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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Assessing the Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13127.
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ASSESSING THE REQUIREMENTS FOR

SUSTAINED OCEAN COLOR
RESEARCH AND OPERATIONS

Committee on Assessing Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations

Ocean Studies Board
Division on Earth and Life Studies

Space Studies Board
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                          OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Assessing the Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13127.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant number NNX09AP57G, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under contract number DG133R08CQ0062, the National Science Foundation under grant number OCE-0948911, and the Office of Naval Research under contract number N00014-05-G-0288. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-21044-7
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-21044-5

Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Assessing the Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13127.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Assessing the Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13127.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Assessing the Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13127.
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COMMITTEE ON ASSESSING REQUIREMENTS FOR SUSTAINED OCEAN COLOR RESEARCH AND OPERATIONS

JAMES A. YODER (Chair), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts

DAVID ANTOINE, Marine Optics and Remote Sensing Lab, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, Villefranche-sur-Mer, Cedex, France

CARLOS E. DEL CASTILLO,* Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Maryland

ROBERT H. EVANS, University of Miami, Florida

CURTIS MOBLEY, Sequoia Scientific Inc., Bellevue, Washington

JORGE L. SARMIENTO, Princeton University, New Jersey

SHUBHA SATHYENDRANATH, Dalhousie University, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada

CARL F. SCHUELER, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Santa Barbara, California

DAVID A. SIEGEL, University of California, Santa Barbara

CARA WILSON, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Fisheries Service, Pacific Grove, California

Staff

CLAUDIA MENGELT, Senior Program Officer

ARTHUR A. CHARO, Senior Program Officer

HEATHER CHIARELLO, Senior Program Assistant

JEREMY JUSTICE, Senior Program Assistant

EMILY OLIVER, Program Assistant

____________________________

* Resigned from the committee to take a position with NASA.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Assessing the Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13127.
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OCEAN STUDIES BOARD

DONALD F. BOESCH (Chair), University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science

EDWARD A. BOYLE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

CORTIS K. COOPER, Chevron Corporation, California

JORGE E. CORREDOR, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez

KEITH R. CRIDDLE, University of Alaska, Fairbanks

JODY W. DEMING, University of Washington

ROBERT HALLBERG, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Princeton University, New Jersey

DEBRA HERNANDEZ, Hernandez and Company, South Carolina

ROBERT A. HOLMAN, Oregon State University

KIHO KIM, American University, Washington, D.C.

BARBARA A. KNUTH, Cornell University, New York

ROBERT A. LAWSON, Science Applications International Corporation, California

GEORGE I. MATSUMOTO, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, California

JAY S. PEARLMAN, The Boeing Company (Retired), Washington

ANDREW A. ROSENBERG, Conservation International, Virginia

DANIEL L. RUDNICK, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, California

ANNE M. TREHU, Oregon State University

PETER L. TYACK, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts

DON WALSH, International Maritime Incorporated, Oregon

DAWN J. WRIGHT, Oregon State University

JAMES A. YODER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts

OSB Staff

SUSAN ROBERTS, Director

DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer

CLAUDIA MENGELT, Senior Program Officer

KIM WADDELL, Senior Program Officer

MARTHA MCCONNELL, Program Officer

SHUBHA BANSKOTA, Financial Associate

PAMELA LEWIS, Administrative Coordinator

SHERRIE FORREST, Associate Program Officer

HEATHER CHIARELLO, Senior Program Assistant

LAUREN HARDING, Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Assessing the Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13127.
×

SPACE STUDIES BOARD

CHARLES F. KENNEL (Chair), Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego

JOHN KLINEBERG (Vice Chair), Space Systems/Loral, California (Retired)

MARK R. ABBOTT, Oregon State University

STEVEN J. BATTEL, Battel Engineering, Arizona

YVONNE C. BRILL, Aerospace Consultant, New Jersey

ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California

ANDREW B. CHRISTENSEN, Dixie State College/Aerospace Corporation, California

ALAN DRESSLER, The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution, California

JACK D. FELLOWS, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Colorado

HEIDI B. HAMMEL, AURA, Connecticut

FIONA A. HARRISON, California Institute of Technology

ANTHONY C. JANETOS, University of Maryland

JOAN JOHNSON-FREESE, Naval War College, Rhode Island

ROBERT P. LIN, University of California, Berkeley

MOLLY K. MACAULEY, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC

JOHN F. MUSTARD, Brown University, Rhode Island

ROBERT T. PAPPALARDO, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

JAMES PAWELCZYK, Pennsylvania State University

MARCIA J. RIEKE, University of Arizona

SOROOSH SOROOSHIAN, University of California, Irvine, Earth Science and Applications

DAVID N. SPERGEL, Princeton University, New Jersey

JOAN VERNIKOS, Thirdage LLC, Virginia

WARREN M. WASHINGTON, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Colorado

CLIFFORD M. WILL, Washington University

CHARLES E. WOODWARD, University of Minnesota

THOMAS H. ZURBUCHEN, University of Michigan

SSB Staff

MICHAEL MOLONEY, Board Director*

JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER, Senior Program Officer

TERRI BAKER, Senior Program Assistant

CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator*

ARTHUR A. CHARO, Senior Program Officer

SANDRA J. GRAHAM, Senior Program Officer

LEWIS GROSWALD, Research Associate

CATHERINE A. GRUBER, Editor, SSB*

RODNEY N. HOWARD, Senior Project Assistant

CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate*

TANJA E. PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations*

IAN W. PRYKE, Senior Program Officer

ROBERT L. RIEMER, Senior Program Officer*

ABIGAIL SHEFFER, Associate Program Officer

CHRISTINA O. SHIPMAN, Financial Officer*

DAVID H. SMITH, Senior Program Officer

LINDA WALKER, Senior Project Assistant

SANDRA WILSON, Financial Assistant*

DIONNA WILLIAMS, Program Associate

____________________________

* Staff of another NRC Board who are shared with the SSB.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Assessing the Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13127.
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Preface

Ocean biology and biogeochemistry entered a new era with the launch of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) in 1978. For the first time, maps of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll)—a key measurement of marine ecosystems—could be produced from space observations with the potential for daily to interannual observations at ocean basin scales. Led by scientists based at NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center and supported by academic partners at the University of Miami and around the world, the capability to process and distribute the data developed rapidly. As a result, the numbers of applications and users also grew quickly. By the time the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) launched in 1997, regional to global maps of phytoplankton chlorophyll and other products derived from satellite measurements of water-leaving radiance (ocean color) were accessible to users all over the world and had become an essential measurement for the study and analysis of ocean biogeochemistry and ocean ecosystems.

Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Terra launched in 1999 and MODIS-Aqua launched in 2002; the latter was a follow-on to SeaWiFS. Both had nominal ocean color capabilities, although processing Terra data for quantitative ocean color measurements proved to be an almost insurmountable challenge with only modest recent success. The increase in the number of international users and the increase in applications, however, did not lead to a clear path forward to sustain a quantitative time-series of satellite ocean color observations by U.S. sensors beyond MODIS. International partners, such as the Japanese and European Space Agency (ESA), also launched sensors, but some were short-lived, others were not suitable for global observations, and others had initial challenges to support data distribution for the international user community. In the United States, the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) platforms was to provide ocean color observations beyond MODIS, particularly for operational users. However, many ocean color users felt isolated from the planning for VIIRS and were unimpressed with the technical specifications and proposed mission operations. Many, if not most, users did not believe VIIRS could sustain the SeaWiFS/MODIS-Aqua time-series for quantitative observations. Meanwhile, SeaWiFS, both MODIS instruments, and the European Space Agency’s Medium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument were beyond their design lifetime. This was the environment during which the committee began its task in 2010 to assess the “continuity of satellite ocean color data and associated climate research products … at significant risk for the U.S. ocean color community.”

The committee met with experts in and out of government and hosted a community workshop to get opinions on VIIRS and non-U.S. options for future satellite ocean color measurements for U.S. users. The committee considered sensor specifications, mission operation scenarios, calibration and validation plans (or lack thereof), data exchange policies and related issues. Our task was complicated owing to major developments in ocean color remote sensing in 2010, which included: the NPOESS program was significantly restructured to become the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS); a team from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) characterized the VIIRS sensor with unanticipated positive results; NASA announced the Pre-Aerosol-Clouds-Ecosystem (PACE) mission, which included an advanced ocean color instrument for launch in 2019; and SeaWiFS stopped operating. With the exception of the demise of SeaWiFS, all of these were positive developments and strongly influenced our report and its conclusions. Most recently (April 2011) Congress finally approved the U.S. government’s FY11 budget, which included significant cuts to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) satellite programs in comparison to the President’s FY11 budget submission. The implication of these cuts for

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Assessing the Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13127.
×

VIIRS on NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and JPSS-1 are not known to the committee.

Many individuals from NASA, NOAA, private industry, and academia attended the open sessions of our meetings and contributed essential information. In particular, many of these individuals helped the committee understand very technical issues as well as the complex organizational issues associated with the restructuring of NPOESS. I am also grateful to the committee members who worked so well together and were able to come to consensus on all of the important issues.

Finally, I am most grateful to the National Research Council (NRC) staff—Study Director, Claudia Mengelt; Senior Program Assistant, Jeremy Justice; Program Assistant, Emily Oliver; Senior Program Assistant, Heather Chiarello; and Ocean Studies Board Director, Susan Roberts for all of the time and effort they dedicated to the completion of this report.

Jim Yode, Chair
Committee on Assessing Requirements for
Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Assessing the Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13127.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report was greatly enhanced by the participants of the meetings held as part of this study. The committee would first like to acknowledge the efforts of those who gave presentations at meetings: Steve Ackleson (ONR), Bob Arnone (NRL), Paula Bontempi (NASA), Emmanuel Boss (University of Maine), Tony Busalacchi (University of Maryland), Curt Davis (OSU), Paul DiGiacomo (NOAA), James Gleason (NASA), Bruce Guenther (NOAA), Carol Johnson (NIST), Henri Laur (ESA), Charles McClain (NASA), Hiroshi Murakami (JAXA), Steve Murawski (NOAA), Fred Pratt (GSF), Peter Regner (ESA), Karen St. Germaine (NOAA), Phil Taylor (NSF), Kevin Turpie (NASA), Menghua Wang (NOAA), Stan Wilson (NOAA), and Giuseppe Zibordi (Joint Research Centre, Ispra). These talks helped set the stage for fruitful discussions in the closed sessions that followed.

The committee is also grateful to a number of people who provided important discussion, submitted white papers, and helped improve the quality of this report: Paul DiGiacomo (NOAA), Carol Johnson (NIST),Charles McClain (NASA), Stan Wilson (NOAA), and Shelby Wood.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that this report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in their review of this report:

WILLIAM M. BALCH, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, Boothbay Harbor, Maine

MICHAEL BEHRENFELD, Oregon State University, Corvallis

OTIS BROWN, Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites, North Carolina

JANET CAMPBELL, University of New Hampshire, Dover

CURTISS DAVIS, Oregon State University, Corvallis

HEIDI DIERSSEN, University of Connecticut, Avery Point, Groton

HOWARD GORDON, University of Miami, Florida

ANDRE MOREL, Marine Optics and Remote Sensing Lab, Villefranche-sur-mer, France

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Francisco P. Chavez, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, appointed by the Divison on Earth and Life Studies, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Assessing the Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13127.
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The ocean is a fundamental component of the earth's biosphere. It covers roughly 70 percent of Earth's surface and plays a pivotal role in the cycling of life's building blocks, such as nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and sulfur. The ocean also contributes to regulating the climate system. Most of the primary producers in the ocean comprise of microscopic plants and some bacteria; and these photosynthetic organisms (phytoplankton) form the base of the ocean's food web. Monitoring the health of the ocean and its productivity is critical to understanding and managing the ocean's essential functions and living resources. Because the ocean is so vast and difficult for humans to explore, satellite remote sensing of ocean color is currently the only way to observe and monitor the biological state of the surface ocean globally on time scales of days to decades.

Ocean color measurements reveal a wealth of ecologically important characteristics including: chlorophyll concentration, the rate of phytoplankton photosynthesis, sediment transport, dispersion of pollutants, and responses of oceanic biota to long-term climate changes. Continuity of satellite ocean color data and associated climate research products are presently at significant risk for the U.S. ocean color community. Assessing Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations aims to identify the ocean color data needs for a broad range of end users, develop a consensus for the minimum requirements, and outline options to meet these needs on a sustained basis. The report assesses lessons learned in global ocean color remote sensing from the SeaWiFS/MODIS era to guide planning for acquisition of future global ocean color radiance data to support U.S. research and operational needs.

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