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Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Environmental Health Sciences Decision Making: Risk Management, Evidence, and Ethics: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12444.
Page 57
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Environmental Health Sciences Decision Making: Risk Management, Evidence, and Ethics: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12444.
Page 58

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References Armstrong, B., and R. Doll. 1975. Bladder cancer mortality in diabetics in relation to saccharin con- sumption and smoking habits. British Journal of Preventive & Social Medicine 29:73–81. Arnold, D., C. Moodie, H. Grice, S. Charbonneau, B. Stavric, B. Collins, P. McGuire, Z. Zawidzka, and I. Monro. 1980. Long term toxicity of ortho-toluenesulfonamide and sodium saccharin in the rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 52:113–152. Ashby, J. 1985. The genotoxicity of sodium saccharin and sodium chloride in relation to their cancer- promoting properties. Food and Chemical Toxicology 23:507–519. Baines, C. 2003. Transparency at the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lancet 361(9359):781–782. EIA (Energy Information Administration). 2004. International Energy Annual. (accessed May 5, 2008). EIA. 2007. Projections: EIA, System for the Analysis of Global Energy Markets. (accessed May 5, 2008). EU (European Union). 2008. Europa Glossary. principle_en.htm (accessed April 10, 2008). FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 2006. New Federal Health Initiative to Improve Cancer Ther- apy. (accessed March 20, 2008). Gohlke, J., and C. Portier. 2007. The forest for the trees: A systems approach to human health re- search. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(9):1261–1263. Hastein, T., B. Hjeltnes, A. Lillehaug, J. Utne Skare, M. Berntssen, A. K. Lundebye. 2006. Food safety hazards that occur during the production stage: Challenges for fish farming and the fishing industry. Revues Scientifique et Technique 25(2):18. Hattis, D. 2000. Draft risk analysis ideals. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 6(6):7. Hattis, D. 2004. The conception of variability in risk analyses: Developments since 1980. In Risk Analysis and Society: An Interdisciplinary Characterization of the Field, edited by T. McDaniels and M. J. Small. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, pp. 15–45. Hattis, D.A., and E.L. Anderson. 1999. What should be the implications of uncertainty, variability, and inherent ‘‘biases’’/‘‘conservatism’’ for risk management decision-making? Society for Risk Analysis 19(1):13. HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) and NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens. 11th ed. Washington, DC: HHS and NTP. IARC. 1987. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks to humans. In Genetic and Related Effects: An Updating of Selected IARC Monographs from Volumes 1–42. Suppl. 6:488–496. 57

58 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES DECISION MAKING IARC. 2006. Preamble to the IARC Monographs. currenta2objective0706.php (accessed November 12, 2008). Majone, G. 2002. The precautionary principle and its policy implications. Journal of Common Market Studies 40:89–110. NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Questions and Answers About the Report on Carcino- gens. (accessed May 5, 2008). NTP. 2008. Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods ­(ICCVAM) Mission and Vision. (accessed May 5, 2008). OMB (Office of Management and Budget). 2006. Proposed Risk Assessment Bulletin. http://www. (accessed May 9, 2008). Palucka, T. 2004. Doing the impossible. Invention & Technology Magazine 19(3):22–31. Pearson, S.D., J. Sabin, and E.J. Emanuel. 2003. No Margin, No Mission: Health-care Organizations and the Quest for Ethical Evidence. New York: Oxford University Press. Steinzor, R., and M. Shudtz. 2007. Sequestering science: Secrets threatening public health. CPR White Paper 703(April). SUNY (State University of New York). 2004. Guide to research methods: The evidence pyramid. (accessed November 11, 2008). Sweatman, T., and A. Renwick. 1979. Saccharin metabolism and tumorigenicity. Science 205:1019– 1020. Taylor, J., M. Weinberger, and L. Friedman. 1980. Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity to the urinary bladder of sodium saccharin in the in utero–exposed rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 54:57–75. Teutsch, S.M. 2008. The evidence for evidence-based public health. Journal of Public Health Man- agement and Practice 14(2):92–93. Tisdel, M., P. Nees, D. Harris, and P. Derse. 1974. Long-term feeding of saccharin in rats. In Sympo- sium: Sweeteners (pp. 145–158). Westport, CT: Avi Publishing Co. United Nations. 1992. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. United Nations Con- ference on Environment and Development, June 13–14, Rio de Janeiro. Wagner, W., and R. Steinzor. 2006. Rescuing science from politics: Regulating and the distortion of scientific research. CPR White Paper 604(August). Whysner, J., and G. Williams. 1996. Saccharin mechanistic data and risk assessment: Urine com- position, enhanced cell proliferation, and tumor promotion. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 71:225–252.

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Environmental Health Sciences Decision Making: Risk Management, Evidence, and Ethics: Workshop Summary Get This Book
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Environmental health decision making can be a complex undertaking, as there is the need to navigate and find balance among three core elements: science, policy, and the needs of the American public. Policy makers often grapple with how to make appropriate decisions when the research is uncertain. The challenge for the policy maker is to make the right decision with the best available data in a transparent process.

The Environmental Health Sciences Decision Making workshop, the first in a series, was convened to inform the Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine on emerging issues in risk management, "weight of evidence," and ethics that influence environmental health decision making.

The workshop, summarized in this volume, included an overview of the principles underlying decision making, the role of evidence and challenges for vulnerable populations, and ethical issues of conflict of interest, scientific integrity, and transparency. The workshop engaged science interest groups, industry, government, and the academic sector.

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