National Academies Press: OpenBook

Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System (2012)

Chapter:Appendix H: R&D Needs for the Power Delivery System

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: R&D Needs for the Power Delivery System." National Research Council. 2012. Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12050.
×

H

R&D Needs for the Power Delivery System

TABLE H.1 Research Area Options Primarily for the Existing Bulk Power (Transmission) System Architecture


Technology/Operational Strategy Application Research Areas Objectives
Thwart Attack Reduce Vulnerability Reduce Impact

System components that are less vulnerable to incursion, gun shots, or explosive devices

Physically robust towers, insulators, and conductors

Physically robust transformers, breakers, and switchgears

Low-cost undergrounding techniques

 

X

X

X

X

X

 

New techniques for reducing stress by improving operation and maintenance

Integrated asset management

 

 

X

New monitoring and diagnostic techniques to reduce the impact of attacks and improve reliability

Non-intrusive monitoring

Non-destructive evaluation

Low-cost dissolved gas analyzers

X

X

X

Physically protective shields for substations and transformers

Advanced materials for shielding

X

 

 

Recovery equipment (to recover from attacks)

Substation recovery (temporary) transformers

Recovery breakers

 

 

X

X

Advanced protection devices to mitigate outages from attacks

Self-programming power electronic relays

 

X

X

Sensors and communication to increase monitoring, mitigate outages, and enhance response

Wide-area measurement

Dynamic thermal circuit rating

Video sag monitoring

Integrated electricity and communication system architecture

Precision high-speed time-stamped monitoring

Enhanced visualization

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Computational ability to monitor systems, mitigate outages, and better plan restoration

Topology estimating

CAR monitoring

[Truly] real-time analysis

Integrated engineering and economic methodology for power system operation

Market simulation

Fast simulation and modeling

Advanced training simulators

Advanced date storage, management, and incident reconstruction

 

X

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: R&D Needs for the Power Delivery System." National Research Council. 2012. Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12050.
×

Technology/Operational Strategy Application Research Areas Objectives
Thwart Attack Reduce Vulnerability Reduce Impact

Passive technology to increase power flow on existing rights of way to reduce the potential impact of events Reconfiguring (new bundles, higher voltages, etc.)High-amperage conductors
High-temperature superconducting cables
Composite structures
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Short-circuit current limiters to reduce the possibility of cascading outages

Power electronics based
Superconducting

X
X

X
X

Enhanced control of the existing system to reduce vulnerability and enhance recovery

Reducing the cost of current-generation FACTS devices

Voltage-source converters

Asynchronous rotating machines

Advanced systems control

 

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

Developing software that thwarts cyber attacks

Hardening energy management systems against cyber attacks
Developing secure firewalls for the variety of intelligent devices, relays, and controls at substations that can be controlled remotely

X
X


Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: R&D Needs for the Power Delivery System." National Research Council. 2012. Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12050.
×

TABLE H.2 Research Area Options for Enabling New Bulk Power (Transmission) System Architecture


Technology/Operational Strategy Application Research Areas Objectives
Thwart Attack Reduce Vulnerability Reduce Impact

Technologies to enable complete control of the power system to mitigate outages and enhance restoration Advanced power electronic devices
Advanced DC back-to-back
Low-cost FACTSPower electronic breakers
Intelligent universal substation transformers
Multi-layered control strategies
Distributed autonomous agents
Integrated control strategies
Complete system automation
Self-healing topology
Object models for all digital devices
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
 
X
X

Technologies to enable smaller synchronous or DC systems to operate in an integrated fashion so as to reduce system vulnerability

Microgrids
Distributed generation
Renewables
DC distribution
Electric storage at high-voltage levels

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X

Technologies to greatly increase power flow to reduce stress and mitigate outages

AC superconducting cables
DC superconductivity
The IntelliGrid

X
X
X

Innovative computational ability technologies

Fast modeling and simulation
Local and global optimization and control algorithms for power controllers
State estimation and optimization functions between local systems
Optimized system decomposition
Reconfiguration and protection coordination for reliability management
Optimization functions incorporating local generation, load control, and central generation
Advanced market structures to seamlessly incorporate local systems into overall generation/load/mix

X
X

X

X
X

X

X


X



X
X

X


TABLE H.3 Research Area Options Primarily for Existing Distribution System Architecture


Technology/Operational Strategy Application Research Areas Objectives
Thwart Attack Reduce Vulnerability Reduce Impact

Asset management to reduce system stress Integrated asset management
Tighter voltage control
Monitoring of capacitor banks
X
X
X

Increased power flow to reduce stress on the system

Reconfiguring and increasing voltage
Superconducting cables
Low-sag conductors

 

X
X
X

 

Improved reliability and system vulnerability

Reducing underground construction costs

X

Enhanced control to reduce stress and enhance restoration

Power electronics network protectors
Short-circuit current limiters (medium voltage)Tie and feeder circuit reclosers

X
X
X

X
X
X

Reconfigured network grids in large cities

Submersible fast switches
Low-voltage switches and smart fuses for reconfiguration and isolation

X

X
X

X

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: R&D Needs for the Power Delivery System." National Research Council. 2012. Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12050.
×

TABLE H.4 Research Area Options for Enabling New Distribution System Architecture


Technology/Operational Strategy Application Research Areas Objectives
Thwart Attack Reduce Vulnerability Reduce Impact

Advanced distribution automation (DA) Advanced DA architecture
Object models for all digital distribution devices
Fault anticipator
Intelligent universal transformer
  X
X
X
X
X

Power electronics technologies to manage demand and improve reliability

Inductive (contactless) charging
Active harmonic filters
Embedded solutions
Voltage restoration devices
Intelligent universal transformer
High-efficiency DC-DC converters
Low-voltage and medium-voltage smart power controllers
DC breaker and controllers
Low-cost motor drive controller in chip

 

X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X




X

X

Distributed energy resources

Integration of distributed energy resources
AC-DC converters

X
X

X

Distributed generation technologies

Photovoltaics
Concentrating solar
Solid oxide fuel cell
PEM fuel cell
Microturbines
Stirling engines
Carbon nanotubes for hydrogen storage
High-pressure electrolyzers
On-board fuel reformers
Combined heat and power for residential applications
Radioisotope photovoltaic generator
Thermoelectric generators
Direct methanol fuel cell
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) power sources
Micro solid-oxide fuel cell

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X





X
X
X
X

Electric energy storage devices

Lead acid battery
Nickel-metal hydride battery
Lithium-ion battery
Vanadium redox flow battery
Zinc-bromine flow battery
Sodium-sulfur battery
Hydrogen storage
Flywheel energy storage
Ultracapacitors
Miniature compressed air energy storage
Metal air battery
Lithium-ion battery
Lithium-sulfur battery
Superconducting magnetic energy storage

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X

Communication technologies

Broadband over power line
WiMax wireless high-speed communication
Consumer portal
Standardized object models
Power line carrier/wireless for local communication
Standardized LAN/WAN technology

X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X

Technologies to enhance control

Power electronic breakers
Custom power devices

X
X

X
X


Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: R&D Needs for the Power Delivery System." National Research Council. 2012. Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12050.
×

TABLE H.5 Research Area Options Primarily for Existing Device and Building Systems


Technology/Operational Strategy Application Research Areas Objectives
Thwart Attack Reduce Vulnerability Reduce Impact

High-efficiency lighting systems Photoluminescence material
Daylight harvesting
Integrated lighting
High-intensity discharge
Advanced fluorescent lamp systems
Light-emitting diodes
  X
X
X
X
X
X
 

High-efficiency motors and motor drives

Soft-switching adjustable speed drives
Low locked-rotor current single-phase machines
High-efficiency axial air gap motors
New motor designs

 

X
X
X
X

 

High-efficiency space conditioning

Water loop heat pumps
Ground-coupled heat pumps
Dual path HVAC systems

 

X
X
X

 

High-efficiency water heating

Heat pump water heaters

Heat recovery water heaters

 

X
X

 

High-efficiency refrigeration

High COP refrigeration system

 

X

 

Efficiency industrial electrotechnologies

Infrared heating devices
Microwave-assisted chemical synthesis
Radio frequency drying and curing
Advanced programmable logic controllers
Ultraviolet curing

 

X
X
X
X
X

 

Building systems technologies to reduce demand and consumption

Smart thermostats
Building-integrated PV
Building and process energy management systems

 

X
X
X

X
X
X


 

TABLE H.6 Research Area Options for Enabling New Device and Building Systems Architecture


Technology/Operational Strategy Application Research Areas Objectives
Thwart Attack Reduce Vulnerability Reduce Impact

Technologies to integrate end-use devices and buildings into the power delivery system Consumer portal
Smart appliances and devices
Power quality monitoring
Automated meter reading
Outage monitoring
Energy management system integration
Advanced demand response
Smart meters
  X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X


X
X
X
X

Technologies to enable buildings to operate independently

Low-cost power conditioning
Small distributed generation
Electric storage technologies sized for buildings
Appliances “hardened” against disturbances
Solid-state transfer switches

 

X
X
X
X
X
X



X
X
X
X
X


Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: R&D Needs for the Power Delivery System." National Research Council. 2012. Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12050.
×
Page142
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: R&D Needs for the Power Delivery System." National Research Council. 2012. Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12050.
×
Page143
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: R&D Needs for the Power Delivery System." National Research Council. 2012. Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12050.
×
Page144
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: R&D Needs for the Power Delivery System." National Research Council. 2012. Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12050.
×
Page145
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: R&D Needs for the Power Delivery System." National Research Council. 2012. Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12050.
×
Page146
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The electric power delivery system that carries electricity from large central generators to customers could be severely damaged by a small number of well-informed attackers. The system is inherently vulnerable because transmission lines may span hundreds of miles, and many key facilities are unguarded. This vulnerability is exacerbated by the fact that the power grid, most of which was originally designed to meet the needs of individual vertically integrated utilities, is being used to move power between regions to support the needs of competitive markets for power generation. Primarily because of ambiguities introduced as a result of recent restricting the of the industry and cost pressures from consumers and regulators, investment to strengthen and upgrade the grid has lagged, with the result that many parts of the bulk high-voltage system are heavily stressed.

Electric systems are not designed to withstand or quickly recover from damage inflicted simultaneously on multiple components. Such an attack could be carried out by knowledgeable attackers with little risk of detection or interdiction. Further well-planned and coordinated attacks by terrorists could leave the electric power system in a large region of the country at least partially disabled for a very long time. Although there are many examples of terrorist and military attacks on power systems elsewhere in the world, at the time of this study international terrorists have shown limited interest in attacking the U.S. power grid. However, that should not be a basis for complacency. Because all parts of the economy, as well as human health and welfare, depend on electricity, the results could be devastating.

Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System focuses on measures that could make the power delivery system less vulnerable to attacks, restore power faster after an attack, and make critical services less vulnerable while the delivery of conventional electric power has been disrupted.

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