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Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Research at NIOSH Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Committee to Review the NIOSH Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Research Program Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS â¢ 500 Fifth Street, NW â¢ Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was requested by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and supported by Contracts 211-2006-19152 (Task Order 001) and 200-2005-10881 (Task Order 0004). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommenda- tions contained in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11579-7 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11579-5 Cover:â Photo credits: winter wheat harvest near Crary, North Dakota by Erin Wood; logging by Professor Garland, Forest Engineer, Oregon State University; speedboat by Wojciech Kielpinski. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2008. Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Research at NIOSH. Committee to Review the NIOSH Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Research Program. Rpt. No. 3, Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupa- tional Safety and Health. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern- ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to as- sociate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE NIOSH AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, AND FISHING RESEARCH PROGRAM PAUL D. GUNDERSON (Chair), National Farm Medicine Center (Emeritus), Marshfield, Wisconsin MARIA T. CORREA, North Carolina State University, Raleigh R. ALAN DAVIS, American Seafoods Company, Seattle, Washington JAMES A. DOSMAN, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada WILLIAM A. GROVES, Pennsylvania State University, University Park RONALD L. McALLISTER, CNH America LLC, New Holland, Pennsylvania JAMES D. McGLOTHLIN, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana SUSAN H. POLLACK, University of Kentucky, Lexington LORANN STALLONES, Colorado State University, Fort Collins DON VILLAREJO, California Institute for Rural Studies (Emeritus), Davis SUSANNA G. VON ESSEN, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha JAMES J. ZUICHES, North Carolina State University, Raleigh Project Staff PEGGY TSAI, Study Director ROBIN SCHOEN, Director, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources JANET MULLIGAN, Research Associate KAREN L. IMHOF, Administrative Assistant NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor
Preface âCultivators of the earth are the most valuable citizens. They are the most vigorous, the most independent, the most virtuous, and they are tied to their country, and wedded to its liberty and interests, by the most lasting bonds.â âThomas Jefferson Jeffersonâs perception has largely been replaced by other interpretations, but the perception remains unchanged that the agriculture, forestry, and fishing (AFF) workforce engages in noble activity that secures the nationâs present and future fate. These populations deserve to work in environments that contribute to the production of safe consumer products and that protect their health. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is to be commended for its keen desire to respond to decades of evidence suggesting that the AFF workforce experiences some of the highest occupational disease and injury rates. Congressional mandates regarding worker health and safety in agriculture, forestry, and fishing date back only 2 decades for agriculture and just over 3 de- cades for fishing. Yet, the interest of safety specialists, hygienists, engineers, public health professionals, clinicians, and policymakers dates back to the 1940s, when the war effort demanded an able, fit workforce to produce food and fiber for the allied armed forces. Drawing on that long tradition, NIOSH forged an agricul- tural occupational safety and health agenda in response to the 1990 congressional mandate. Using public health approaches, the NIOSH Agriculture, Forestry, and vii
viii Preface Fishing Research Program (AFF Program) attempted to respond to worksites risks and hazards numbering more than 3 million, a complex collage of child and adult worker exposures, technological change unseen before in the history of human labor in extractive industries, unprecedented public policy gyrations, and emerg- ing genomic capability. En route, it conducted surveillance, deployed an innovative regionalized system for the conduct of useful research and outreach activity, nour- ished a generation of scientists and occupational health clinicians, and developed useful linkages with organizations and entities that share a workforce safety and health agenda. Now, under the guidance of the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, it is time to pause, assemble results, analyze program outcomes, and reflect for the future. The committeeâs composition was broad, reflecting both the diverse nature of the three industry sectors covered by the NIOSH AFF Program and the diversity of occupational exposures experienced by workers in the sectors (see Appendix D). Its professional skill set spanned from agricultural engineering to agricultural exten- sion and education, from clinical medicine to epidemiology, from anthropology to physics, and from occupational hygiene to occupational safety. The committee is due a full measure of gratitude for its selfless pursuit of its charge and its review of published materials, other resources, and a large body of fugitive facts, publica- tions, and other materials. It has been dogged in such activity, intent on securing that which would enable it to discharge its mandate. To each member: a generous measure of thanks is due for carrying this heavy load, all the while maintaining a helpful demeanor and a charitable sense of humor and continuing to discharge normal professional activity. Not enough good can be said about staff assembled for this task by the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources. Always attentive, yet working under in- tense time pressure, these professionals ably discharged both the exciting and the mundane, responded to the committeeâs numerous entreaties, patiently recruited experts capable of assisting the committee, assembled background materials, and maintained liaison with a large number of agencies and organizations. The com- mittee would have been useless without their assistance, and to them an enormous amount of gratitude is due. This program evaluation has been difficult. The worksite complexity and demographic makeup of the at-risk workforce is unprecedented, in terms of both NIOSH program evaluation and worker health and safety programming across North America. That NIOSH or other affected organizations or entities were not always able to produce documentation is made all the more understandable once the breadth of these combined sectors is grasped. Nevertheless, the committee was not timid in formulating useful recommendations for program improvement across future timeframes, and it believes that its present assessment reflects the best
Preface ix evidence marshaled to date of AFF worker outcomes in response to an occupational safety and health program mandated by Congress. The committee persevered in the belief that this nationâs AFF workforce de- serves the best protection from risk that the nation can provide. Its work was launched in the belief that that workforce is vitally important for the nationâs future. To that workforce the committee dedicates its analyses reported herein. Paul D. Gunderson Committee Chair
Acknowledgments This report is a product of the cooperation and contributions of many people. The committee would like to thank all the speakers who attended the first commit- tee meeting on January 19, 2007, and the second committee meeting on March 28- 29, 2007, and others who provided information and input (see committee meeting agendas in Appendix B). The report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Councilâs Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confiden- tial to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following for their review of this report: John C. Bailar III, University of Chicago (Emeritus) Dorianne Beyer, LMC Labor & Monitoring Consultants Susan E. Cozzens, Georgia Institute of Technology Vincent F. Garry, University of Minnesota (Emeritus) James C. Helmkamp, West Virginia University Anne Katten, California Rural Legal Assistance, Inc. James A. Merchant, University of Iowa xi
xii Acknowledgments Barbara Neis, Memorial University, Canada Robert (Chip) Petrea, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Sam Steel, Pennsylvania State University John R. Wheat, University of Alabama School of Medicine Although the reviewers listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommenda- tions, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Dr. Frederick A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, and Dr. Harley W. Moon, Iowa State University (Emeritus). Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accor- dance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author committee and the institution.
Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 15 Study Charge and Evaluation Committee, 15 Evaluation Approach, 16 The U.S. Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Industries, 20 Legislative History and Historical Perspective, 25 Organization of the Report, 31 2 THE IDEAL AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, AND FISHING RESEARCH PROGRAM 32 Overarching Program Characteristics, 32 Specific Program Components, 34 3 OVERALL PROGRAM ASSESSMENT 46 Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Research Program Goals, 47 4 REVIEW OF SURVEILLANCE RESEARCH 69 Strategic Goals and Objectives, 69 Logic Submodel, 70 Inputs, 70 Activities, 72 xiii
xiv Contents Outputs, 75 Intermediate Outcomes, 77 End Outcomes, 77 Other Outcomes, 78 5 REVIEW OF RESEARCH ON HIGH-PRIORITY POPULATIONS AT RISK 79 Strategic Goals and Objectives, 79 Logic Submodel, 81 Inputs, 81 Activities, 81 Outputs, 86 Intermediate Outcomes, 90 End Outcomes, 92 External Factors, 93 6 REVIEW OF HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH 94 Strategic Goals and Objectives, 94 Logic Submodel, 95 Inputs, 95 Activities, 97 Outputs, 102 Intermediate Outcomes, 108 End Outcomes, 109 7 REVIEW OF INTERVENTION RESEARCH 111 Strategic Goals and Objectives, 111 Logic Submodel, 112 Inputs, 112 Activities, 112 Outputs, 118 Intermediate Outcomes, 121 End Outcomes, 122 External Factors, 123 8 REVIEW OF OUTREACH ACTIVITIES: KNOWLEDGE DIFFUSION AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER 124 Strategic Goals and Objectives, 124 Logic Submodel, 124 Inputs, 125
Contents xv Activities, 128 Outputs, 128 Intermediate Outcomes, 129 End Outcomes, 131 Review of the NIOSH Centers for Agricultural Disease and Injury Research, Education, and Prevention (Ag Centers), 132 Evaluation, 139 9 OTHER PROGRAMMATIC ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED BY THE COMMITTEE 140 Stakeholders, 140 Health Services Research and Training, 147 Public Policy and Regulatory Advice, 153 Program Evaluation Initiatives, 155 10 PROGRAM SCORING AND RATIONALE 158 Assessment of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Research Program Relevance and Impact, 159 Discussion of Ratings for Relevance and Impact, 160 Additional Comments about Relevance, 167 Additional Comments about Impact, 169 Key Program Limitations, 171 Conclusion, 174 11 NEW AND EMERGING RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURAL, FORESTRY, AND FISHING SAFETY AND HEALTH 175 Identification of New and Emerging Research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 175 New Research Identified by the Committee, 178 Emerging Research and Issues Identified by the Committee, 183 Conclusion, 194 12 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PROGRAM IMPROVEMENT 195 Recommendations, 196 Summary, 210 GLOSSARY 211 REFERENCES 214
xvi Contents APPENDIXES A Framework for the Review of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 231 B Committee Methods for Gathering Information 275 C Information Provided by the NIOSH AFF Program 288 D Biographic Sketches of Committee Members 294 E Methods for Identifying the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Workforce Population 301 F Policies and Regulations Affecting the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Workforce 317 G Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources 326
Tables, Figures, and Boxes TABLES 1-1 Size of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Workforce Populations, 22 3-1 Conferences, Symposia, and Working Meetings to Engage Stakeholders, 58 4-1 NIOSH Programs with Surveillance Activities, 73 6-1 Research Emphases of Some NIOSH Ag Centers, 101 7-1 Programs with Intervention Research Activities, 114 7-2 Federal Agencies Partnering with the NIOSH AFF Program on HighâPriority Populations at Risk, 117 E-1 Directly Hired Farm Workers and Agricultural Service Workers in the United States, 2006, 305 E-2 Classes of Workers: Civilian Population 16 Years Old and Older Employed in Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting (AFFH), 307 E-3 Census Special Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Tabulations, United States, 1990 and 2000, 308 xvii
xviii Tables, Figures, and Boxes E-4 Hired Farmworker Employment, 1998-2006, Annual Average Economic Research Service (ERS) Analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) (at least 15Â years old) versus Farm Labor Survey (all ages), 310 E-5 Hired Farmworker Employment, Farm Labor Contractors, California, 2000: Comparison of Farm Labor Survey, Agricultural Bulletin Surveys, and ES202 Reports, 315 E-6 Paid Claims Under Workersâ Compensation Insurance, Hired Farm Workers, California, 1990-1999, Claim Frequency Report (Level 5), 316 FIGURES 1-1 The AFF Program logic model, 18 2-1 The intervention research framework and phases, 41 4-1 Surveillance logic submodel, 71 5-1 Priority populations at risk research logic submodel, 82 6-1 Health effects research logic submodel, 96 7-1 Intervention research logic submodel, 113 8-1 Knowledge diffusion and technology transfer logic submodel, 126 8-2 The PNASH Center partnership model, 127 BOXES 1-1 Statement of Task, 17 3-1 Major Goals of the AFF Program, 47 3-2 Logic Model Terms and Examples, 49 3-3 NIOSH Centers for Agricultural Disease and Injury Research, Education, and Prevention (Ag Centers), 55 3-4 External Factors That Affect the AFF Program (as identified by NIOSH),Â 67 8-1 Research to Practice (r2p), 130 10-1 Scale for Rating Program Relevance, 159 10-2 Scale for Rating Program Impact, 161
Tables, Figures, and Boxes xix 10-3 An Exemplary AFF Program: Commercial Fishing Injuries and Fatalities, NIOSH Alaska Field Station, 162 B-1 Letter Inviting Comment on the NIOSH Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Research Program, 277 B-2 Emerging Research Areas in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Safety and Health Suggested by Stakeholders, 280
Abbreviations and Acronyms ACS American Community Survey AFF agriculture, forestry, and fishing AFS Alaska Field Station AgDARE Agricultural Disability Awareness and Risk Education AMSEA Alaska Marine Safety Education Association AOISS Alaska Occupational Injury Surveillance System APMP Agricultural Personnel Management Program ARC agricultural research center ASABE American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers ASAE American Society of Agricultural Engineers ASH-NET Agriculture Safety and Health Network ASPH Association of Schools of Public Health ATR Alaska Trauma Registry ATV all-terrain vehicle BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics CA EDD California Employment Development Department CAFO concentrated animal feeding operation CAIS Child Agricultural Injury Survey CalOSHA California Occupational Safety and Health Administration CARE Childrenâs Act for Responsible Employment xxi
xxii A b b r e v i at i o n s and Acronyms CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDPHE Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment CES Cooperative Extension Service CEW Census of Employment and Wages CFIVSA Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Act ChE cholinesterase CIRS California Institute for Rural Studies CoA Census of Agriculture CPS Current Population Survey CPSC Consumer Product Safety Commission CROPS cost-effective rollover protective structure CSF Certified Safe Farm DART Division of Applied Research and Technology DHHS Department of Health and Human Services DOL Department of Labor DRDS Division of Respiratory Disease Studies DSHEFS Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies DSR Division of Safety Research EEO Equal Employment Opportunity EID Education and Information Division EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ERC Education and Research Center ERS Economic Research Service ESA Employment Standards Administration FACE Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation FFA Future Farmers of America FFHHS Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance FISH Fishing Industry Safety and Health FLSA Fair Labor Standards Act FOPS falling object protective structure FTE full-time equivalent FY fiscal year GAO Government Accountability Office GLCASH Great Lakes Center for Agricultural Safety and Health GM genetically modified GMO genetically modified organism
A b b r e v i at i o n s and Acronyms xxiii GPCAH Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health HAVS hand-arm vibration syndrome HELD Health Effects Laboratory Division HHE Health Hazard Evaluation HICAHS High Plains Intermountan Center for Agricultural Health and Safety HO hazardous orders HRSA Health Resources and Services Administration IFISH International Fishing Industry Safety and Health IFQ individual fishing quotas ILO International Labour Organization IOM Institute of Medicine IPM integrated pest management IRCA Immigration Reform and Control Act MAF Master Address File MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report MSAWPA Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act MSD musculoskeletal disorder MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration NAGCAT North American Guidelines for Childrenâs Agricultural Tasks NAICS North American Industry Classification System NASC NIOSH Agricultural Steering Committee NASD National Agriculture Safety Database NASS National Agricultural Statistics Service NAWS National Agricultural Workers Survey NCASH National Coalition for Agricultural Safety and Health NCCRAHS National Childrenâs Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety NCHS National Center for Health Statistics NCI National Cancer Institute NEC Northeast Center for Agricultural and Occupational Health NEISS National Electronic Injury Surveillance System NFMC National Farm Medicine Center NGO non-governmental organization NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NIEHS National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
xxiv A b b r e v i at i o n s and Acronyms NIFS National Institute for Farm Safety NIH National Institutes of Health NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NORA National Occupational Research Agenda NPFVOA North Pacific Fishing Vessel Ownersâ Association NPPTL National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory NLRA National Labor Relations Act NSC National Safety Council NTOF National Traumatic Occupational Fatality NYCAMH New York Center for Agricultural Medicine and Health OEP Office of Extramural Programs OHNAC Occupational Health Nurses in Agricultural Communities OMB Office of Management and Budget OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PNASHC Pacific Northwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center PRL Pittsburgh Research Laboratory QALS Quarterly Agricultural Labor Survey r2p research to practice RAW replenishment agricultural worker RFA request for application RFP request for proposal ROPS rollover protective structure RR relative risk SAW seasonal agricultural worker SENSOR Sentinel Event Notification of Occupational Risk SMV slow-moving vehicle SOII Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses SRL Spokane Research Laboratory SW Center Southwest Center for Agricultural Health, Injury Prevention, and Education TRAC-Safe Tractor Risk Abatement and Control UI unemployment insurance USCG U.S. Coast Guard
A b b r e v i at i o n s and Acronyms xxv USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture UTHCT University of Texas Health Center at Tyler WCAHS Western Center for Agricultural Health and Safety WCIRB Workersâ Compensation Insurance Rating Bureau WHO World Health Organization WoRLD Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance Report