanden et al. 1987

3,787 male shipyard workers in Sweden (incidence)

3

0.88 (0.18-2.58)b

 

20 year latency

3

1.07 (0.22-3.13)b

 

Heavy exposure

1

0.77 (0.02-4.28)b

NOTE: CI = Confidence interval; na = not available; RR = relative risk. Figures are for mortality unless otherwise indicated. Data points included in meta-analyses are bolded.

* Full citations can be found in the reference list for Chapter 6.

a95% CIs calculated with standard methods from observed and expected numbers presented in original paper.

bSMR and 95% CIs calculated with standard methods from observed and expected numbers presented in original paper.

c90% CIs reported.

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

TABLE D.5 Colorectala Cancer and Exposure to Asbestos—Cohort Studies

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Patients with Asbestos-Related Disease

 

 

Germani et al. 1999

631 women compensated for asbestosis in Italy (large and small intestine, plus rectum)

11

2.18 (1.09-3.90)

 

Colon and sigma

8

2.38 (1.03-3.90)

 

Textile industry (n = 276)

5

3.67 (1.20-8.60)

 

Asbestos cement industry (n = 278)

2

1.16 (0.14-4.21)

 

Rectum

1

0.62 (0.02-3.45)

 

Textile industry (n = 276)

0

0.0

 

Asbestos cement industry (n = 278)

0

0.0

Karjalainen et al. 1999

Asbestos-related disease patients in Finland (incidence)

 

 

 

Men—colorectal

23

1.1 (0.7-1.7)c

 

Colon

11

1.0 (0.5-1.9)c

 

1,287 with asbestosis

3

0.9 (0.2-2.5)

 

4,708 with benign pleural disease

8

1.1 (0.5-2.1)

 

Rectum

12

1.2 (0.6-2.2)c

 

1,287 with asbestosis

4

1.3 (0.3-3.2)

 

4,708 with benign pleural disease

8

1.2 (0.5-2.4)

 

Women—colon only

3

4.2(0.9-12.3)c

 

89 with asbestosis

2

4.6 (0.6-16.5)

 

179 with benign pleural disease

1

3.4 (0.1-1.91)

Szesznia- Dabrowska et al. 2002

Workers compensated for asbestosis in Poland

 

 

902 men—colorectal

3

0.66 (0.14-1.92)c

 

Colon

1

0.51 (0.01-2.84)b

 

Rectum, anus

2

0.77 (0.09-2.78)

 

489 women—colorectal

3

1.38(0.29-4.04)c

 

Colon

2

1.99 (0.24-7.19)

 

Rectum, anus

1

0.86 (0.02-4.79)b

Aliyu et al. 2005

3,897 male participants in the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (colorectal)

85

2.0 (1.6-2.5)

 

1,847 with pleural abnormality: positive

51

1.40 (0.88-2.23)

 

24 with radiographic profusion: 3/2 to 3/+

1

1.38 (0.18-10.6)

 

156 with >40 years in high-risk trade

3

0.49 (0.12-2.00)

 

707 with >41 years since first exposure

29

1.20 (0.48-3.04)

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Mining

 

 

 

Armstrong et al. 1988

6,505 male crocidolite miners and millers in Western Australia (mortality to 1980)

14

0.70 (0.41-1.18)

Reid et al. 2004

5,685 male crocidolite mining and milling workers in western Australia

 

 

 

Incidence (1979-2000)

88

1.05 (0.85-1.29)

 

Mortality

49

1.31 (0.99-1.74)

McDonald et al. 1993

5,335 chrysotile miners and millers in Quebec (1976-1988)

73

0.82 (0.65-1.04)b

Meurman et al. 1994

Anthophyllite asbestos miners in Finland with more than 3 months exposure (incidence)

 

 

 

736 men—colorectal

3

0.55 (0.11-1.60)

 

Moderate exposure

2

1.06 (0.13-3.82)

 

Heavy exposure

1

0.28 (0.01-1.56)

 

5+ years of exposed time (212 men)

2

1.27 (0.15-4.60)

 

Moderate exposure

1

3.85 (0.10-21.4)

 

Heavy exposure

1

0.76 (0.02-4.25)

 

167 women—colorectal

4

2.61 (0.71-6.69)c

 

Colon

3

3.45 (0.71-10.1)

 

Moderate exposure

1

3.14 (0.08-17.4)b

 

Heavy exposure

2

3.66 (0.44-13.2)

 

Rectum

1

1.52 (0.04-8.44)

 

Moderate exposure

0

0.00 (0.00-15.2)

 

Heavy exposure

1

2.39 (0.06-13.3)

Piolatto et al. 1990

1,058 male chrysotile miners in northern Italy (intestinal)

6

0.91 (0.33-1.98)b

 

Duration of exposure (years)

 

 

 

< 10

3

1.03 (0.21-3.02)b

 

10-20

0

0.00 (0.00-2.84)b

 

> 20

3

1.30 (0.27-3.81)b

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Insulation Manufacture/Insulators (laggers)

 

 

Selikoff and Seidman 1991

17,800 male members of asbestos insulation unions in Canada and US in 1967

121

1.37 (1.14-1.64)b

Seidman et al. 1986

820 men producing amosite asbestos insulation in Paterson, NJ, US

22

1.85 (1.16-2.80)b

Selikoff et al. 1979

632 male insulation workers in New York and New Jersey, US before 1943

23

2.77 (1.76-4.16)c

 

Duration of exposure (years)

 

 

 

< 20

0

0.00 (0.00-18.45)c

 

20-35

7

3.68 (1.48-7.59)c

 

> 35

16

2.58 (1.48-4.19)c

Acheson et al. 1984

4,820 male insulation board factory workers in Uxbridge, UK

10

1.31 (0.63-2.42)b

 

Colon

6

1.37 (0.50-2.98)b

 

Rectum

4

1.24 (0.34-3.17)b

Berry et al. 2000

1,400 male asbestos factory workers in east London, UK (laggers)

8

2.86 (1.23-5.63)b

 

Colon

7

4.32 (1.73-8.90)b

 

Rectum

1

0.85 (0.02-4.72)b

Levin et al. 1998

753 white male workers in asbestos pipe insulation factory in Tyler, TX

6

1.67 (0.61-3.63)b

 

Colon

6

2.07 (0.76-4.51)

 

Rectum

0

0.0 (0.00-5.27)b

Asbestos Textile Workers

 

 

Pira et al. 2005

1,966 textile employees in Italy

16

1.45 (0.83-2.35)

Duration of employment (years)

 

 

 

< 1

7

2.23 (0.89-4.59)b

 

1 to < 5

1

0.35 (0.01-1.95)b

 

5 to < 10

3

1.46 (0.30-4.28)b

 

10+

5

1.67 (0.54-3.89)b

 

Time since first employment (years)

 

 

 

< 15

2

0.86 (0.10-3.10)b

 

15 to < 25

2

0.55 (0.07-1.98)b

 

25 to < 35

7

2.24 (0.89-4.58)b

 

35+

5

2.64 (0.32-9.54)b

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

 

Time since last exposure (years)

 

 

 

During to < 3

0

0.00 (0.0-2.69)b

 

3 to < 15

5

1.34 (0.43-3.13)b

 

15 to < 25

6

1.83 (0.67-3.98)b

 

25 to < 35

3

1.52 (0.31-4.45)b

 

35+

2

2.91 (0.35-10.51)b

 

Age at first exposure (years)

 

 

 

< 25

3

1.63 (0.34-4.77)b

 

25 to < 35

2

0.75 (0.09-2.71)b

 

35+

11

1.68 (0.84-3.01)b

 

Sex

 

 

 

889 men

10

1.39 (0.67-2.56)b

 

1,077 women

6

1.56 (0.57-3.40)b

Peto et al. 1985

Asbestos textile factory workers in Rochdale, UK

 

 

 

283 women

4

1.98 (0.54-5.07)b

 

3,211 men

20

0.75 (0.46-1.16)c

 

< 10 years in scheduled areas

 

 

 

< 20 years since first employment

5

0.60 (0.19-1.40)c

 

20+ years since first employment

8

0.68 (0.29-1.33)c

 

10+ years in scheduled areas

 

 

 

< 20 years since first employment

2

1.18 (0.14-4.25)c

 

20+ years since first employment

5

1.03 (0.33-2.40)c

Asbestos Cement

 

 

Raffn et al. 1996

7,887 male asbestos-cement industry workers in Denmark (incidence)

102

1.22 (0.99-1.48)

 

Years since first employment

 

 

 

0-14

23

1.02 (0.65-1.53)

 

> 15

79

1.29 (1.02-1.61)

 

first employed 1928-1950

39

1.47 (1.05-2.01)

Botta et al. 1991

Asbestos-cement workers in Italy

 

 

2,608 men

11

0.65 (0.33-1.17)

 

759 women

7

1.80 (0.72-3.70)

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Smailyte et al. 2004a

Asbestos-cement producers in Lithuania (incidence)

 

 

 

602 women

3

0.8 (0.1-1.8)

 

1,285 men

17

1.6 (1.0-2.6)

 

Duration of employment (years)

 

 

 

< 1

4

2.2 (0.8-5.7)

 

1-4

2

0.5 (0.2-2.1)

 

5-9

3

1.8 (0.6-5.6)

 

≥ 10

8

2.4 (1.2-4.7)

 

25+ years since first exposure

7

1.6 (0.6-3.3) b

Albin et al. 1990

1,465 male asbestos-cement workers in southern Sweden (mortality 1927-1986)

26

1.5 (0.7-3.0)

 

≥ 40 fiber-years/ml

na

3.4 (1.2-9.5)

Jakobsson et al. 1994

981 male industrial workers in Sweden (asbestos cement) (incidence 1958-1989)

26

1.47 (0.96-2.15)b

 

Right colon

12

2.38 (1.23-4.16)

 

Left colon

1

0.22 (0.00-1.18)

 

Rectum

13

1.65 (0.88-2.83)

Gardner et al. 1986

2,090 chrysotile asbestos cement products workers in England

11

0.71 (0.36-1.28)c

 

Colon

6

0.65 (0.24-1.42)c

 

Rectum

5

0.81 (0.26-1.88)c

Hughes et al. 1987

5,492 male asbestos-cement manufacturing plant employees in New Orleans, LA

 

 

 

Plants combined (20 year lag)

21

0.90 (0.56-1.38)b

 

Plant 1

10

1.20 (0.58-2.21)b

 

Plant 2

11

0.73 (0.36-1.31)b

 

Duration of exposure (20 year lag)

 

 

 

≤ 1 year

11

0.79 (0.39-1.41)b

 

> 1 year - 5 years

5

1.11 (0.36-2.59)b

 

> 5 years - 15 years

1

0.67 (0.02-3.74)b

 

> 15 years

4

1.21 (0.33-3.09)b

Generic “Asbestos Workers”

 

Woitowitz et al. 1986

Asbestos-exposed workers in Germany

 

 

3,070 workers with exposure after 1972

5

0.79 (0.26-1.84)b

 

665 workers with exposure complete by 1972

3

2.15 (0.44-6.29)b

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Berry et al. 2000

Asbestos factory workers in east London, UK

 

 

 

3,000 men

22

1.36 (0.85-2.06)c

 

Colon

 

 

 

Low/mod < 2 years

3

1.21 (0.25-3.54)c

 

Low/mod > 2 years

3

1.49 (0.31-4.36)c

 

Severe < 2 years

3

1.11 (0.23-3.25)c

 

Severe > 2 years

8

4.06 (1.75-8.00)c

 

Rectum

 

 

 

Low/mod < 2 years

2

1.06 (0.13-3.82)c

 

Low/mod > 2 years

0

0.00 (0.00-2.38)c

 

Severe < 2 years

3

1.46 (0.30-4.28)c

 

Severe > 2 years

0

0.00 (0.00-2.41)c

 

700 women

7

1.19 (0.48-2.44)c

 

Colon

 

 

 

Low/mod

0

0.00 (0.00-5.13)c

 

Severe < 2 years

2

0.87 (0.11-3.15)c

 

Severe > 2 years

1

1.00 (0.03-5.57)c

 

Rectum

 

 

 

Low/mod

0

0.00 (0.00-10.85)c

 

Severe < 2 years

4

3.70 (1.01-9.48)c

 

Severe > 2 years

0

0.00 (0.00-7.85)c

Hodgson and Jones 1986

31,150 male asbestos workers in England and Wales, UK

16

0.54 (0.31-0.88)c

Colon—cumulative exposure (years)

6

0.36 (0.13-0.78)b

 

< 10

1

0.40 (0.01-2.23)b

 

10-20

2

0.36 (0.04-1.31)b

 

≥ 20

3

0.54 (0.11-1.57)c

 

Rectum—cumulative exposure (years)

10

0.77 (0.37-1.43)b

 

< 10

1

0.52 (0.01-2.93)b

 

10-20

2

0.47 (0.06-1.72)b

 

≥ 20

7

1.03 (0.41-2.12)b

Enterline et al. 1987

1,074 white male production and maintenance workers at US asbestos company

23

1.15 (0.73-1.73)b

 

Colon

14

0.98 (0.54-1.65)b

 

Rectum

9

1.59 (0.73-3.02)b

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
×

Reference*

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Other Occupations with Substantial Asbestos Exposure

Finkelstein and Verma 2004

25,285 male pipe-trade workers in Ontario 20+ years since start of membership (latency)

96

1.16 (0.94-1.42)

Tola et al. 1988

7,775 male shipyard workers in Finland (incidence)

35

0.79 (0.55-1.10)

Battista et al. 1999

734 male railway carriage construction and repair workers in Italy

6

0.93 (0.41-1.84)d

Puntoni et al. 2001

3,984 male shipyard workers in Genoa, Italy

59

1.00 (0.76-1.29)

Sanden et al. 1987

3,787 male shipyard workers in Sweden (incidence)

3

0.38 (0.08-1.1)

 

Rectum

3

0.45 (0.09-1.33)c

 

Heavy or very heavy exposure

2

0.65 (0.08-2.33)c

 

Colon

0

0.00 (0.00-3.00)c

NOTE: CI = Confidence interval; na = not available; RR = relative risk. Figures are for mortality unless otherwise indicated. Data points included in meta-analyses are bolded.

* Full citations can be found in the reference list for Chapter 6.

aStatistics from original paper presented here; when RRs were calculated for colon and rectum separately, combined RRs for colorectal cancer were derived for use in meta-analysis.

b95% CIs calculated with standard methods from observed and expected numbers presented in original paper.

cSMR and 95% CIs calculated with standard methods from observed and expected numbers presented in original paper.

d90% CIs reported.

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX D Cohort Results Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11665.
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In conjunction with drafting comprehensive legislation concerning compensation for health effects related to asbestos exposure (the Fairness in Asbestos Injury Act), the Senate Committee on the Judiciary directed the Institute of Medicine to assemble the Committee on Asbestos: Selected Health Effects. This committee was charged with addressing whether asbestos exposure is causally related to adverse health consequences in addition to asbestosis, mesothelioma, and lung cancer. Asbestos: Selected Cancers presents the committee's comprehensive distillation of the peer-reviewed scientific and medical literature regarding association between asbestos and colorectal, laryngeal, esophageal, pharyngeal, and stomach cancers.

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