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Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Toxicologic and Radiologic Effects from Exposure to Depleted Uranium During and After Combat Meryl Karol is professor emerita at the University of Pittsburgh. She received her PhD from Columbia University. Her expertise is in general toxicology, inha- lation toxicology, and immunotoxicology. She is a past president of the Society of Toxicology and a former secretary-general of the International Union of Toxicologists. She previously served as chair of the National Research Council Subcommittee on Arthropod Repellants and was a member of the Committee on Pesticides and Children. She was an associate editor of Toxicological Sciences, and was on the editorial boards of numerous other toxicology journals. Dr. Karol currently serves on the science advisory board of the U.S. Environmental Pro- tection Agency. She has served on the board of directors of the Academy of Toxicological Sciences and on advisory panels of the National Institute of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Ad- ministration, and the Office of Technology Assessment. She has also served on numerous international committees. Cheryl Bast is a toxicologist in the Toxicology and Hazard Assessment Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. She earned a PhD in biomedical science (with emphasis on genetics and genetic toxicology and radiation biology) from the University of Tennessee-Oak Ridge Graduate School of Biomedical Sci- ences in 1989. Dr. Bastâs research interests include risk-assessment methodol- ogy, quantitative risk assessment, and chemical-hazard evaluation. She has per- formed health risk assessments and written numerous reports for federal agencies, including data-evaluation reports on pesticide registration, acute- exposure guideline level (AEGL) documents for the National Advisory Commit- tee on AEGLs, and various other technical documents used to support hazard evaluations and risk assessments. Dr. Bast was certified by the American Board of Toxicology in 1993. 141
142 Risks to Military Personnel from Exposure to Depleted Uranium Deepak K. Bhalla is professor of toxicology in the Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences at Wayne State University. He received his PhD from Howard University. His research is focused in air pollution, pulmo- nary toxicology, and immunotoxicology. He is chair of Wayne State Univer- sityâs Research Committee and has served on several National Institute of Envi- ronmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and Environmental Protection Agency panels. He is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Toxicology and Environ- mental Health and Inhalation Toxicology. He has served on study sections of the National Institutes of Health and NIEHS and was a member of the American Society for Cell Biologyâs Congressional Liaison Committee. David Gaylor is an adjunct professor of statistics at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. He received his PhD from North Carolina State University in statistics. He is the recipient of the Shewell Award and the Frank Wilcoxon Prize from the American Society for Quality Control and of the Distinguished Achievement Medal from the Statistics and Environment Section of the Ameri- can Statistical Association. He is a fellow of the American Statistical Society and the Society for Risk Analysis. He was a member of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology and served on several of its subcommittees. Robert A. Goyer is a clinical pathologist and an internationally recognized ex- pert in health effects of toxic and nutritionally essential metals. He is professor emeritus at the University of Western Ontario. His research interests are experi- mental pathology, toxicology of heavy metals and metal interactions, and nephrotoxicity. He received his MD from St. Louis University. Dr. Goyer has published extensively on the toxicity of cadmium, lead, and arsenic and on risks associated with essential elements. He was chair of the National Research Coun- cil Subcommittee on Arsenic in Drinking Water and Committee on the Toxico- logical Effects of Methylmercury. Sidney Green is professor of pharmacology at Howard University, where he received his PhD in pharmacology. Previously, he was director of the Depart- ment of Toxicology at Covance Laboratories and director of the Division of Toxicological Research at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. He was also director of the Toxic Effects Branch in the Office of Toxic Substances at the Environmental Protection Agency. Dr. Green has expertise in genetic toxicology and systemic toxicology. He is a former member of the National Research Council Committee on Toxi- cology and Subcommittee on Smokes and Obscurants. He is a past president of the American College of Toxicology. Kathryn A. Higley is an associate professor in the Department of Nuclear En- gineering at Oregon State University in Corvallis. She earned her MS and PhD in radiologic health sciences from Colorado State University. Her fields of inter- est include environmental transport and fate of radionuclides, radiochemistry,
Appendix A 143 radiation dose assessment, and environmental regulations. Her research has in- cluded the use of nuclear-track detectors for determination of plutonium and uranium particle size in soils, analysis of the micromorphologic distribution and association of these contaminants with soil structural features, kinetics of ra- dionuclide movement in environmental systems, development of novel methods for estimating radiation dose to nonhuman biota, relationship of morphologic characteristics of radiologically contaminated surfaces on radiation-detector efficiency, and effects of scanning speeds of radiologic survey systems on detec- tor efficiency. Dr. Higley has published several book chapters on the modeling of radioactive contaminants in environmental systems. Sam Kacew is a professor in the Department of Pharmacology at the University of Ottawa. He received his PhD in pharmacology from the Ottawa University. His research focuses on the pharmacology of environmental contaminants. Dr. Kacew is a fellow of the Academy of Toxicological Sciences and recipient of the Velyien E. Henderson Award from the Society of Toxicology of Canada and the Achievement Award from the Society of Toxicology. He is on the grants committee of the National Institutes of Health and has served on several national and international panels. Dr. Kacew was a member of the Committee on Toxi- cology Subcommittee on Jet Propulsion Fuel 8 and chair of the Subcommittee on Iodofluoromethane. He is editor-in-chief of the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health and an associate editor of Toxicology and Applied Phar- macology. P. Andrew Karam is a research assistant professor at the Rochester Institute of Technology. He received his PhD in environmental sciences from Ohio State University. Dr. Karam is a nationally and internationally respected board- certified radiation-safety professional with particular expertise in issues related to radiologic terrorism, the safe use of radioactive materials, and practical as- pects of managing radioactive-materials programs. His extensive experience includes military radiation safety, radiation-safety program management, and occasional work as a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency. His current research interests include matters related to radiologic and nuclear terror- ism, radiation-instrument development, and alpha-voltaic micropower-supply development. Ronald L. Kathren is professor emeritus of pharmaceutical sciences at Wash- ington State University and president of the Kathren Group, Inc., a safety and health-physics consulting firm formed in 1999. While at the university, he was director of the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries and managed and performed research related to the biokinetics, dosimetry, and radiobiology of plutonium, americium, and the other actinides in humans. His other special in- terests include environmental radioactivity, education and training, and the his- torical aspects of the radiologic sciences. He received his MSc from the Univer- sity of Pittsburgh. His scientific honors include the Elda E. Anderson Award for
144 Risks to Military Personnel from Exposure to Depleted Uranium outstanding contributions to the science and art of health physics, the Health Physics Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award, the Arthur F. Humm, Jr., Award of the National Registry of Radiation Protection Technologists, the Her- bert M. Parker Award, and election to Delta Omega and the Society of Sigma Xi. In 1995, he was named Radiation Centennial Hartman Medalist and Orator. He is a diplomate of the American Board of Health Physics and the American Academy of Environmental Engineers, and he is a licensed professional engi- neer in California. James McDougal is professor and director of toxicology research at Wright State University. He received his PhD from the University of Arizona. His re- search interests are in the mechanisms of skin penetration and irritation of toxi- cants and in developing biologically based mathematical models that can be used to estimate risks to humans from dermal exposures to chemicals. Dr. McDougal was formerly the director of research for the Toxicology Division of the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory. He has served on a number of national scientific advisory panels, including the National Research Council Subcommit- tee on Flame-Retardant Chemicals. He is a fellow of the Academy of Toxico- logical Sciences. Bruce A. Napier is a staff scientist at the Environmental Health Sciences Group at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. He received his MS in nuclear engi- neering at Kansas State University and is pursuing a doctorate in radiologic health physics at Oregon State University. He has over 27 years of experience in environmental health physics and has studied radionuclide transport, fate, and impact on humans and the environment. He is the author of the internationally accepted radiation-dosimetry computer package GENII. He was the chief scien- tist of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, which evaluated the fate of radionuclides released into the air and Columbia River from the U.S. Department of Energyâs Hanford site. He is a principal investigator in U.S.- Russia Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research projects on dose reconstruction for the public around the Russian Mayak (Chelyabinsk-65) nuclear-materials production site in Siberia. He has contributed to NATO evaluations of oceanic contamination. Roy E. Shore is vice chairman and chief of research at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. He received his PhD from Syracuse University and his DrPH from Columbia University. His research interests include radiation, envi- ronmental, and molecular epidemiology. He has served on the standing commit- tees on radiation biology and risk assessment of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. He has served on several scientific advisory groups for the National Cancer Institute, the Department of Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency and on the editorial boards of the Journal of the National
Appendix A 145 Cancer Institute, Radiation Research, and Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. Katherine S. Squibb is a professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine at the University of Maryland in Baltimore and head of the University of Maryland System-Wide Graduate Program in Toxicology. She received her PhD in biochemistry from Rutgers University. In addition to a ba- sic-research interest in subcellular mechanisms of metal-ion toxicity and car- cinogenicity, Dr. Squibbâs research involves the study of health effects of ambi- ent-air particles and the renal toxicity of heavy metals with a focus on depleted uranium through her work with the Baltimore VA Depleted Uranium Follow-Up Program. Since 1994, Dr. Squibb has also worked in risk assessment and public health, providing technical support to citizen groups involved in the evaluation of health effects and remediation of hazardous-waste sites in their communities.