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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11849.
×

Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment

Committee on Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment

Board on Army Science and Technology

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11849.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

500 FIFTH STREET, N.W. Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract No. W911NF-06-C-0041 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

Cover: Shown clockwise from upper center are representative types of equipment used in disassembly of chemical munitions and containers: (1) a munitions demilitarization machine, (2) a bulk drain station, (3) a transfer conveyor and mine machine, and (4) a fuzewell assembly removal station on the mine machine. Photographs taken at the Chemical Demilitarization Training Facility in Edgewood, Maryland, and provided courtesy of Colin Drury.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11849.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine


The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.


The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.


The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.


The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.


www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11849.
×

CCOMMITTEE ON CONTINUING OPERABILITY OF CHEMICAL AGENT DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT

ELISABETH M. DRAKE, Chair,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (retired), Cambridge, Massachusetts

OTIS A. SHELTON, Vice Chair,

Praxair Inc., Danbury, Connecticut

JAMES L. BACON,

Development Alliance of Jefferson County, Arkansas

ROBERT L. CATTOI,

Rockwell International Corporation (retired), Dallas, Texas

COLIN G. DRURY,

University of Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York

J. ROBERT GIBSON,

Gibson Consulting LLC, Wilmington, Delaware

DAVID A. HOECKE,

Enercon Systems Inc., Elyria, Ohio

PETER B. LEDERMAN,

Hazardous Substance Management Research Center, New Jersey Institute of Technology (retired), New Providence, New Jersey

CHARLES I. McGINNIS, MG U.S. Army (retired),

Charlottesville, Virginia

A. CHARLES ROWNEY, ACR LLC,

Longwood, Florida

Staff

HARRISON T. PANNELLA, Study Director (September 2006 to February 2007)

ROBERT J. LOVE, Study Director (January 2006 to August 2006)

NIA D. JOHNSON, Research Associate

ALEXANDER R. REPACE, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11849.
×

BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

MALCOLM R. O’NEILL, Chair,

Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired), Vienna, Virginia

HENRY J. HATCH, Vice Chair,

Army Chief of Engineers (retired), Oakton, Virginia

RAJ AGGARWAL,

Rockwell Collins, Cedar Rapids, Iowa

SETH BONDER,

The Bonder Group, Ann Arbor, Michigan

NORVAL L. BROOME, MITRE

Corporation (retired), Suffolk, Virginia

JAMES CARAFANO,

The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C.

ROBERT L. CATTOI,

Rockwell International Corporation (retired), Dallas, Texas

DARRELL W. COLLIER,

U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (retired), Leander, Texas

ALAN H. EPSTEIN,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

ROBERT R. EVERETT,

MITRE Corporation (retired), New Seabury, Massachusetts

WILLIAM R. GRAHAM,

National Security Research Inc. (retired), San Marino, California

PETER F. GREEN,

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

CARL GUERRERI,

Electronic Warfare Associates Inc., Herndon, Virginia

M. FREDERICK HAWTHORNE,

University of California, Los Angeles

CLARENCE W. KITCHENS,

Science Applications International Corporation, Vienna, Virginia

LARRY LEHOWICZ,

Quantum Research International, Arlington, Virginia

JOHN W. LYONS,

U.S. Army Research Laboratory (retired), Ellicott City, Maryland

EDWARD K. REEDY,

Georgia Tech Research Institute (retired), Atlanta

DENNIS J. REIMER,

DFI International, Washington, D.C.

WALTER D. SINCOSKIE,

Telcordia Technologies Inc., Morristown, New Jersey

JUDITH L. SWAIN,

University of California, San Diego

WILLIAM R. SWARTOUT,

Institute for Creative Technologies, Marina del Rey, California

EDWIN L. THOMAS,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

BARRY M. TROST,

Stanford University, Stanford, California

Staff

BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director

DETRA BODRICK-SHORTER, Administrative Coordinator

CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate

DEANNA P. SPARGER, Program Administrative Coordinator

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11849.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11849.
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Preface

As the timeline for destruction of chemical weapons lengthens, there is concern that destruction facilities may face growing operational problems from processing a deteriorating stockpile with aging equipment. The challenges of continuing operability and the threat of obsolescence cannot be ignored. We would like to thank the committee for its hard work in visiting, interviewing, and assessing pertinent issues at each of the incineration sites, and for developing findings and recommendations to address these concerns.

The committee in turn is grateful to the Chemical Materials Agency, its staff, field offices, and site contractors for the timely and useful information they provided. We also greatly appreciate the support and assistance of the National Research Council (NRC) staff who ably assisted the committee in its fact-finding activities and in the production of this report.

The study was conducted under the auspices of the National Research Council’s Board on Army Science and Technology (BAST). The BAST was established in 1982 as a unit of the National Research Council at the request of the United States Army. The BAST brings to bear broad military, industrial, and academic scientific, engineering, and management expertise on Army technical challenges and other issues of importance to senior Army leaders. The board discusses potential studies of interest; develops and frames study tasks; ensures proper project planning; suggests potential committee members and reviewers for reports produced by fully independent ad hoc study committees; and convenes meetings to examine strategic issues. Board members with appropriate expertise are sometimes nominated to serve as formal members of study committees, or as report reviewers. The board members listed in this report were not asked to endorse the committee’s conclusions or recommendations, nor did they review the final draft of this report before its release.

Elisabeth Drake, Chair

Otis Shelton, Vice Chair

Committee on Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11849.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:


Joan B. Berkowitz, Farkas Berkowitz & Company,

Michael Crandall, University of Washington,

Deborah Grubbe, British Petroleum (BP) PLC,

Allen F. Grum, Army Research Laboratory (retired),

Dennis C. Hendershot, Chilworth Technology Inc.,

Neal Langerman, Advanced Chemical Safety Inc.,

Richard S. Magee, Carmagen Engineering Inc.,

Douglas M. Medville, MITRE (retired),

George W. Parshall, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company (retired),

Joseph E. Pecoraro, Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Corporation, and

Robert B. Puyear, Consultant, Chesterfield, Missouri.


Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Henry J. Hatch, Army Chief of Engineers (retired). Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11849.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11849.
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 Personnel Management,

 

33

   

 Knowledge Sharing,

 

33

   

 Personnel Retention,

 

34

   

 Personnel Training and Procedures,

 

35

   

 Incorporating Human Factors into Changes,

 

35

   

 Site-Specific Issues,

 

36

   

 At TOCDF,

 

36

   

 At PBCDF,

 

36

   

 At NECDF,

 

37

   

 Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (ACWA) Facility Design and Operations Applications,

 

37

   

 References,

 

37

4

 

INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

 

38

   

 Overview,

 

38

   

 Planning and Decision Making,

 

38

   

 Detailed Obsolescence Assessment of Disposal Site Information Management,

 

39

   

 Physical Facilities,

 

39

   

 Commercially Available Software,

 

41

   

 Software Development,

 

43

5

 

PROGRAMWIDE INFLUENCES ON CONTINUING OPERABILITY

 

45

   

 Program Management,

 

45

   

 Evolution of the Present Program Management Structure,

 

45

   

 Army CMA/Field Office/System Contractor Interactions,

 

48

   

 Effects of Shifting Site Responsibility Largely to Contractor,

 

49

   

 Obsolescence Management,

 

49

   

 Organizational Management and Specialized Expertise Resources,

 

50

   

 Performance Indicators, Incentives, and Their Effectiveness,

 

50

   

 Command, Control, and Communications Channels,

 

51

   

 Lessons Learned,

 

51

   

 Configuration Management,

 

51

   

 Funding,

 

51

   

 Impacts on Closure,

 

52

   

 Community and Regulatory Issues,

 

53

   

 References,

 

53

 

 

APPENDIXES

 

 

   

 A  Committee Meetings and Sites Visits

 

57

   

 B  Volatility Characteristics of Information Management and Technology Systems

 

59

   

 C  Biographical Sketches of Committee Members

 

61

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11849.
×

Tables, Figures, and Boxes

TABLES

S-1

 

Tier-Level Hierarchy for Related Recommendations,

 

5

1-1

 

Stockpile Sites and Disposal Status as of January 2006,

 

11

1-2

 

Tier-Level Hierarchy for Related Recommendations,

 

14

FIGURES

1-1

 

Conceptual framework for achieving continuing operability,

 

12

2-1

 

Schematic of the baseline incineration system,

 

17

2-2

 

Schematic of chemical demilitarization incineration furnaces and a typical pollution abatement system without carbon filter,

 

21

2-3

 

Schematic of the chemical demilitarization pollution abatement system for the metal parts furnace with carbon filter,

 

23

2-4

 

Schematic of the current TOCDF process control system architecture,

 

23

2-5

 

Schematic of the future TOCDF process control system architecture,

 

24

5-1

 

General organizational structure for the chemical stockpile disposal program management pre-2002,

 

46

5-2

 

General organizational structure for the chemical stockpile disposal program management post-2003,

 

47

BOXES

1-1

 

Some Historic Milestones in the U.S. Chemical Weapons Program,

 

10

3-1

 

ANCDF Incident as Reported in the Anniston Star,

 

31

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11849.
×

Abbreviations

ABCDF Aberdeen Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Maryland)

ACAMS automatic continuous air monitoring system

ACWA Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives

ANCDF Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Alabama)

BAST Board on Army Science and Technology

BDS bulk drain station

BGCAPP Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (Kentucky)

BHS bulk handling system

CAMDS Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal System

CDTF Chemical Demilitarization Training Facility (Edgewood, Maryland)

CHB container handling building

CMA (U.S. Army) Chemical Materials Agency

CWC Chemical Weapons Convention

DAAMS depot area air monitoring system

DCD Deseret Chemical Depot (Utah)

DCP document change procedure

DFS deactivation furnace system

DOD Department of Defense

DOT Department of Transportation

DPE demilitarization protective ensemble

DPPBI Director’s Programmatic Performance-Based Incentive

ECP engineering change proposal

ECR explosion containment room

GA tabun (a nerve agent)

GB sarin (a nerve agent)

H sulfur mustard

HAZWOPER hazardous waste and emergency response (standard)

HD sulfur mustard (distilled)

HEPA high-efficiency particulate air

HMI human-machine interface

HRO high reliability organization

HT sulfur mustard, T-mustard mixture

HVAC heating, ventilation and air conditioning

I/O input/output

JACADS Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (South Pacific Ocean)

LAN local area network

LIC liquid agent incinerator

MACT maximum achievable control technology

MDB munitions demilitarization building

MDMs multipurpose demilitarization machines

MHS mine handling system

MiniCAMS miniature chemical agent monitoring system

MM mine machine (drain station)

MPB munitions processing bay or building

MPF metal parts furnace

NECDF Newport Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Indiana)

NRC National Research Council

OEM original equipment manufacturer

OEM-LP obsolescent equipment management lifecycle program

OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11849.
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PAS pollution abatement system

PBCDF Pine Bluff Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Arkansas)

PCAPP Pueblo Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot Plant (Colorado)

PDARS process data acquisition and recording system

PFS PAS carbon bed filter system

PHS projectile handling system

PLCs programmable logic controllers

PMCD program manager for chemical demilitarization

PMCSD project manager for chemical stockpile demilitarization

PMCSE project manager for chemical stockpile elimination

PMD projectile or mortar disassembly (machine)

RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

RFID radio frequency identification

RHS rocket handling system

RIR recordable injury rate

RSM rocket shear machine

SCBA self-contained breathing apparatus

TOCDF Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Utah)

UMCDF Umatilla Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Oregon)

UPA unpack area

VX a nerve agent

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11849.
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The U.S. Army's Chemical Materials Agency (CMA) currently oversees contracts for the operation of chemical agent stockpile incineration facilities at four disposal sites. Because the period of time required to dispose of these chemical agents has grown beyond that originally planned, the Army is becoming concerned about the possibility of growing operational problems as the processing equipment ages. To help address these concerns, the CMA requested the NRC to assess whether current policies and practices will be able to adequately anticipate and address facility obsolescence issues. This report presents a review of potential infrastructure and equipment weaknesses given that the facilities are being operated well beyond their original design lifetime; an assessment of the Army's current and evolving obsolescence management programs; and offers recommendations about how the programs may be improved and strengthened to permit safe and expeditious completion of agent stockpile destruction and facility closure.

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