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« Previous: Appendix A: Examples of Scientific Accomplishments and Relevant Satellite Missions
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2008. Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11991.
Page 123
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2008. Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11991.
Page 124
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2008. Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11991.
Page 125

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Appendix B Acronyms ADEOS Advanced Earth Observing Satellite ClONO2 Chlorine nitrate AgriSTARS Agriculture and Resources Inventory CloudSat Cloud Satellite Experiment Through Aerospace Remote CNES Centre Nationales d’Etudes Spatiales Surveys CO Carbon monoxide AIRS Atmospheric Infrared Sounder CO2 Carbon dioxide ALBH Albert Head COSMIC Constellation Observing System for ALOS  Advanced Land Observation Satellite Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (Japan) CRS Cloud Radar System AMI Advanced Monitoring Initiative CSA Canadian Space Agency AMSR-E  Advanced Microwave Scanning CZCS Coastal Zone Color Scanner Radiometer-EOS DLR Deutsches Zentrum für Luft—und AMSU Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit Raumfahrt APAR Absorbed photosynthetic radiation DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program ARGOS  Advanced Research and Global Observation DORIS Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Satellite Integrated by Satellite ASTER  Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission DU Dobson units and Reflection Radiometer ECMWF European Centre for Medium Range ASTR Along Track Scanning Radiometer Forecasting ATS Applications Technology Satellite ENSO El Niño-Southern Oscillation ATSR-M Along Track Scanning Radiometer- ENVISAT European Enivronmental Satellite Microwave EORC Earth Observation Research Center AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer EOS Earth Observing System AVIRIS Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging ERBE Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Spectrometer ERS European Remote Sensing Satellite AWiFS Advanced Wide Field Sensor ERTS Earth Resources Technology Satellite B Biomass ESA European Space Agency BGC BioGeochemical cycles ESMR Electrically Scanning Microwave BOMEX Barbados Oceanographic and Radiometer Meteorological Experiment ETM Enhanced Thematic Mapper BrO Bromine oxide FAO Food and Agriculture Organization BUV Backscattered ultraviolet FEWS NET Famine Early Warning System Network CALIPSO Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder FGGE First GARP Global Experiment Satellite Observations FORMOSAT Formosa Satellite CASA Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach GAC Global Area Coverage CFC Chlorofluorocarbon GARP Global Atmospheric Research Program CHAMP Challenging Mission Payload GATE GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment ClO Chlorine monoxide GBA Global Burnt Area 123

124 APPENDIX B GCM Global Climate Model MCC Mesoscale Convective Complex GDR Geophysical Data Record McIDAS Man-Computer Interactive Data Access GEO Geosynchronous orbit System Geos3 Geodynamics Experimental Ocean Satellite MERIS Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer 3 MET Meteorology GIS Geographic information system MISR Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer GLC Global Land Cover MLS Microwave Limb Sounder GLCC Global Land Cover Classification MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging GLIMS Global Land Ice Measurement from Space Spectroradiometer GLOBSCAR Global Burn Scar MOPITT Measurement of Pollution in the GMCC Global Monitoring for Climate Change Troposphere GMS Geostationary Meteorological Satellite MOS Maritime Observation Satellite GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental MSS Multispectral scanner Satellites (Japan) MTSAT Multi-functional Transport Satellite (Japan) GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment NAE National Academy of Engineering GOMS Geostationary Operational Meteorological NAS National Academy of Sciences Satellite (Russia) NASA National Aeronautics and Space GPM Global Precipitation Mission Administration GPS Global Positioning System NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research GPS/MET Global Positioning System/Meteorology NCEP National Centers for Environmental GRACE Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Prediction GSFC Goddard Space Flight Center NDVI Normalized difference vegetation index GWE Global Weather Experiment NHC National Hurricane Center HALOE Halogen Occultation Experiment NIR Near-infrared HCl Hydrochloric acid NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric HIRS High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder Administration HNLC High nutrient low chlorophyll NOx Nitrogen oxides I Light intensity NPP Net primary productivity ICESat Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite NRC National Research Council IGY International Geophysical Year NSCAT NASA Scatterometer InSAR Interferometric synthetic aperture radar NSIDC National Snow and Ice Data Center IPAR Intercepted photosynthetically active NWS National Weather Service radiation O 3 Ozone IR Infrared OCI Ocean Color Imager IRIS Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer OCTS Ocean Color and Temperature Sensor IRS Indian Remote Sensing Satellite OMI Ozone Monitoring Instrument ISCCP International Satellite Cloud Climatology P Productivity Project PECAD Production Estimates and Crop Assessment ITOS Improved TIROS Operational System Division JAXA Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency P-I Photosynthesis irradiance JERS Japanese Earth Resources Satellite PR Precipitation radar JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory PRI Photochemical reflective index LAC Local area coverage PSC Polar stratospheric clouds LACIE Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment QuikSCAT Quick Scatterometer LAGEOS Laser Geodynamics Satellites RA Radar Altimeter LAI Leaf area index Radar Radio detection and ranging Landsat Land Satellite RAPID Research into Adaptive Particle Imaging LaRC Langley Research Center Detectors LEO Low earth orbit RBV Return beam videocon Lidar Light detection and ranging RES Radio-echo sounding LIMS Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere SAGE Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment LRIR Limb Radiance Inversion Radiometer SAMS Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder MABL Marine atmospheric boundary layer SAR Synthetic aperture radar MAPS Measurement of Air Pollution from SBUV Solar backscattered ultraviolet Satellites

APPENDIX B 125 SCIAMACHY canning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer S TMI TRMM Microwave Imager for Atmospheric Chartography TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer SCLP Snow and Cold Land Processes TOPEX Topography Experiment SCR Selective Chopper Radiometer T/P TOPEX/Poseidon SeaWiFS Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission SIR Shuttle Imaging Radar TSI Total solar irradiance SIRS Satellite Infrared Spectrometer TW Threat Warning SMMR Scanning Multichannel Microwave TWS Terrestrial Water Storage Radiometer UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite SMS Synchronous Meteorological Satellite UNCCD United Nations Convention to Combat SO2 Sulfur dioxide Desertification SPOT Satellite Probatoire pour l’Observation de la USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture Terre UTC Coordinated Universal Time SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission UV Ultraviolet SSEC Space Science and Engineering Center VCF Vegetation Continuous Fields SSH Sea surface height VGPM Vertically Generalized Production Model SSM/I Special Sensor Microwave/Imager VIRS Visible Infrared Scanner SSM/R Special Sensor Microwave/Radiometer VISSR Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer SST Sea surface temperature WINDSAT Wind Satellite TIROS Television Infrared Observation Satellite W/m2 Watts per square meter TM Thematic Mapper TM/ETM Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper

Next: Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff »
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Over the past 50 years, thousands of satellites have been sent into space on missions to collect data about the Earth. Today, the ability to forecast weather, climate, and natural hazards depends critically on these satellite-based observations. At the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Research Council convened a committee to examine the scientific accomplishments that have resulted from space-based observations. This book describes how the ability to view the entire globe at once, uniquely available from satellite observations, has revolutionized Earth studies and ushered in a new era of multidisciplinary Earth sciences. In particular, the ability to gather satellite images frequently enough to create "movies" of the changing planet is improving the understanding of Earth's dynamic processes and helping society to manage limited resources and environmental challenges. The book concludes that continued Earth observations from space will be required to address scientific and societal challenges of the future.

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