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Page 657
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

Index

Absorbed dose from combustion, 448

Accelerator breeders, 213

Acceptable levels of risk, 424

Accidents

catastrophes. See Catastrophes

coal mining, 5051, 188189, 428432

fatal, 188189, 428429

large-scale, 53

with liquid metal fast breeder reactors, 289292

LOCA. See Loss-of-coolant accident

with nuclear reactors, 216217, 281289

and uranium mining, 216

Acid precipitation, 467468

Actinide transport studies, 310

Ad Hoc Population Dose Assessment Group, 460461

Add-on costs for nuclear power, 271272

Advanced converters, 2425, 27, 2930, 215, 244

versus breeders, 256258

CANDU, 215

designs, 245246

enriched uranium for, 237238

evaluation of, 246247

extending resources, 215

light water breeder reactors. See Light water reactor

recommendations for, 258260

safety of, 218

Advanced reactors, fuel cycles of, 241

Africa

natural gas exports, 522

oil reserves in, 515518

trade surplus, 523

uranium in, 518519, 522

Agricultural residues, See Biomass

Agriculture

in developing countries, 525

energy efficiency of, 376

energy used for, 375376

risks to, 463467

Air conditioning

and insulation, 91

mandatory standards for, 90

solar space cooling, 357358

2010, projection for, 92

Air pollution, 5153

and coal use, 20, 158, 162168, 455

and geopressured reservoirs, 406

and GNP, 123

health effects, research on, 455459

and hot water reservoirs, 403

public health risk, 434436

solar thermal conversion plants, 366367

Air quality, 425

projections on, 454455

research and standards, 489490

Air travel

demand projections for, 8790

efficiency, increases in, 86

projections for, 547

Alabama, 157

ALARA

and radiation exposure, 440

for radioactive waste disposal, 309

Alaska

oil discovery, 507

pipeline, 480

volcanoes, 409

Algae

and photochemical conversion, 379

ponds, 378

Algeria, oil production, 504

Allocation systems, 144

Alpha-active wastes, 301, 623

for reprocessed nuclear fuel, 320

American Physical Society, 36, 41, 54

Page 658
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

and radioactive wastes, 316

and underground nuclear waste repositories, 310311

and WASH-1400, 285

American Society of Heating,

Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 91

Anaerobic fermentation, 374

Antinuclear movement, 260262

Animal life and plant monocultures, 377

Appliances

demand projections for, 9093

labeled for energy consumption, 121

2010, projections for, 9293

Aqueous raffinates, 300

Arab-Israeli war of 1973, 507

As low as reasonably achievable. See ALARA

Ashland Oil Co., 180

Atascadero, Skytherm House in, 360

Athabascan tar sands, 517

Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, 160

Atomic bomb and ionizing radiation, 432434

Atomic Energy Commission

The Brookhaven Report, 261

and Clinch River breeder reactor program, 255256

and radioactive waste, 314315

and WASH-1400, 285

Attic insulation. See Insulation

Australia, uranium reserves in, 518519

Automobiles

demand projections for, 8790

electric vehicles, 8586

international comparisons, 109

miles per gallon. See Miles per gallon

pollutants, 52

projections for, 546547

replacement of, 11

savings in energy for, 85

substituting materials for, 96

Baby boom and GNP, 535

Background radiation, 313314

Balance of payments, 508

Barges for transporting coal, 196

Barstow pilot plant, California, 366

Base-case values, 110

Batteries

development of, 614615

for electric vehicles, 86

Bechtel Corporation, 264265

Beryllium, 388

Best available control technology, 426

Bi-Gas process, 175

Binary cycle plant, 413

Biocides, 372

Biomass, 43, 374375

and algae ponds, 378

committee’s recommendations, 71

destructiveness of, 55

ecosystem risks of, 478

growth of, 376378

high-solar energy scenario, 350351

municipal wastes, 374

Biophotolysis, 379

Black lung disease, 147, 188189, 431

Blanket cycles for fast breeders, 253

Blanket tax, 1214

Bloomster, C.H., 413

Bodvarsson, G., 407, 414

Bombs on nuclear facility, 293

BORAX, 293

Boron, 388

Boulding, Kenneth E., 613618

Brayton engineers, 87

Brazil, oil resources in, 518

Break-even thermal breeder, 245

Breeder reactors, 2425, 27, 2930, 3234, 3839, 214215, 244

abandonmcnt of, 65, 525

versus advanced converters, 256258

cores for, 253

flexibility of, 251253

fusion reactor as, 386387

gas-cooled fast breeder reactor. See Gas-cooled fast breeder reactor

illegal diversion during reprocessing, 218

industrial position on, 213

light water reactor. See Light water reactor

liquid-metal fast breeder reactor. See Liquid-metal fast breeder reactor

national energy policies, 525

postponement of, 525

recommendations for, 70, 258260

recycling load through, 214

safety of, 1819, 218

uranium price and competitiveness of, 522

Breeder Reactor Resource Group, 651

Brine deposits, 46, 142, 398399, 405

Bronchial asthma, 426

Bronchitis, 436

Brookhaven Report, The, 261

Brooks, Harvey, 618621, 623633, 637641

Brown’s Ferry, 289

Brush, Harvey, 265

Btu

quads. See Quadrillion Btu

tax, 606

Building codes, 91

Buildings

demand projections for, 9093, 544546

Page 659
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

heating. See Heating systems

housing. See Housing

retrofitting. See Retrofitting

thermal performance standards for, 79

2010, projections for, 9293

Buildings Resource Group, 650

Bunkers for storing radioactive waste, 314

Bureau of Mines and coal reserves, 155

Buses, flexibility of, 90

Business as usual scenario, 132133, 135

geothermal energy production, 417

By-product steam marketing, 98

California

Imperial Valley of, 403

solar heating systems, tax credit for, 347

state government office building in Sacramento, 360

Campbell, G.E., 404

Canada, 135, 504, 517

Athabascan tar sands in, 517

GNP and energy use, 108

natural gas reserves, 142, 515

oil consumption, 19731977, 509

oil exploration in, 518

oil exports, 507

reactors, 214

uranium in, 518519, 522

Cancer

and air pollution, 455459

coal energy cycle, 5253

and coal miners, 431432

and costs for avoiding risk, 443

deaths from emissions, 5253

and fission, 439

and ionizing radiations, 432434

and oil, 423

and smoking, 436

and uranium mining, 216

CANDU, 2829, 214215, 245247

costs, 248

flexibility of, 250253

once-through cycle costs, 248249

Cannon, Robert H., Jr., 629, 642

Capital

constant availability of, 113114

and labor inputs, 122

light water reactors, 247248

for nuclear power plants, 264265

for technological advances, 111112

Capital stock, 11, 68

Car pools, 90

Carbon dioxide, 5758

from coal, 147

and combustion, 453454

from fossil fuels, 20, 24

and global climate, 469473

ocean thermal conversion, 371372

risks, 487

Carbon monoxide, 51

Carbon-steel tanks for radioactive wastes, 306

Cartels

OPEC. See Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

uranium prices, 520

Carter, Jimmy, 306, 348349

Cash surpluses, countries with, 67

Catalytic gasification, 176

Catalytic liquefaction processes, 179

Catastrophes, 459463

from nuclear power, 460463

Cattle feedlots, 375

Caulking, 91

Census Bureau, 534535

Chattanooga shales, 520

Chemical agents, public health risk from, 434436

Chemical feedstocks, coal for, 184185

Chicken factories, 375

China, 135

coal resources, 513

oil resources in, 522

Civex cycle, 218, 259, 322324, 326

Cladding hulls, 307308

Clean Air Act, 52, 162, 424

and combustion, 454

nitrogen oxides, 166167

practicality of, 425426

sulfur emission standards, 164

Clean Water Act, 162, 424

Climate, 5758

and demand, 76

risks to, 467475

and solar thermal conversion plants, 367

Climatological Effects Resource Group, 65, 650

Clinch River breeder reactor (CRBR)

costs of, 273275

funding for, 255256

government opposition to, 241

necessity for, 622623

recommendations for, 258259

safety of, 289292

CLOP

members of, 653

minimum energy-use scenario, 557559

total primary energy use, 559

Coal, 146205, 512513

accidents, 5051, 188189, 428432

air pollution regulations, 20, 158, 162168, 455

anthracite, 150, 155

Appalachian basin, 153155, 196

area mining, 191

atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, 160

balanced with nuclear power, 70

Page 660
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

Bi-Gas process, 175

bituminous, 150, 155

black lung disease, 147, 188189

cancer caused by use of, 5253

and carbon dioxide emissions, 147

catalytic liquefaction processes, 179

as chemical feedstock, 184185

coalification, 149150

cogeneration, 173

coke production, 185

combined-cycle generation, 169170

combustion risks, 450

concentrated markets, 194195

conclusions, 203205

consumption of, 158160, 186

contour mining, 191

conversion, 479

costs, 165166

decline in use of, 505

in developing countries, 526

disabling injuries in mining, 188189

and diseases, 431

distribution of resources, 153155, 157158

eastern regions, 153, 186

ecosystem risks of, 479

electricity generation from, 161, 163164

energy from, 158

Energy Information Administration projections, 566

energy storage, 172173

environmental problems, 148, 507

export of, 64, 523

fatalities in mining, 188189, 428

federal leasing policy, 192193

flue-gas desulfurization, 164166

fluidized-bed combustion, 166167, 169, 170

fuel cells, 171172

future use of, 149

gas from, 160

gasification, 173178

gasification-combined-cycle plants, 170171

gross income of industry, 195

health problems, 147, 188189

high-Btu gas production, 175

horizontal integration by gas and oil companies, 194

HYGAS process, 175

indirect liquefaction, 178182

industrial accidents and disease, 5051

industrial coal demand, 160

for industrial process heat, 182183

industry structure, 193195

inorganic substances, 150

interlocking boards, 194

investors in, 193194

labor force, 186190

and labor-management relations, 187188

lignite, 150, 155

limestone scrubbing, 165166

linked vertical well method, 176

liquefaction, 562

liquid fuels from, 178182

long-term contracts, 193

longwall mining, 190

low-Btu gas from, 174

Lurgi process, 175

magnetohydrodynamic generation, 172

market for, 147

medium-Btu gas from, 174

metallurgical, 148

mining accidents, 430432

mining technology, 190192

nitrogen dioxide, 163

nitrogen oxides, 166167

and nuclear power, 163164, 213, 263

objectives for use of, 148

oil and gas companies mining, 194

open-pit mining, 191

from organic remains, 150

particulates, 162163, 167

Pittsburgh bed, 153

pollution control costs, 161

power plant construction by 1995, 186

price of, 193, 195

producing states, 155, 157

production, 185186

productivity decline, 188

profitability, 195

projection for price of, 539

pyrolysis, 178179

quality of, 149153

rank of, 150151

recoverable reserves, 155

regenerable double-alkali process, 166

research and development, 177, 182

reserves, 513515

reserve base tonnage, 155

respirable dust standards, 188189

risk factors, 60

room-and-pillar mining, 190

scrubbing requirements, 186

short-term production, 158

slurry pipelines, 196

solvent-extraction processes, 178179

stack gas scrubbers, cost of, 124

steeply dipping beds, 176

subbituminous, 150, 155

substitution for electricity, 570

sulfur dioxide emissions, 161166

sulfur products, 150153

Page 661
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

surface-mining, 158, 191192

as swing fuel, 582583

synthetic fuel derived from, 139140, 173178

technologies, 148, 160161, 168173

transportation of, 195197

underground gasification, 176

underground mining, 190

uranium exports, effect on coal, 523

use of, 4, 1516, 1922

utilities use of, 158, 160, 193194

vertical integration by utilities, 193194

and water supply, 147, 197203, 473

Wellman-Lord process, 166

western regions, 153, 157, 186

world production of, 501

Wyodak bed, 155

Coal Conversion Resource Group, 651

Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, 188189

Coal mine reclamation, 121

Cogeneration of electricity, 9799, 173

tax credits for, 122

Coke production for coal, 185

Colorado, 17, 21, 153155

Combined-cycle generation, 169170

Combustion

ecosystem, risks to, 479

health risks from, 448

Commercial feasibility for fusion, 393394

Committee on Processing and Utilization of Fossil Fuels, 180

Commonwcalth Edison, 265, 267, 270

Communist countries

consumption and production, 1960–1973, 501505

oil reserves in, 28, 30, 515518, 522

production, 1973–1977, 509

uranium reserves in, 519

Community-based utility systems, 91

CONAES.

See also Demand and Conservation Panel

advanced converters, 258

coal consumption, estimates, 186

and Energy Information Administration projections, 566

Modeling Resource Group, 5, 1112, 14, 78

and photovoltaics, 40

and radioactive waste, 35

Risk and Impact Panel, 53, 55

Solar Resource Group, 4445

Supply and Delivery Panel, 7, 9, 14, 16, 18

Synthesis Panel, 653

Uranium Resource Group, 25

Conflicts between conservation and national goals, 122123

Congenital heart disease, 444

Congress and Clinch River breeder reactor program, 255256

Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, 155

Conservation, 4, 59

effect of, 523524

of fluid fuels, 17

national energy policies, 64

and risks, 486

Conservation tax on energy, 113, 605606

political acceptability of, 115

Consultants, 654

Consumer durables, 68

Consumption

higher oil prices affecting, 508

historical changes in, 106107

in 1978, 128

U.S., 2

worldwide, 62

Consumption, Location, and Occupation Patterns Resource Group. See CLOP

Contracts and coal production, 193

Contributors, 654

Converters, 210

advanced nuclear converters. See Advanced converters

Coprocessing, 218

Cores for fast breeders, 253

Cost-benefit analysis, 484

Costs

and best available control technology, 426

of drilling, 131

energy farming, 377

geopressured reservoirs, 413414

geothermal energy resources, 410416

hot dry rock, extracting heat from, 414415

hot water reservoirs, 412413

of light water reactors, 247250

of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor, 273275

liquefied fuels from coal, 180181

methane production, 374

natural steam, 410412

normal-gradient systems, extracting heat from, 415

of nuclear fusion, 386, 394

of nuclear power, 262278

synthetic gas production, 176177

transporting oil, 504

CRBR. See Clinch River breeder reactor

Credit to developing countries, 67

Crops. See Agriculture

Crude oil. See Oil

Current Decision-Making Resource Group, 653

Page 662
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

Dams and catastrophes, 54, 459460

Death

and air pollution, 456459

cancer. See Cancer

and electricity, 423, 428429

Decay and reprocessing, 321

Decommissioning costs for nuclear power, 272

Deep mining, ecosystem risks of, 479

Demand

determinants of, 7678

moderating, 56

price elasticity of, 7778

reduction of, 56

Demand and Conservation Panel, 56, 14, 16, 134, 559

members of, 649650

results, 7999

supply and demand scenarios, 566609

Demography and demand, 7677

Denatured thorium cycle, 218

Denaturing nuclear fuel, 321322, 326

Denmark, 369

Department of Commerce, 548549

Department of Energy

coal production, 148

coal use, 183, 184

enrichment of uranium, 235

H-Coal process, 180

hot water reservoirs, development of, 398399

and liquid-metal fast breeder reactor accidents, 291

and nuclear waste disposal standards, 316

ocean thermal coversion, 377

solar energy, environmental assessment of, 366

solar space heating systems, cost of, 355356

and solar thermal conversion, 346, 365

SRC-II process plant, 179

uranium availability figures from, 213

DESOM demand projections, 602603

Deuterium, 46, 386388

Developing countries, 6667

consumption and production. 19691973, 504505

demand growth in, 521

oil price rise of 19731974, 526527

production in, 19731977, 526

trade deficits in, 526

and world financial system, 525527

Development wells, 131

Diabetes, 444

Diesel engines, 8687

Dilution of radioactive wastes, 300305

Disadvantaged consumers, goal conflicts with, 122

Diseases

cancer. See Cancer

from coal dust, 431

District heat, 98

Diversity in energy system, 347

Dodecane for reprocessing, 319

Dollar, value of, 3

Domestic oil and gas production, 4, 1720

Dominion Aluminum, Ltd., of Canada, 370

Dose-effect relationships, 50

Dosimetry, 458

Drilling, cost of, 131

income tax treatment on, 78

Drinking water, pollutants in, 425

Dust clouds from solar thermal conversion plants, 367

Earthquakes

and geothermal power, 477

and radioactive waste, 312

East Texas field, 130

EBR-I, 252

EBR-II, 252, 256

Econometric studies by Modeling Resource Group, 110114

Economics of cogeneration, 98

Economics Resource Group, 649

Ecosystem effects, 5556, 475481

Ecosystem Impacts Resource Group

on hydroelectric power, 476

members of, 650

Edison Electric Institute, 573

Efficient energy, 5, 11, 6869

Elasticity

for building projections, 544

of demand, 7778

and GNP growth, 601602

for industry, 548

Electric power plants

geothermal, 397398

health risks of, 427428

Electric Power Research Institute, 36, 170, 180, 358

Energy Modeling Forum, 102

and solar thermal conversion, 365

Electric vehicles, 8586

Electricity

and coal-fired plants, 158161

cogeneration of, 9799, 173

cost of, 1617

and demand, 30, 32, 557, 571583

in developing countries, 526

development, 1960–1973, 504

fatal accidents, 428429

Page 663
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

generated from solar energy, 364372

global perspectives, 6263

growth, 16

hydroelectric power. See Hydroelectric power

long-range perspectives, 521522

nuclear power. See Nuclear power

ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), 371372

photovoltaic conversion, 368369

price changes, effect of, 509

slowdown in consumption of, 509

and solar energy, 1011, 4043, 349350

solar heating and cooling systems,

backup for, 358

Supply and Delivery Panel on, 211213

swing fuel, coal as, 582583

tax on, 14

wind energy conversion, 369370

world consumption of, 521522

Electricity Conversion Resource Group, 651

Electrochemical systems for photochemical conversion, 379

Electrolysis, 373

Electrolytic conversion, 380

Electrostatic precipitators, 167168

Embargo and Arab-Israeli War of 1973, 507

Emergency core-cooling system, 283

Emissions, 5153

areas of no significant deterioration, 426

controls and price of energy, 121

from uranium tailings, 216

Emissions and Pathways Resource Group, 650

Emphysema, 426, 436

Endangered species, 367

Endangered Species Act, 162

Energy, Department of. See Department of Energy

Energy farms, 351, 373, 376378

Energy industry, 616

Energy Information Administration (EIA), 566

Energy input fractions, 553, 556

Energy Modeling Forum, 102

Energy prices, projection for, 539540

Energy Research and Development Administration, 355356

Energy Resource Group, 651

Energy stamps, 122

Energy storage technology, 172173

Energy supplies, 24

for near term, 1417

1975–2010, 7

and projection comparisons, 564609

Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974, 424

Energy-to-output ratios, 76

Engineering research, 116

Engineering submodels for buildings, 545

Engineers, coal mining and demand for, 187

England

coal mining in, 515

and International Fusion Research Council, 390

lung cancer in, 432

oil consumption, 1973–1977, 509

wave-energy converter research, 371

Enrichment of uranium, 235238

Enrico Fermi-I, 252

Environment

biomass production, 377

and coal use, 148

and geopressured reservoirs, 406

and GNP, 123124

hot dry rock, 407408

and hot water reservoirs, 403

low-grade uranium deposits, mining of, 520

molten magma, 409

natural steam reservoirs, 404

normal-gradient geothermal heat, 408

nuclear fusion and, 385386, 394395

ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), 371372

and price of energy, 121

relaxation of standards, 110

solar energy. See Solar energy

and underground coal gasification, 176

Environmental groups, 260262

Environmental Protection Act, 454

Environmental Protection Agency, 162

and air quality, 425

coal production, 186

and combustion, 448

creation of, 422

light water reactor exposure, 441

particulate emissions from coal, 167

and risk regulation, 424

sulfur dioxide emissions from coal, 151

and uranium fuel cycle, 422

and WASH-1400, 285

water pollution from chicken factories, 375

Epidemiological methods, 432, 456

Equipment, energy life cycle costs, 379

Erosion

and radioactive waste, 312

from solar thermal conversion plants, 367

Page 664
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

Europe

taxing policies in, 77

uranium enrichment in, 235

European Congress on the Influence of Air Pollution on Plants and Animals, 466

Excise taxes, 509

Exploratory wells, 131

Exxon Corporation, 539

Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) process, 179180

Fabric filter baghouses, 167168

Fast breeders. See Breeder reactors

Fast Flux Test Facility, 256

Fatalities. See Death

Federal leasing

coal production and, 192193

geothermal energy and, 398, 416

Federal Mines Safety and Health Act of 1977, 424

Federal Power Act, 99

Federal Power Commission, 193194

Federal Register, 425

Feedstocks, 184185

Fertile isotopes, 239

Fertilizers, wastes to replace, 376

FIFA, 251

Financing

developing countries and, 67

world banking, 527

Finding rate, 131

Fissile isotopes, 239

Fission

breeders, 210

risks of, 438443

of uranium, 214

Fissions per initial fissile atom (FIFA), 251

Flue-gas desulfurization, 164166

Fluid fuels

from solar energy, 4243

supply of, 6970

Fluidized-bed combustion, 166167, 169170

Fly-ash emissions, 458

Foil insulation on floor, 91

Food production, 375377

in competition with biomass production, 376378

Ford Foundation, 326327

Ford/Mitre Report, 463

Foreign royalties, income taxes on, 78

Forest products industry, 351

Fort Saint Vrain reactor, 246, 292

Forward costs for uranium, 229

Fossil fuels.

See also Coal;

Natural gas;

Oil risks from, 486487

France

and International Fusion Research Council, 390

oil consumption, 1973–1977, 509

uranium reserves in, 519

Freight transportation

projections for, 547

railroads. See Railroads

trucking. See Trucking

Fuel cells, 171172

Fuel cycle costs, 239, 267270

nuclear fuels. See Nuclear fuels

Fuels. See Coal;

Fossil fuels;

Natural gas;

Nuclear fuels;

Oil

Fusion. See Nuclear fusion

Fusion Assessment Resource Group, 651

Fusion-fission devices, 213

Gas. See Natural Gas

Gas-centrifuge method of uranium enrichment, 227239

Gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFBR), 38, 252253

introduction of, 255

Gas Distribution Resource Group, 652

Gaseous fuels, 583, 586

Gasification-combined-cycle plants, 170171

Gasohol motor fuel, 377

Gasoline

European taxes on, 77, 109

incentives for cconomy, 85

GCFBR. See Gas-cooled fast breeder reactor

GDP. See GNP

Geography

and demand, 7677

and international energy use statistics, 110

Geopressured reservoirs, 399, 405406, 413414

Geothermal energy, 46, 72, 397417

conclusions on, 419

and ecosystem risks, 476477

and environment, 402409

estimated heat contents, 400

and federal leasing policy, 416

geopressured reservoirs, 399, 405406, 413414

hot dry rock, 399400, 406408, 414415

hot water reservoirs, 398399, 402403, 412413

institutional problems, 416417

in integrating model, 553

molten magma, 400, 409, 415

natural steam, 399, 403404, 410412

Page 665
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

normal geothermal gradient, 399400, 408, 415

potential production scenarios, 417

producibility, 400

production costs of, 410416

and Tax policy, 416

technical considerations and, 402409

types of resources, 398400

wells drilled, 400

Geothermal Resource Group, 652

German pebble-bed reactor, 246247

Germany

cladding hulls, 307308

oil consumption, 1973–1977, 509

Geysers, 397

Geysers power plant, 399, 403404, 410412

Global climate risks, 470473

GNP, 5

appendix on, 123124

conclusions concerning, 116120

and Demand and Conservation Panel results, 80

as determinant of energy demand, 76

of developing countries, 66, 526

and energy consumption, 501

energy ratio, 62, 69

feedback from energy use to, 601602

growth of, 6, 11, 12

historical trends, 104108

international comparisons, 107110

and investment, 600

Modeling Resource Group growth projections, 599600

and moderating energy consumption, 102110

and national output, 104

and oil consumption, 509

and price elasticities, 78, 111112

projections, 535539

reduction of energy affecting, 1112, 14

slowdown in growth of, 65, 525

and use of energy, 103

Gornowski, Edward J., 620622, 630, 633635, 642

Government incentives. See Incentives

Government-supported research, 115116

Grain to produce fuels, 377

Grants mineral belt, 231233

Great Britain. See England

Greenwood, Ted, 328

Greider, B., 412413

Gross National Product. See GNP

Groundwater and radioactive waste disposal, 312

Growth rates, 501

Gulf Coast, brines of, 46, 142

Gulf’s Solvent Refined Coal 11 (SRC-II), 179

GWe-year of reactor operation, 280281

Half-life of uranium ore tailings, 298300

Hanford reservation

leaks at, 306

wastes from, 317

Harris Polls on nuclear energy, 261

Hawaii, Mini-OTEC plant in, 371

Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, 409

Health and safety

and air pollution, 455459

and carbon dioxide, 472

and coal mining, 20

death. See Death

and emissions, 52

estimating risks, 436437

GNP and protection of, 124

and high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, 292

and liquid-metal fast breeder reactors,289292

and nuclear power, 215225, 279296

public health risks, 432459

risks, 427465

synthetic liquid fuels from coal, 181

Health Effects Resource Group, 650

Heat processes, industrial, 348, 350

Heat pumps, 90

2010, projections for, 9293

Heating systems, 91

thermal efficiency. See Thermal efficiency

Heavy metals, 51

Heavy water reactors

Canadian sales of, 519520

flexibility of, 250253

recommendation for, 223

Heliostats, production of, 350

Helium, 386

High-Btu gas production, 175

High-consumption scenarios, 585

High-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), 214, 246, 254

enriched uranium for, 238

flexibility of, 250253

once-through costs, 249

recommendations for, 223, 259

safety of, 292

Hijacking of nuclear fuel, 324325

Hiroshima, 432434

Holdren, John P., 271272, 619620, 623627, 629630, 635636, 640

Homer City, Pennsylvania, 175

Hot dry rock, 399400, 406408, 414415, 476477

Page 666
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

Hot water reservoirs, 398399, 402403, 412413

Households, international comparisons, 109110

Housekeeping, improvement of, 9697

Housing

low-income housing and conservation, 122

replacement of, 11

Houthakker, Hendrik S., 620, 637

HTGR. See High-temperature gas-cooled reactor

Hudson, 606608

Hudson-Jorgenson model, 606608

HWR. See Heavy water reactors

Hybrid fusion-fission fuel cycles, 388389

Hydraulic fracturing, 407408, 415

Hydrocarbon Research, Inc.’s JH-Coal, 179180

Hydrocarbons, 51

Hydroelectric power

accidents, 430

and catastrophes, 54, 459460

committee’s recommendations, 71

destructiveness of, 55

developing countries, 6667, 526

and ecosystem risks, 476

growth in, 501

in integrating model, 553

pumped hydroelectric storage, 172173

Hydrogasification, 175176

Hydrological analysis, 5758

Hydrolysis of carbohydrates, 374

HYGAS process, 175

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, 314

Waste Calcination Facility of, 309

Illinois, 153, 157

Imperial Valley of California, 403

Imports

conclusions on, 137138

consumption of, 13

cost of, 504

demand for, 134135

by developing countries, 6667

future availability of, 134136

of natural gas, 18, 140141

in 1978, 128

and oil price rise of 1973–1974, 505508

from poor countries, 67

quotas, 505, 524

tariff on, 6465, 524

Incentives

for airlines, 86

for automobile fuel economy, 85

for cogeneration, 9899

for industry, 122

oil reserves, for recovery of, 517518

for recycling, 97

for retrofitting, 91

subsidies. See Subsidies

synthetic fuel production, 140

and underpricing, 76

INCFE. See International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation

Income and energy consumption, 602608

Income elasticities of demand, 110111

Income tax. See Taxation

Indefinitely sustainable energy sources, 3748

India, 66, 518, 526

Indian lands, leases on, 192

Indiana, 153

Indonesia, 136137

Industrial accidents and disease, 5051

Industrial heat processes, 348, 350

coal used for, 147, 182183

and geothermal energy, 397

and solar energy, 358359

Industrial plants, replacement of, 11

Industry

coal, 193195

cogeneration in, 4044, 9799

cost-benefit analyses of conservation, 121122

demand projections for, 9699

gas as preferred fuel by, 583

international comparisons, 109110

nuclear power, position on, 213

projections for, 547548

routine risks, 428

2010, projections for, 99

Industry Resource Group, 649

Inertial confinement, 389392

Inflation, 3, 508509

Insects and plant monocultures, 377

Institute of Gas Technology, 175

Institutions Resource Group, 653

Insulation, 90

increasing use of, 91

in industry, 9697

labeling of, 121

and retrofitting for solar heating, 362

Integrated utility systems, 122

Integrating model, energy consumption, 548557

Integration Resource Group, 651

International Atomic Energy Agency, 219, 390

and proliferation of nuclear weapons, 329

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 67, 527

International banking, 527

Page 667
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

International Commission on Radiological Protection, 439, 443

International Development Association, 50, 67

International Fusion Research Council, 390

International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE), 259

International Resource Group, 653

Interpanel Resource Group members, 653

Interstate Commerce Commission, 87

Investment

and GNP growth rate, 600

for nuclear power, 275

Ionized gas, 386

Ionizing radiations, 432434

Iran, 136, 518

Iraq, 135

Isolation for radioactive waste, 297298

Italy and International Fusion Research Council, 390

Japan

consumption and production, 1960–1973, 501504

energy efficiency, 77

GNP and energy use, 108

and International Fusion Research Council, 390

ionizing radiation health risks in, 432434

nuclear power, 523

oil price rise, 1973–1974, 505508

Jobs, energy investments creating, 122

Jorgenson, 606608

Karlsruhe, Germany, 308

Kentucky, 153, 157, 185

Kohn, Henry I., 623, 626, 628, 629, 640

Komanoff, 265, 267

Kuwait, 135, 527

Labels, energy consumption on, 121

Labor

and capital investments, 122

coal workers, 186190

Labor-productivity growth, 114

La Hague reprocessing plant, 309

Land reclamation and water supply, 473474

Land use

and hot water reservoirs, 403

photovoltaic conversion, 368369

solar thermal conversion plants, 366367

wind energy conversion, 369

Large Components Test Facility, 256

Laser fusion, 391

Laser separation of uranium, 236

Latin America, 135, 521

Lead and health risk, 435

Leasing. See Federal leasing

Lettuce and sulfur dioxide, 466

Leukemia, 432434

Libya, oil production, 504

Lichens and sulfur dioxide, 466

Light water reactor (LWR), 24, 2627, 211, 215, 241, 245

accidents, 282283

and availability of uranium, 234235

CANDU. See CANDU

catastrophes, 460465

costs, 247250, 273275

development of, 254256

enriched uranium for, 237238

flexibility of, 250253

fuel use by, 254

future of, 257

health risks, 440441

high-consumption scenarios, 585

and LMFBR’S, 215

plans following, 213

radioactive waste disposal, 315316

uranium consumption, 214

uranium ore tailings, 299

Linked vertical well method, 176

Liquid fuels

from coal, 178182

demand projections for, 583, 587

Liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). 28, 30, 215, 254255

add-on costs, 271

committee’s recommendation for, 70

costs of, 273275

development of, 3334, 38

necessity for, 622623

recommendation for, 222223, 258259

safety of, 289292

Liquefied natural gas, 18, 31, 142

accidents, 54

hazards in shipping, 459

Lischer, Ludwig F., 282, 622623, 624629, 634637

Lithium, 387388

LMFBR. See Liquid-metal fast breeder reactor

LNG. See Liquefied natural gas

Loans

to developing countries, 67

for retrofitting, 91

LOCA. See Loss-of-coolant accident

Los Angeles Basin, agriculture in, 466

Loss-of-coolant accident, 282283, 286

with high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, 292

Louisiana, brine deposits, 405

Page 668
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

Low-Btu gas production, 174

Low-growth oil-import demand scenarios. 134

Low-income housing and conservation goals, 122

Lurgi process, 175

LWR. See Light water reactor

Magnetic confinement and fusion, 389390

Magnetic mirror experiments, 390

Magnetohydrodynamic generation technology, 172

Major fuel burning installations, 183

Mandatory standards, 79

for appliances, 90

for buildings, 90

research, 116

Manganese, 457

Marcoule reprocessing plant, 309

Market guarantees

oil shale, 138

synthetic fuels, 139

Mass transportation, 547

Materials science, 366367, 395

Maximum-solar scenario, 562

Measure of Economic Welfare (MEW) and GNP, 123124

Mechanical collectors for particulate control systems, 167

Medium-Btu gas production, 174

Meltdown, 284

estimates for damages from, 462

with liquid-metal fast breeder reactors, 292

Methane, 351, 374

Methodology for projections, 544557

Mexico, 135136

importing natural gas from, 142

oil exploration in, 518

Microwave beams in space solar systems, 372

Middle East

natural gas exports, 522

oil reserves in, 515518

trade surplus, 523

uranium exports, 522

Miles per gallon

advertising figures for, 85

standards for, 79

by 2010, 85

Military radioactive wastes, reprocessing, 301306

Milora, S.L., 413, 415

Minimum energy-use scenario, 557559

Mining engineers, 187

Missed accident sequences, 284

Modeling Resource Group, 102, 530

and demand projections, 593609

econometric studies by, 110114

and GNP growth, 537538

limitations on results of, 113114

members of, 653

Models, 529532

for buildings, 544546

and carbon dioxide, 473

of electricity rates, 211213

energy consumption, integrating model. 548557

for industry, 547548

simulation models, 545

of Supply and Delivery Panel, 559564

transportation projections, 546547

Moderately enhanced conditions scenario, 132134

Modified in situ process, 138139

Molten magma, 400, 409, 415

Molten-salt breeder reactor (MSBR), 38, 246

Monetary policies and inflation, 508509

Montana, 153155, 157, 194

Mosses and sulfur dioxide, 466

Mount Lassen National Park, 404

MPG. See Miles per gallon

MSBR. See Molten-salt breeder reactor

Municipal waste processing. See Biomass

Mutation, 444

Nagasaki, 432434

National Academy of Sciences

and nuclear reactor safety, 279

and sabotage of nuclear facilities, 292293

National Aerometric Data Bank, 452

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), 162

National commitment scenario, 132134

geothermal energy production, 417

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 439, 443

National economy, moderating consumption affecting, 102115

National Energy Act of 1978, 202, 474

National Energy Plan of 1977, 5657

coal use, 158160

water requirements of, 202

National energy policies, 6465

National Environmental Policy Act, 162

and ecosystem, 475

National Historic Preservation Act, 162

National output and GNP, 104

National Research Council, 180

Natural gas, 6364, 513

accidents, 430

in brine deposits, 405406

Page 669
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

coal producing, 160

ecosystem risks, 480

Energy Information Administration projections, 564

exporters of, 522

and geopressured reservoirs, 414

growth in, 501

imports of, 140141

liquefied (LNG). See Liquefied natural gas

and oil demand, 569

price increases for, 582

production of, 18

projections for prices, 539

reserves, 515

risk factors, 60

supply of, 140144

synthetic. See Synthetic fuels

transportation of, 515

from unconventional sources, 142, 619

Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, 184

Natural Resources Defense Council, 192

Natural steam reservoirs, 399, 403404, 410412

Netherlands, 390, 509

New Source Performance Standards, 166

Nigeria, 136137, 504

1973 oil embargo, 77

Nitrogen fertilizer production, 369

Nitrogen oxides, 51, 166167

No significant deterioration areas, emissions, 426

No-threshold dose-effect curve, 481

Non-Proliferation Treaty, 219, 328, 330, 332, 335

Nordhaus, W., 123124

Nordhaus models of demand, 602604

Normal-gradient geothermal heat, 399400, 408, 415

North American Coal, 195

North Dakota, 153155

North Sea, 135136

natural gas from, 509, 515

oil discoveries in, 517518

Norway, 467468

Nuclear Converters and Fuel Cycle Resource Group, 652

Nuclear Energy Policy Study Group and WASH-1400, 285286

Nuclear explosives, 407

Nuclear fuels.

See also Plutonium;

Uranium

Civex cycle, 322324

denaturing, 321322

ecosystem risks from mining, 481

for fast breeder reactors, 252

and health risks, 442

reprocessing, 65, 522, 524525;

through breeder reactors, 214;

illegal diversion

during, 218219;

for light water

reactors, 215;

technological designs for, 223224;

wastes from, 218

safeguards for, 318326

safety of, 279296

spent nuclear fuel, 318319

substituted for electricity, 570

theft of, 324325

Nuclear fusion, 385396

conclusions, 396

costs of, 394

criteria for deployment of, 393395

development of, timetable, 393395

fuel cycles, 387389

heat and confinement, 389392

hybrid fusion-fission fuel cycles, 388389

inertial confinement, 389392

magnetic confinement, 389390

program for, 395

reaction, 386

reference designs for, 395

Nuclear power, 4, 15, 2437, 210239

accelerator breeders, 213

accidents, 5355, 216217, 281289

add-on costs, 271272

advanced converters. See Advanced converters

balanced with coal, 70

breeder reactor. See Breeder reactors

capital costs, 264265

catastrophes, 460463

and climatic changes, 58

and coal, 163164, 213

colocation of facilities, 336

conclusions, 220222

costs of, 262278

demand projections, 570

developing countries and, 6667, 526

diversion of, 218220

ecological effect of, 56, 481

electricity, demand for, 30, 32, 521522

in energy-consumption integrating model, 553

Energy Information Administration projections, 564

escalation of costs, 265266

fast breeder reactors. See Breeder reactors

fuels. See Nuclear fuels

fusion. See Nuclear fusion

fusion-fission devices, 213

growth in, 226227, 501, 504

health risks, 438444

heavy water reactors. See Heavy water reactors

Page 670
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

hybrid fusion-fission fuel cycles, 388389

International Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Evaluation (INFCE), 218

international safeguards, 525

issues, 25

large-scale accidents, 5355

light water reactors. See Light water reactor

loss-of-coolant accident, 282283

normal operational safety, 281

plant capacity, 266267

plutonium. See Plutonium

proliferation as problem, 218220, 225, 326338

public opinion on, 3637, 260262

radioactive waste. See Radioactive wastes

recommendations of committee, 222225

regulation of plants, 278279

risks, 6061, 272, 487488

routine operation, risks from, 443444

sabotage, 5355, 292294

safety of, 215225, 279296

scenarios for growth, 226227

stockpiles of weapons, 219

thermal breeders, 215

Three Mile Island. See Three Mile Island

trade deficits and, 523

transuranic wastes, 224

uranium. See Uranium

wastes. See Radioactive wastes

weapons. See Nuclear weapons

world perspectives on, 523

worldwide investment in, 523

Nuclear Regulatory Administration, 424, 461

Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 36, 53, 278279

costs and health risks, 443

licensing process, 425

light water reactor exposure, 441

and liquid-metal fast breeder reactor, 291292

and radioactive waste standards, 316

and security for transporting fuel, 325

Nuclear Regulatory Commission Act of 1975, 424

Nuclear Safety Analysis Center, 36

Nuclear weapons, 3234

and enrichment of uranium, 235236

fusion devices and, 47

hybrid fusion-fission fuel cycles and, 388389

manufacture of, 27

proliferation of, 71, 326338, 524525

wastes from production, 224225

Occupational exposure to radiation, 439

Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 424

Ocean, biomass production in, 377

Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), 42, 56, 346, 371372

and ecosystem risks, 478

Ocean waves, energy from, 371

Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), 188189

Offshore drilling, 524

Offshore oil exploration, 517

Ohio, 153, 157

Oil

accidents, 430

combustion of, 450

conventional oil reserves, 517, 522

demand, 137

depletion allowance, 77

ecosystem risks of,480

embargo, 1973, 77

entitlements scheme, 121, 524

estimates of recoverable resources, 517518

exploration boom, 518

global perspectives on production of, 63

high-cost reserves, 517518, 522

imports. See Imports

long-range perspectives, 521

offshore exploration, 517

price controls. See Price controls

price increase of 1973–1974, 505508, 526527

problem of, 618

production peak in 1990s, 129

projection for price of, 539

projections for production of,130134

reserves, 17, 129130, 515518

resources, 129

risk factors, 60

supply of, 128144

synthetic fuels, 180181

world production, 136138, 500505, 521

Oil depletion allowance, 77

Oil shale, 19, 56, 138139, 480, 513, 517, 564

Oil spills, 480

Once-through fuel cycles, 214, 248249

OPEC. See Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 62

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 63, 135, 137

conservation policies affecting, 523524

and conservation tax, 605606

developing countries and, 526

Page 671
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

dominance of, 518

exports, 1969–1973, 505

formation of, 507

long-range perspectives, 521522

prices controlled by, 522

production, 1973–1977, 509

Soviet resources and, 522

trade deficit and, 67

U.S. national energy policy and, 523525

OTA. See Office of Technology Assessment

OTEC. See Ocean thermal energy conversion

Output resource group, 652

Ozone, 453

and spinach, 467

and tobacco, 466467

Papadopulos, S.S., 405

Particulates, 51

from coal, 167168

Pebble-bed reactor, 246247

Pennsylvania, 153, 155, 157

Per capita energy consumption, 62

Perl, L.J., 267, 270

Persian Gulf production, 1960–1973, 504

Personal Income in developing countries, 525526

Petrochemical feedstocks, 184185, 513

Petroleum. See Oil

Petroleum Resource Group, 653

Phosphate, uranium as byproduct of, 520

Photochemical conversion, 373, 378380

oxidants and plant life, 466

to produce fluid fuels, 4243

Photolysis, 378

Photovoltaic conversion, 4041, 368369

Photovoltaic solar cells, 346

Physical research, 116

Pinto beans and pollution, 466

Pittsburg coal bed, 153

Pittston Corp., 195

Plankton, 371

Plant life, risks to, 465467

Plant monocultures, 377

Plasma, 386, 388390,395

Plutonium, 27

Civex cycle, 322324

ecosystem risks from mining of, 481

for LMFBR, 215

wastes. See Radioactive wastes

Pneumoconiosis, 431

Poland, coal resources, 513

Polar ice, melting of, 473

Political risks, 484485

Pollution

air pollution. See Air pollution

and biomass production, 377

and coal conversion,140

coal producing, 20

and electric vehicles, 85

synthetic liquid fuels, 181

water pollution. See Water pollution

Population

and demand, 7677

exposure to radiation, 439

projection of growth, 534535

and public transportation, 8990

Potatoes and sulfur dioxide, 466

Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978, 21, 148, 158,161, 183

Pre-irradiation, 326

President’s National Energy Plan of 1977, 474

Pressurized-water reactor (PWR), 245

Price

controls. See Price controls

and demand for oil, 137

elasticity of, 14, 7778, 110112

for electricity, 1617

GNP and behavior of, 107

increase for oil, 56

rise of 1973–1974, 505508

smooth rise of, 121

Price-Anderson Act, 347

Price-Anderson insurance, 271

Price controls, 143144, 509, 520521

effect of, 6465

elimination of, 121

national energy policy, 524

Price-induced shifts toward less energy-intensive goods and services, 5

Projections, 7, 9, 11, 544557

Property taxes and solar energy systems, 356357

Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, 14, 130

Public health risks, 432459

Public opinion

on energy standards, 490

on nuclear power, 215216, 260262

and risks, 482483

Public transportation

buses, 90

car pools, 90

in foreign countries, 109

population and, 8990

van pools, 90, 547

Public utilities. See Utilities

Public Utility Holding Company Act, 99

Publications of CONAES study, 656657

Pulmonary fibrosis, 431

Pulmonary heart disease,436

Pumped hydroelectric storage, 172173

Purex, 319

Pyrolysis, 178179, 374

Page 672
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

Quadrillion Btu (quads)

for buildings, 90

for cogeneration, 9798

transportation, use of, 84

Radiation

and coal use, 53

dose-effect relationships, 50

from fusion reactors, 387388

health risks, 432434

of reprocessed nuclear fuel, 320

and safety, 279296

Radioactive wastes, 3436, 210, 215225

alpha-active wastes, 301

and Atomic Energy Commission, 314315

bunkers for storing, 314

Civex cycle, 322324

denaturing, 321322

disposal, treatment for, 307309

environmental protection program for, 224

and fusion, 47

hazards of disposing, 311314

health risks from disposal of, 447448

isolation requirements, 297298

management of, 25, 296318

public concern, 218

reprocessing, 300305;

military wastes, 301306;

safeguards for, 319321

spent fuel as, 306307

standards for, 316

theft of, 324325

transuranic wastes, 224

treatment for disposal, 307309

types of, 298307

underground repositories for, 310311

from weapons, 224225

Raffinates, 300

Railroads

coal, transportation of, 195196

efficiency projections for, 8687

international comparisons, 109

lands, 193

Thermal efficiency of, 106

Rain

acid precipitation, 467468

and air pollution, 458

Rasmussen Report. See WASH-1400

Reactor Safety Review Group, 54

Reactor safety study, 53, 283289, 295296

on liquid-metal fast breeder reactors, 291

Reactors. See Nuclear power

Recession, 4

and GNP growth rate, 599600

of 1974–1975, 508509

Recycling

in industry, 97

for light water reactors, 249250

Reed, 404

Reference designs for nuclear fusion program, 395

Refining synthetic liquid fuels, 181

Refrigerators, efficiency of, 90

Regional development banks, 67, 527

Registration fees for automobiles, 85

Regulations

enforcement of, 425

and fission pollution levels, 449454

of nuclear power plants, 278279

and risk, 424427, 483484

Reistad, G.M., 407, 414

Rental housing and conservation goals, 122

Reprocessing

nuclear power. See Nuclear power

radioactive wastes. See Radioactive wastes

Research and development

biomass technologies, 372373

coal. See Coal

in conservation technology, 115116

geothermal energy, 398

nuclear fusion, 385386

solar electricity, 365

of solar energy, 352

solar fuel production, 372373

synthetic gas from coal, 177

wave energy converters, 371

Reserves-to-production ratio, 130

Resource Conservation and Energy Act of 1976, 424

Respirable mass sampler, 431

Retrofitting, 362364

advantages of, 91

of buildings, 9091

for heating systems, 91

Risk and Impact Panel

on carbon dioxide, 471

and health risks, 427

and high-temperature gas-cooled

reactors, 292

and land reclamation, 474

members of, 651652

on nuclear accidents, 217

solar energy, 366

WASH-1400, 284285

water supply, consumption of, 200202

Risks, 422499

accidents. See Accidents

to agriculture, 463467

assessments, 7071

catastrophes, 459463

control, limits of, 485486

death. See Death

Page 673
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

defined, 423427

to ecosystem, 475481

of energy systems, 4861

health risks, 427463

industrial, routine, 428

limitations in assessing, 481482

for nuclear power, 272

perception of, 482483

public health risks, 432459

and regulation, 424, 483484

total risk assessment, 424

to water supply, 473475

Rooftop solar collectors, 477

Rose, David J., 623626, 641

Routine reactor operations, 443446

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, 326

Rural Electric Associations, 331

Sabotage, 5355, 292294

Safety. See Health and safety

Salt mines, storing radioactive waste in, 314315

Samuels, G., 200

Saudi Arabia, 135136, 527

Savannah River nuclear plant, 312

Sawdust as energy source, 569

Scenario Resource Group, 654

Schultz, R.J., 413

Scientific feasibility for fusion, 393

Security measures for nuclear fuel, 324325

SEFOR, 252

Seismic disturbances. See Earthquakes

Seismicity and hydraulic fracturing, 408

Separative work units (SWU’s), 236237

Severe genetic defects, 444

Shale oil, 19, 56, 138139, 480, 513, 517, 564

Shenandoah solar total energy system, Georgia, 366

Shipping

of nuclear fuel, 324325

oil, risks, 480

Shortages

of oil and gas, 143

and standard of living, 102

Simulation models for building projections, 545

Skytherm House in Atascadero, California, 360

Slurry pipelines for coal, 196

Small businesses and conservation goal conflicts, 122

Smoking, 435436

Social equity and conservation, 122123

Social risks, 484485

Sociopolitical issues, 5859

Solar energy, 3946, 345346

active systems, 345, 355357, 359362

and add-on costs, 271

advantages of, 347

biomass. See Biomass

building designs using, 90, 359362

and building standards, 361

cadmium sulfide cells, 368

categories of, 345346

and climatic changes, 5758

collectors, 355358

committee’s recommendation, 71

conclusions, 380382

consumer decisions, 353354

cooling by, 349

costs, 347, 351352;

building designs and, 361362;

collectors, 355356;

installation costs in existing buildings, 362363;

installed space heating systems, 355357;

ocean thermal conversion, 371;

photovoltaic conversion, 368369;

water heating systems, 354355

design of buildings for, 359362

direct thermal use of, 3940, 345346, 352362

domestic water heating, 363

economics of, 352353, 381382

and ecosystem risks, 477478

electric technologies, 346

and electricity, 4042, 349350, 358, 364372, 382, 521

electrolysis, 373

electrotytic conversion, 380

energy-conserving designs, 359362

environment and health, 347;

photovoltaic generators, 369;

thermal conversion plants, 366367;

wind energy conversion, 370

existing buildings, retrofitting for, 362364

federal tax credit for, 354

fluid fuels, production of, 4243

fuels, production of, 346, 372380, 382

government’s role in, 382

greenhouses added to existing structures, 363

heating by, 349, 381

high-energy scenario, 348351

incentives for, 354

and industrial heat process, 358359

for industry, 548

insulation, 362

in integrating model, 553

leak tightening, 362

life-cycle costs of heating system, 353354

and long-term development, 352, 381

Page 674
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

low-energy scenario, 348

maximum-solar scenario, 562

ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), 371372

passive systems, 345346, 355, 359362

photochemical conversion, 373, 378380

photovoltaic conversion, 368369, 562

prefabricated units, 356

private industry and, 382

repowering of existing plants, 366

research and development, 352365

retrofitting for, 362364

risk factors, 61, 488489

semiconductor technology, 368

silicon cells, 368

space-based, 372

space heating and cooling, 352, 355358

steam-producing collectors, 359

subsidies, 347348

thermal conversion, 41, 346, 350, 365368

thermochemical conversion, 373, 380

total energy systems, 349350, 366, 368

2010, projection for, 92

water heating, 354355

wind energy conversion, 369370

Solar Energy Research Institute, 355356

Solar photovoltaics, 368369, 562

Solar Resource Group, 652

agricultural wastes, amount of energy in, 375

on building projections, 546

and solar space cooling, 357

and wind energy conversion, 370

Solar space cooling, 352, 355358

Solar thermal central station power plant, 45, 346, 350, 365368

counterproductiveness of, 382

as demonstration program, 352

environmental assessment of, 366367

Solvent-extraction processes, 178179

South Africa

SASOL plants in, 178

uranium reserves in, 518520

Southern California Edison, 170

Southwest and solar thermal conversion plants, 366368

Soviet Union, 135

and International Fusion Research Council, 390

long-range perspectives, 522

natural gas in, 522

uranium reserves in, 519

Space heating and brine deposits, 399

and geothermal energy, 397, 400

and solar energy, 352, 355358

Space, solar energy systems in, 372

Spectral-shift-control reactor (SSCR), 245, 247

fuel utilization, 254

Spent nuclear fuel, 306307, 318319

Spinach and ozone, 467

Spinrad, Bernard I., 618, 623625, 628, 631, 637638, 640641

Stack gas scrubbers, 124

Standard of living, 102

Standards. See Mandatory standards

Staten Island natural gas disaster, 459

Steam

by-product steam marketing, 98

cogeneration of, 9799

natural steam reservoirs, 399, 403404, 410412

Stellarators, 390

Stirling engines, 87

Stockpiles of nuclear weapons, 219, 335

Storm windows, 91

Stowaway fuel cycle, 309

Subsidence and geopressured reservoirs, 406

Subsidies, 7576, 78

and add-on costs for nuclear power, 271272

elimination of, 121

foreign royalties, income tax on, 78

and geothermal energy, 398

oil depletion allowance, 77

oil shale, 138

for retrofitting, 91

for solar energy, 347348

synthetic fuels, 140

Sulfates, 51, 456

Sulfur dioxides, 164166

from coal, 151

and plant life, 466

risks, 456

Sulfur and nitrogen oxides, 51

Sun, temperatures of, 386

Supply and Delivery Panel, 131, 531533

electricity, demand for, 211213

geothermal energy production, 417

members of, 651652

oil shale reports, 138

projections of, 559566

uranium production rates, 213

world production estimates, 135

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, 191192, 424

Surface retorting techniques, 138139

Sweden

acid precipitation in, 467468

GDP and energy use, 108

household energy use in, 109110

Page 675
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

industrial energy use in, 109110

uranium resources, 520

Swing fuel, coal as, 582583

Swink, D.G., 413

SWU. See Separative work units

Synthetic fuels, 4, 16, 56, 69

coal conversion, 143

derived from coal, 139140, 173178

ecosystem risks and, 479

Energy Information Administration projections, 564

and high-consumption scenarios, 585

Synthesis Panel, 654

Tacoma, Washington, 179

Tailings. See Uranium

Tar sands, 512513, 517

Tariffs

on imported oil, 6465

synthetic fuels production, 139

Taxation

conservation tax, 113, 115, 605606

on energy, 77, 605608

gasohol exempt from, 377

and geothermal energy, 398, 416

and recycling, 97

solar energy systems, 354, 356

solar heating systems, credit for, 347

Technical efficiency, 5, 11, 6869

Technical terms, glossary of, 643648

Technology

capital availability for development of, 111112

feasibility for fusion, 393

research and, 115116

Television reception and wind-turbine interference, 370

Temperature and carbon dioxide, 471472

Terrorists and nuclear power, 210

Tester, J.W., 413, 415

Texaco, 170

Texas, 155

brine deposits in, 405

Texas Railroad Commission, 78

Theft of nuclear fuel, 324325

Thermal breeders, 215

Thermal efficiency, 104105

Thermal leak tightening, 362

Thermal performance standards, 79

Thermal systems. See Heating systems

Thermochemical processes, 373, 380

Thermonuclear fusion, 4648, 72

Thorex, 319

Thorium, 27, 66, 214215

breeders generating, 215

denatured thorium cycle, 218

Three Mile Island, 36, 217, 289, 460461

contaminated water from, 282

and mechanical failure, 482

and Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 279

and perception of risks, 483

public opinion, 260

and risk costs, 272

Th-U fuel cycle, 239241, 245

Tobacco and ozone, 466467

Tobin, J., 123124

Tokamaks, 389390

Total energy production in U.S., 12

Total primary energy use, 559

Towse, D.F., 412413

Tradeoffs in energy, 79, 121

Transportation, 8490

air travel. See Air Travel

automobiles. See Automobiles

of coal, 195197

demand projections for, 8790

international comparisons, 109

of natural gas, 141142

projections, 546547

public transportation. See Public transportation

railroads. See Railroads

truck freight. See Trucking

Transportation Resource Group, 650

Trees and solar power, 477

Tributyl phosphate for reprocessing, 319

Tritium, 386387

Trucking

efficiency projections for, 8687

international comparisons, 109

projections for, 547

Uncontrolled class of pollutants, 452453

Underground coal gasification, 176

Underground mining

accidents, 430432

ccosystem risks of, 479

Underground repositories for nuclear waste, 310311

Underpricing of energy, 76

Unemployment and GNP, 537

Union of Concerned Scientists, 285

United Arab Emirates, 527

United Mine Workers of America (UMW), 187

United States

crude oil production, 19601973, 501

energy trade deficit, 523

GNP, slowdown in growth of, 525

and International Fusion Research Council, 390

national energy policies, 523525

oil consumption, 1973–1977, 509

oil exploration in, 518

Page 676
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

and oil price rise of 1973–1974, 505508

oil reserves in, 515, 517

price control, 520521

production and consumption, 1960–1973, 500505

trade deficit, 523

uranium exports, 522

uranium reserves in, 518519

Uranium, 2526, 63, 513

availability of, 213, 227239

breeder reactors and, 525

for CANDU advanced converter, 215

cascading of, 329

costs of, 270

denaturing, 321322

in developing countries, 526

ecosystem risks from mining, 481

enrichment, 65, 235238

exploration for, 231234

export of, 64, 523

growth in requirements for, 226227

international cartel, 520

laser separation of, 236

for light water breeder reactor, 214215

limiting exports of, 523

long-range perspectives, 522

low-grade mineralizations, 520

lung cancer in miners, 432

mining hazards, 216

national energy policy and, 524525

price of, 63, 65, 522, 524525

reprocessing. See Nuclear power

reserves, 518520

resources, 2526

Soviet reserves, 513

tailings, 298301, 623;

through CANDU reactor, 214;

and enrichment, 236;

environmental protection program, 224;

as health risk, 623;

for LMFBR’S, 215;

radioactive emissions from, 216

timetable for expansion of discovery, 233234

wastes. See Radioactive wastes

world resources in, 518520

Uranium Resource Group, 213, 229, 233234

URENCO and enrichment programs, 235

Useful life of equipment, 103

U.S. Geological Survey, 310311, 400

U.S.G.S. Circular 726, 403405

U.S.S.R. See Soviet Union

Utilities

community-based systems, 9091

contracts and geothermal energy, 398

district heat, 98

and geothermal energy, 416

and nuclear costs, 264

Van pools, 90

Vans, projections for, 547

Vegetables and pollution, 466

Venezuela, 135137

Venezuelan oil, 63, 507, 517

Virginia, 157

Volcanoes and radioactive waste, 312

Wall insulation. See Insulation

WASH-740, 261

WASH-1400, 5354, 283289

and catastrophe, 461463

and mechanical failure, 482

Rasmussen Report, 283289

Waste. See Radioactive wastes

Waste Calcination Facility of Idaho Reprocessing Plant, 309

Waste-heat recovery in industry, 9697

Waste management, 55

Water heating and solar energy, 354355

Water pollution

from chicken factories, 375

and GNP, 123

hot water reservoirs and, 403

Water supply, 2021, 5657

and coal, 140, 147, 197203

consumption of, 197200

and energy farming, 377

estimating permissible consumption levels, 200, 203

geothermal resources as, 416

national data bank, 197, 203

National Energy Plan of 1977 and, 202

precipitation, 197198

and radioactive waste disposal, 313, 447

risks to, 467475, 488

runoff, 197198

and solar thermal conversion plants, 367

Weapons. See Nuclear weapons

Weeden, S.L., 414

West Germany

freight transportation in, 109

GNP and energy use, 108

and International Fusion Research Council, 390

lignite in, 513

West Virginia, 153, 157, 185

Western Europe

coal mining in, 513515

and oil price rise of 1973–1974, 505508

oil reserves in, 517

production and consumption, 1960–1973, 500505

Page 677
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×

Wet scrubbers, 167, 168

Wildlife and solar thermal conversion plants, 367

Wind energy conversion, 349350, 369370

Wind power, 41, 346, 478

Work-force participation, 535, 537

Working Group in HTGR Safety, 292

World banking system and developing countries, 527

World Energy Conference, 513

World energy perspectives, 6264, 520523

World energy production and

consumption, 1960–1973, 500505

1973–1977, 509

World oil situation, 136138

World recoverable energy reserves, 513

Wyodak coal bed, 155

Wyoming, 153155, 157, 194

Wyoming Basins uranium deposit, 231233

Yellowstone National Park, 403404

Zero energy growth and GNP, 112

Zirconium and cladding hulls, 307

Page 657
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
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Page 657
Page 658
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×
Page 658
Page 659
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
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Page 659
Page 660
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
×
Page 660
Page 661
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
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Page 661
Page 662
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
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Page 662
Page 663
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
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Page 663
Page 664
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
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Page 664
Page 665
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
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Page 665
Page 666
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
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Page 666
Page 667
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
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Page 667
Page 668
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
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Page 668
Page 669
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
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Page 669
Page 670
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
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Page 670
Page 671
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Page 671
Page 672
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Page 672
Page 673
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
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Page 673
Page 674
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
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Page 674
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1980. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11771.
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Page 675
Page 676
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Page 676
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Page 677
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