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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. 2007-2008 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12742.
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Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board Laboratory Assessments Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, N.W.   Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the authoring board respon- sible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. DAAD17-03-C-0017 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Army Research Laboratory. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-14390-5 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-14390-X Copies of this report are available from Laboratory Assessments Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of ­Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT BOARD ROBERT W. BRODERSEN, University of California, Berkeley, Chair DONALD B. CHAFFIN, University of Michigan PETER M. KOGGE, University of Notre Dame KENNETH REIFSNIDER, University of South Carolina JOHN C. SOMMERER, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory DWIGHT C. STREIT, Northrop Grumman Space Technology Staff JAMES P. McGEE, Director ARUL MOZHI, Senior Program Officer LIZA HAMILTON, Administrative Coordinator 

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: William B. Bridges, California Institute of Technology, Michael Dunn, Ohio State University, David Ferguson, Boeing Company (retired), James Glimm, State University of New York, Thom J. Hodgson, North Carolina State University, Mary Jane Irwin, Pennsylvania State University, and Richard Pew, BBN Technologies. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Alton D. Slay, Warrenton, Virginia. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring board and the institution. vii

Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 3 The Biennial Assessment Process, 3 Crosscutting Issues, 6 Linkage Between Army Research Laboratory and Army Research Office, 10 2 COMPUTATIONAL AND INFORMATION SCIENCES DIRECTORATE 11 Introduction, 11 Changes Since the Previous Review, 12 Accomplishments and Advancements, 13 Opportunities and Challenges, 18 Overall Technical Quality of the Work, 23 3 HUMAN RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE 26 Introduction, 26 Changes Since the Previous Review, 27 Accomplishments and Advancements, 29 Opportunities and Challenges, 34 Overall Technical Quality of the Work, 37 4 SENSORS AND ELECTRON DEVICES DIRECTORATE 39 Introduction, 39 Changes Since the Previous Review, 39 ix

 CONTENTS Accomplishments and Advancements, 41 Opportunities and Challenges, 53 Overall Technical Quality of the Work, 55 5 SURVIVABILITY AND LETHALITY ANALYSIS DIRECTORATE 57 Introduction, 57 Changes Since the Previous Review, 58 Accomplishments and Advancements, 59 Opportunities and Challenges, 65 Overall Technical Quality of the Work, 69 6 VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE 71 Introduction, 71 Changes Since the Previous Review, 71 Accomplishments and Advancements, 72 Opportunities and Challenges, 73 Overall Technical Quality of the Work, 74 7 WEAPONS AND MATERIALS RESEARCH DIRECTORATE 77 Introduction, 77 Changes Since the Previous Review, 77 Accomplishments and Advancements, 78 Opportunities and Challenges, 92 Overall Technical Quality of the Work, 96 APPENDIXES A Army Research Laboratory Organization Chart, Resources, and Staffing Profile 99 B Membership of the Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board and Its Panels 107 C Assessment Criteria 114 D Acronyms 117

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This volume is the latest in a series of biennial assessments of the scientific and technical quality of the Army Research Laboratory (ARL). The current report summarizes findings for the 2007-2008 period, during which 95 volunteer experts in fields of science and engineering participated in the following activities: visiting ARL annually, receiving formal presentations of technical work, examining facilities, engaging in technical discussions with ARL staff, and reviewing ARL technical materials.

The overall quality of ARL's technical staff and their work continues to be impressive, as well as the relevance of their work to Army needs. ARL continues to exhibit a clear, passionate concern for the end user of its technology—the soldier in the field. While two directorates have large program-support missions, there is considerable customer-support work across the directorates, which universally demonstrate mindfulness of the importance of transitioning technology to support immediate and near-term Army needs. ARL staff also continue to expand their involvement with the wider scientific and engineering community.

This involvement includes monitoring relevant developments elsewhere, engaging in significant collaborative work (including the Collaborative Technology Alliances), and sharing work through peer reviews. In general, ARL is working very well within an appropriate research and development niche and has been demonstrating significant accomplishments.

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