National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Appendix B: Acronyms
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Glossary." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Global Issues in Water, Sanitation, and Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12658.
Page 283
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Glossary." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Global Issues in Water, Sanitation, and Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12658.
Page 284

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Appendix C Glossary Anthroponotic: Transmission from human to human and potentially from human to animal. Conjunctiva: The thin, transparent tissue that covers the outer surface of the eye.  It begins at the outer edge of the cornea, covering the visible part of the sclera, and lining the inside of the eyelids.  It is nourished by tiny blood vessels that are nearly invisible to the naked eye (­ Conjunctiva.asp [accessed June 3, 2009]). Copepod: A type of crustacean which may live in both salt and freshwater and is one of the most abundant animals on the planet ( celeste/Intro/ index.html [accessed June 3, 2009]). Cornea: The transparent, dome-shaped window covering the front of the eye ( [accessed June 3, 2009]). CT measurement: The product of free chlorine residual (C) and contact time (T) required for disinfection which measures the effectiveness of free chlorine in inactivating microorganisms. Dracunculiasis: Dracunculiasis, or Guinea worm disease, is caused by the para- site Dracunculus medinensis. The disease affects poor communities in remote parts of Africa that do not have safe water to drink. There is no treatment for Guinea worm disease, yet removal of the worm as it emerges from the infected 283

284 GLOBAL ISSUES IN WATER, SANITATION, AND HEALTH person’s skin is curative or surgical removal by a trained doctor (http://www.cdc. gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/dracunculiasis/ default.htm [accessed June 3, 2009]). Evaporation: The conversion of liquid to gas. Flocculation: The separation of a solution. Most commonly, flocculation is used to describe the removal of a sediment from a fluid. In addition to occur- ring naturally, flocculation can also be forced through agitation or the addition of ­ flocculating agents. Numerous manufacturing industries use flocculation as part of their processing techniques, and it is also extensively employed in water treatment. The technique is also widely used in the medical world to analyze vari- ous fluids ( [accessed June 3, 2009]). Fomite: Inanimate objects or substances that can transmit infectious organisms from one host to another (IOM. 1993. Indoor allergens: assessing and controlling adverse health effects. Washington, DC: National Academy Press). Megacity: Urban concentration with more than 10 million inhabitants (wwap. [accessed June 4, 2009]). Recreational water: That which is used for water-based activities in marine, freshwater, hot tubs, spas and swimming pools (Pond, K. 2005. Water recreation and disease. plausibility of associated infections: acute effects, sequelae and mor- tality. London: IWA Publishing on behalf of the World Health Organization). Sullage: Sullage (or grey water) is dirty water from the laundry, kitchen, and bathroom. Grey water contains chemicals such as dish detergent and soap as well as fats, grease, and whatever washes off our body while bathing. Sullage does not usually contain sewage but can be equally contaminated and can cause infections ( volume2/chap2/intro.htm [accessed May 18, 2009]). Superfund: The U.S. government program to clean up the nation’s uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.

Next: Appendix D: Forum Member Biographies »
Global Issues in Water, Sanitation, and Health: Workshop Summary Get This Book
 Global Issues in Water, Sanitation, and Health: Workshop Summary
Buy Paperback | $66.50 Buy Ebook | $54.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

As the human population grows--tripling in the past century while, simultaneously, quadrupling its demand for water--Earth's finite freshwater supplies are increasingly strained, and also increasingly contaminated by domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastes. Today, approximately one-third of the world's population lives in areas with scarce water resources. Nearly one billion people currently lack access to an adequate water supply, and more than twice as many lack access to basic sanitation services. It is projected that by 2025 water scarcity will affect nearly two-thirds of all people on the planet.

Recognizing that water availability, water quality, and sanitation are fundamental issues underlying infectious disease emergence and spread, the Institute of Medicine held a two-day public workshop, summarized in this volume. Through invited presentations and discussions, participants explored global and local connections between water, sanitation, and health; the spectrum of water-related disease transmission processes as they inform intervention design; lessons learned from water-related disease outbreaks; vulnerabilities in water and sanitation infrastructure in both industrialized and developing countries; and opportunities to improve water and sanitation infrastructure so as to reduce the risk of water-related infectious disease.


  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook,'s online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!