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Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 90 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. www.nap.edu
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Con- gress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corÂ porate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. Any opinions expressed in this memoir are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences. international standard book number 978-0-309-12148-4 international standard serial number 0077-2933 library of congress catalog card number 5-26629 Available from the national academies press 500 fifth street , n . w . washington , d . c . 20001 copyright 2009 by the national academy of sciences all rights reserved printed in the united states of america
C ontents PREFACE vii GERALD Donald AURBACH 3 by IRA PASTAN HORACE WELCOME BABCOCK 17 BY GEORGE W. PRESTON BRYCE SELIGMAN DEWITT 55 BY STEVEN WEINBERG WILLIAM FELLER 71 BY Murray ROSENBLATT JOHN DOUGLASS FERRY 87 BY ROBERT F. LANDEL, MICHAEL W. MOSESSON, AND JOHN L. SCHRAG GEORGE McCLELLAND FOSTER JR. 113 BY ROBERT V. KEMPER JOSEPH HAROLD GREENBERG 153 by william croft JAMES BENNETT GRIFFIN 183 BY HENRY T. WRIGHT v
vi CONTENTS MALCOLM ROBERT IRWIN 199 BY RAY D. OWEN MARIAN ELLIOTT KOSHLAND 213 BY RUTH LEVY GUYER HENRY SHERWOOD LAWRENCE 237 BY SALAH AL-ASKARI EDWARD CRAIG MORRIS 257 BY JOYCE MARCUS GEORGE CLAUDE PIMENTEL 275 BY C. BRADLEY MOORE BENJAMIN IRVING ROUSE 307 BY WILLIAM F. KEEGAN JULIAN SCHWINGER 333 BY PAUL C. MARTIN AND SHELDON L. GLASHOW LYMAN SPITZER JR. 355 BY JEREMIAH P. OSTRIKER JULIUS ADAMS STRATTON 373 BY PAUL E. GRAY IGOR TAMM 397 BY PURNELL W. Choppin EDWARD TELLER 413 BY FREEMAN J. DYSON ANTHONY L. TURKEVICH 433 BY R. STEPHEN BERRY, ROBERT N. CLAYTON, GEORGE A. COWAN, AND THANASIS E. ECONOMOU
PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sci- ences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academyâs goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliog- raphies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subjectâs work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in Americaâan important part of our nationâs contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. JOHN I. BRAUMAN Home Secretary vii