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Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Developing Biomarker-Based Tools for Cancer Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment: The State of the Science, Evaluation, Implementation, and Economics: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11768.
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ACRONYMS

ASCO American Society of Clinical Oncology

ASR Analyte-Specific Reagent

CAP College of American Pathologists

CMS Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services

CLIA Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment

CPT Current Procedural Terminology

EGAPP Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention

EGF Epidermal Growth Factor

EGFR Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

FDA Food and Drug Administration

FISH Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization

HER2 Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2

HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

IHC Immunohistochemistry

IVD In Vitro Diagnostic

LOH Loss of Heterozygosity

mRNA Messenger Ribonucleic Acid

MIAME Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment

NBN National Biospecimen Network

NCCN National Comprehensive Cancer Network

NCI National Cancer Institute

NICE National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (of the United Kingdom)

NIH National Institutes of Health (of the United States)

PET Positron Emission Tomography

PMA Premarket Approval

PSA Prostate-Specific Antigen

QALY Quality-Adjusted Life-Year

SNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

SOP Standard Operating Procedure

SPORE Specialized Programs of Research Excellence

TEC Technology Evaluation Center (of BlueCross BlueShield)

USPSTF United States Preventive Services Task Force

Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Developing Biomarker-Based Tools for Cancer Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment: The State of the Science, Evaluation, Implementation, and Economics: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11768.
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Research has long sought to identify biomarkers that could detect cancer at an early stage, or predict the optimal cancer therapy for specific patients. Fueling interest in this research are recent technological advances in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics that can enable researchers to capture the molecular fingerprints of specific cancers and fine-tune their classification according to the molecular defects they harbor. The discovery and development of new markers of cancer could potentially improve cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Given the potential impact cancer biomarkers could have on the cost effectiveness of cancer detection and treatment, they could profoundly alter the economic burden of cancer as well.

Despite the promise of cancer biomarkers, few biomarker-based cancer tests have entered the market, and the translation of research findings on cancer biomarkers into clinically useful tests seems to be lagging. This is perhaps not surprising given the technical, financial, regulatory, and social challenges linked to the discovery, development, validation, and incorporation of biomarker tests into clinical practice.

To explore those challenges and ways to overcome them, the National Cancer Policy Forum held the conference "Developing Biomarker-Based Tools for Cancer Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment: The State of the Science, Evaluation, Implementation, and Economics" in Washington, D.C., from March 20 to 22, 2006.

At this conference, experts gave presentations in one of six sessions. In addition, seven small group discussions explored the policy implications surrounding biomarker development and adoption into clinical practice. Developing Biomarker-based Tools for Developing Cancer Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment: The State of the Science, Evaluation, Implementation, and Economics-Workshop Summary presents the conference proceedings and will be used by an Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee to develop consensus-based recommendations for moving the field of cancer biomarkers forward.

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