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Severe Space Weather Events: Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report (2008)

Chapter: Appendix D: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff

« Previous: Appendix C: Abstracts Prepared by Workshop Panelists
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Research Council. 2008. Severe Space Weather Events: Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12507.
Page 125
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Research Council. 2008. Severe Space Weather Events: Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12507.
Page 126
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Research Council. 2008. Severe Space Weather Events: Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12507.
Page 127
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Research Council. 2008. Severe Space Weather Events: Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12507.
Page 128
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Research Council. 2008. Severe Space Weather Events: Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12507.
Page 129

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D Biographies of Committee Members and Staff DANIEL N. BAKER, Chair, is director of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado at Boulder and is a professor of astrophysical and planetary sciences and a professor of physics there. His primary research interest is the study of plasma physical and energetic particle phenomena in planetary mag- netospheres and in Earth’s vicinity. He conducts research in space instrument design, space physics data analysis, and magnetospheric modeling. Dr. Baker has published over 700 papers in the refereed literature and has edited six books on topics in space physics. He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union, the International Academy of Astronautics, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). He currently is an investiga- tor on several NASA space missions, including the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the Magnetospheric Multi- Scale (MMS) mission, the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission, and the Canadian ORBITALS mission. He has won numerous awards for his research efforts and for his management activities, including recognition by the Institute for Scientific Information as being “highly cited” in space research. Dr. Baker was chosen as a 2007 winner of the University of Colorado’s Robert L. Stearns Award for outstanding research, service, and teaching. He currently serves on several national and international scientific committees and on advisory panels of the U.S. Air Force and other federal agencies. He was a member of the Panel on Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere of the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) 2003 solar and space physics decadal survey and he was a member of the 2006 decadal review of the U.S. National Space Weather Program. ROBERTA BALSTAD is a senior research scientist at Columbia University and a senior fellow with the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) at Columbia University. Dr. Balstad has published extensively on science policy, information technology and scientific research, remote sensing applications and policy, and the role of the social sciences in understanding global environmental change. Before joining Columbia University, Dr. Balstad was the director of the Division of Social and Economic Sciences at the National Science Foundation, the founder and first executive director of the Consortium of Social Science Associations (COSSA), and president of CIESIN. She is chair of the NRC U.S. National Committee for CODATA, a member of the Com- mittee on a Survey of the Scientific Use of the Radio Spectrum, and a member of the U.S. National Committee for the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. Dr. Balstad was chair of the NRC Steering Committee on Space Applications and Commercialization. 125

126 SEVERE SPACE WEATHER EVENTS—UNDERSTANDING SOCIETAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS J. MICHAEL BODEAU has 28 years of experience in the satellite industry and is currently a technical fellow at Northrop Grumman Space Technology. During his career, he has supported the system engineering and detailed design of commercial telecommunication satellites, meteorological satellites, NASA great observatories, and government satellites. His expertise covers the various impacts space weather has on satellite performance and in-orbit anomaly resolution. He has briefed NASA, the U.S. Air Force, NOAA, and other agencies, as well as com- mercial satellite operators and insurers, on space weather impacts and mitigation. Mr. Bodeau has made multiple presentations to the space weather community on the needs of satellite designers, led a satellite industry splinter group at the October 2002 NASA-sponsored Radiation Belt Model Workshop, and has worked with the space science community to generate new plasma climatology models for GEO satellite design based on 15 years of accumulated in-orbit environment data. EUGENE CAMERON is manager of Global Support Flight Dispatch for United Airlines and is responsible for coordinating policies and procedures for United Airlines’ International Flight Dispatch Operations. Mr. Cameron has been instrumental in the development of cross-polar operations between North America and Asia. He has been associated with the flight dispatch operations of United during his entire career and is active on several International Air Transport Association (IATA) working groups, along with various international air traffic working groups, in the development of new international routes and procedures. Mr. Cameron was the first airline representative to work with the Space Environment Center in 1999 and 2000 to coordinate information exchanges concerning space weather effects on commercial flights in the polar region. JOSEPH F. FENNELL holds the position of distinguished scientist in the Space Science Application Laboratory at the Aerospace Corporation. Dr. Fennell’s recent research has included studies of magnetic storm and radiation belt processes, high-altitude plasma sheet, ring current composition studies, and magnetospheric boundary regions. Dr. Fennell has been involved in the development, fabrication, testing, and flight of many different particle instru- ments, ranging from auroral and magnetospheric plasma instruments to medium- and high-energy electron and ion sensors. His most recent instrumentation efforts have involved the energetic particle and energetic ion composition measurements on the CRRES, POLAR, and Cluster satellites. Dr. Fennell was a member of the NRC Commit- tee on Solar-Terrestrial Research, and he served on the Panel on Solar Wind-Magnetospheric Interactions of the Committee on Solar and Space Physics: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future. He is a member of the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics. GENENE M. FISHER is a senior policy fellow at the Policy Program of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and a visiting assistant professor of physics at North Carolina State University. Her policy research interests include space weather and atmospheric policy, federal funding of science research, and the interaction between the federal government, scientific community, and private sector. Dr. Fisher’s work focuses on policy research and analyses to improve how decisions are made by space weather scientists, end users, and policy makers regarding the impact of space weather on present and future technologies. KEVIN F. FORBES is an associate professor of economics and chair of the Business and Economics Depart- ment at the Catholic University of America, where he teaches courses in microeconomics, industrial organization, and econometrics. He is an active participant in Stanford University’s Energy Modeling Forum in which energy experts from government, industry, universities, and other research organizations meet to study important energy and environmental issues of common interest. With the support of the National Science Foundation, he has also written and lectured on the effects of geomagnetic storms on the electricity market. He has recently coauthored a study that examines space weather effects on electricity market outcomes in 12 power grids. PAUL M. KINTNER is a professor of electrical and computer engineering at Cornell University. Dr. Kintner’s research focuses on investigating the interaction of radio signals, both natural and man-made, with Earth’s iono- sphere or magnetosphere. Dr. Kintner’s studies include the propagation of electromagnetic signals (such as VLF signals initiated by lightning or navigational stations), the amplification of both natural and man-made signals

APPENDIX D 127 in space, the acceleration of ionospheric plasma by waves to form the radiation belts, and the effect of the space environment on the propagation of radio signals, specifically GPS signals. Dr. Kintner is an experimentalist who acquires electric field and magnetic field measurements from sounding rockets and satellites as well as ground- based measurements using arrays of GPS receivers. He has served on the Arecibo Scientific Advisory Committee, and he chaired the Geospace Mission Definition Team, NASA’s Management Operations Working Group, and the Living With a Star-Science Architecture committee. He is a former chair of the NASA Sun-Earth Connections Advisory Subcommittee. He was a member of the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics. LOUIS G. LEFFLER retired in June 2006 after a 47-year career in the electric power industry. He was a manager of critical infrastructure protection with the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), where he helped electric utilities develop policy and practices to ensure protection of the nation’s electric infrastructure against such hazards as geomagnetic disturbances created by space weather. He also helped develop tools to assist power system operators and reliability coordinators to help ensure bulk electric system reliability. Prior to joining NERC, he worked for the Public Service Electric and Gas Company of New Jersey, and his assignments included working with fossil power production, power station engineering (fossil and nuclear), and power system operations. He was chief engineer of a 1300-MW power station and general manager of system operations. As project manager for the General Agreement on Parallel Paths, he assisted in shaping policy and practices intended to ensure reli- able and equitable use of the interconnected transmission systems of the eastern United States and Canada. Mr. Leffler was involved in studying the March 1989 geomagnetic storm, and he was a presenter at the Space Weather Industry Day in Washington, D.C., in May 2006. He is a registered professional engineer and licensed steam plant engineer in New Jersey. WILLIAM S. LEWIS is principal scientist with the Space Research and Engineering Division of the Southwest Research Institute. Dr. Lewis’ primary research interest is in the area of auroral physics. He has co-authored papers on Jupiter’s x-ray and far-ultraviolet aurora, Earth’s proton aurora, Europa’s sputter-produced atmosphere, and the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) investigation. He is currently involved in studies using data obtained with the far-ultraviolet imaging system on the IMAGE spacecraft, with particular emphasis on the proton aurora. Dr. Lewis has been involved in the preparation of several NRC documents. As consultant to the Solar and Space Physics Survey Committee, he worked with the committee and NRC staff on the preparation of the first decadal survey in solar and space physics, The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond. He has also worked closely with the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics on the Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos report and on a popular booklet based on the decadal survey report. Dr. Lewis is a member of the American Geophysical Union and chaired the Web site committee of the AGU Space Physics and Aeronomy section (1998-2000). He was a member of the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics and of the Workshop Organizing Committee on Solar System Radiation Environment and NASA’s Vision for Space Exploration. JOSEPH B. REAGAN is a technology and senior management consultant. He retired in 1996 after a 37-year career at Lockheed Martin Corporation that included serving as vice president and general manager of the Palo Alto Research Laboratories and as a corporate vice president. His primary area of interest is technology development, and he has a broad range of experience in developing technologies in the sensor, software, cryogenics, instrumenta- tion, materials and electro-optical areas. Dr. Reagan spent 25 years of his early career in the study of space radia- tion and its impact on space systems, the ionosphere, and the atmosphere. He was involved with the first satellite measurements of the aurora borealis in 1960 and led more than 20 space experiments during his career. He was a principal advisor on space radiation effects to Lockheed military and civil space programs. Dr. Reagan is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and has received numerous awards for his achievements. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1998 and chaired the Aerospace Engineering section from 2005 to 2007. He also served as vice chair of the NRC Naval Studies Board from 2000 to 2004. ARTHUR A. SMALL III is an associate professor in the Department of Meteorology at Pennsylvania State Uni- versity. Dr. Small, an economist, conducts research that focuses on how variations in weather and climate create

128 SEVERE SPACE WEATHER EVENTS—UNDERSTANDING SOCIETAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS economic and financial risks, and on the means to manage these risks effectively. He also applies tools and con- cepts from quantitative finance to analyze markets for energy products, emissions, and weather derivatives. One of his objectives is to develop models of weather risk that can be integrated with financial models to create tools for derivative pricing, asset valuation, trading, and risk management. Dr. Small’s research results have appeared in publications that include the Journal of Political Economy, Review of Economics and Statistics, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, and the BE Press Topics in Economic Analysis and Policy. He has served as an editorial reviewer for numerous scholarly publications and currently serves on the editorial council for the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. THOMAS A. STANSELL heads Stansell Consulting, which he founded in 1999. Previously he was a vice president at Leica Geosystems, where he was involved in technology development and strategic relationships. Mr. Stansell is a pioneer of satellite navigation and has served the satellite navigation community for more than 43 years. Mr. Stansell began his career in 1960 when he joined the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Navy Navigation Satellite System development program. He led teams that developed the first integrated micro- computer-based satellite navigation receiver and the first microcomputer-based Doppler survey instrument, also called Geoceiver, the primary instrument employed by the Defense Mapping Agency for nearly two decades. In the 1980s he led the transition of Magnavox’s commercial satellite navigation and positioning technologies and products from Transit (the first operational satellite positioning system) to the Global Positioning System (GPS). He also led the development of miniature GPS survey receivers, pioneered precise and real-time GPS control of earth-moving machinery, and received patents for multipath mitigation techniques. Mr. Stansell is the recipient of the 1996 Institute of Navigation (ION) Weems Award, the 2000 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Position and Navigation Symposium (PLANS) Kershner Award, the 2002 GPS Joint Program Office Navstar Award, and the ION Satellite Division’s 2004 Johannes Kepler Award. He is a member of the “GPS World” and “Inside GNSS” editorial advisory boards and was elected a fellow of the ION in 1999. Mr. Stansell holds several GPS-related patents, and currently he is serving as the ION western regional vice president. LEONARD STRACHAN, JR., is an astrophysicist at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Dr. Strachan is a co-investigator with the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) team on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission. His research involves using space-based ultraviolet spectroscopy to understand the physical properties of the solar corona. These measurements are important for understanding the processes that drive both steady and dynamic solar wind. His previous experience includes participating in the instrument development, science operations, and data analysis for the Spartan 201 Space Shuttle experiment. Dr. Strachan has been a member of the NASA Solar and Heliospheric Management and Operations Working Group and the NASA Sun-Solar System Connection Roadmap Committee. Most recently he served on the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics and on the ad hoc Workshop Organizing Committee on Solar System Radiation Environment and NASA’s Vision for Space Exploration. Staff SANDRA J. GRAHAM has been a senior program officer at the Space Studies Board since 1994. During that time Dr. Graham has directed a large number of major studies, many of them focused on space research in biological and physical sciences and technology. More recent studies include an assessment of servicing options for the Hubble Space Telescope, reviews of the NASA roadmaps for space sciences and the International Space Station, and a review of NASA’s Space Communications Program while on loan to the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board. Before receiving her Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from Duke University in 1990, she carried out research focused primarily on topics in bioinorganic chemistry, such as the exchange mechanisms and reaction chemistry of biological metal complexes and their analogs. From 1990 to 1994, she held the position of senior scientist at the Bionetics Corporation, where she worked in the science branch of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters.

APPENDIX D 129 THERESA M. FISHER is a program associate with SSB. During her 25 years with the Academies, she has held positions in the executive, editorial, and contract offices of the National Academy of Engineering and positions with several NRC boards, including the Energy Engineering Board, the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, and the Marine Board. CATHERINE A. GRUBER is an assistant editor with SSB. She joined SSB as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber first came to the NRC in 1988 as a senior secretary for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and has worked as an outreach assistant for the NAS-Smithsonian Institution’s National Science Resources Center. She was a research assistant (chemist) in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland. VICTORIA SWISHER joined the Space Studies Board in December 2006 as a research associate. She recently received a B.A. in astronomy from Swarthmore College. She has presented the results of her research at the 2005 and 2006 American Astronomical Society (AAS) meetings and at various Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium (KNAC) undergraduate research conferences. Her most recent research focused on laboratory astrophysics and involved studying the x-rays of plasma, culminating in a senior thesis entitled “Modeling UV and X-ray Spectra from the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment.”

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The adverse effects of extreme space weather on modern technology--power grid outages, high-frequency communication blackouts, spacecraft anomalies--are well known and well documented, and the physical processes underlying space weather are also generally well understood. Less well documented and understood, however, are the potential economic and societal impacts of the disruption of critical technological systems by severe space weather.

As a first step toward determining the socioeconomic impacts of extreme space weather events and addressing the questions of space weather risk assessment and management, a public workshop was held in May 2008. The workshop brought together representatives of industry, the government, and academia to consider both direct and collateral effects of severe space weather events, the current state of the space weather services infrastructure in the United States, the needs of users of space weather data and services, and the ramifications of future technological developments for contemporary society's vulnerability to space weather. The workshop concluded with a discussion of un- or underexplored topics that would yield the greatest benefits in space weather risk management.

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