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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13144.
×

Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems

Committee on Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems

National Materials and Manufacturing Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13144.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract No. W911NF-08-D-0005 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13144.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine


The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.


The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.


The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.


The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.


www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13144.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13144.
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COMMITTEE ON MATERIALS NEEDS AND R&D STRATEGY FOR FUTURE MILITARY AEROSPACE PROPULSION SYSTEMS

GEORGE K. MUELLNER,

The Boeing Company (retired),

Chair

DANIEL G. BACKMAN,

Worcester Polytechnic Institute

CHARLES E. BROWNING,

University of Dayton

WILLIAM G. FAHRENHOLTZ,

Missouri University of Science and Technology

WESLEY L. HARRIS,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

S. MICHAEL HUDSON,

Rolls-Royce North America Holdings (retired)

SYLVIA M. JOHNSON,

NASA Ames Research Center

WILLIAM L. JOHNSON,

California Institute of Technology

ERIC J. JUMPER,

University of Notre Dame

ROBERT H. LATIFF,

R. Latiff Associates

JUDITH SCHNEIDER,

Mississippi State University

Staff

ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Study Director

RICKY D. WASHINGTON, Executive Assistant

TERI THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator (until December 2009)

LAURA TOTH, Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13144.
×

NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD

ROBERT H. LATIFF,

R. Latiff Associates,

Chair

DENISE F. SWINK, Independent Consultant, Vice Chair

PETER R. BRIDENBAUGH,

Alcoa, Inc. (retired)

VALERIE BROWNING,

ValTech Solutions, LLC

YET MING CHIANG,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

PAUL CITRON,

Medtronic, Inc. (retired)

GEORGE T. GRAY III,

Los Alamos National Laboratory

CAROL A. HANDWERKER,

Purdue University

THOMAS S. HARTWICK, Independent Consultant

SUNDARESAN JAYARAMAN,

Georgia Institute of Technology

DAVID W. JOHNSON, JR.,

Stevens Institute of Technology

TOM KING,

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

MICHAEL F. McGRATH,

Analytic Services, Inc.

NABIL NASR,

Rochester Institute of Technology

PAUL S. PEERCY,

University of Wisconsin-Madison

ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR.,

International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative

VINCENT J. RUSSO,

Aerospace Technologies Associates, LLC

KENNETH H. SANDHAGE,

Georgia Institute of Technology

ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK,

GE Aviation

HAYDN WADLEY,

University of Virginia

STEVEN WAX,

Strategic Analysis, Inc.

Staff

DENNIS CHAMOT, Acting Director (as of April 2010)

GARY FISCHMAN, Director (until April 2010)

ERIK SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer

RICKY D. WASHINGTON, Executive Assistant

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

LAURA TOTH, Program Assistant

TERI THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator (until December 2009)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13144.
×

Preface

Significant advances in the performance and efficiency of jet and rocket propulsion systems are strongly dependent on the development of lighter, more durable high-temperature materials. Materials development has been significantly reduced in the United States since the early 1990s, when the Department of Defense (DOD), the military services, and industry had very active materials development activities to underpin the development of new propulsion systems. This resulted in significant improvements in all engine characteristics and established the United States at the leading edge of global propulsion technology.

In 2006, a study from the National Research Council (NRC) titled A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs identified the need for technology advances in high-speed turbine engines, ram/scramjet/pulse detonation engines, rocket propulsion, combined cycle engines, and ultra-efficient propulsion to meet future military needs.1 Each of the identified needs requires advances in propulsion technology, and those advances are strongly dependent on materials development activities. The DOD, the sponsor of the present study, thus identified the following tasks to be carried out by the present study committee (see Appendix A for the complete statement of task):

  • Examine whether current and planned U.S. research and development efforts in materials for aerospace propulsion are sufficient (a) to meet U.S. military needs and (b) to keep the U.S. on the leading edge of propulsion technology.

1

 National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13144.
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  • Consider mechanisms for the timely insertion of materials in propulsion systems and, if necessary, how these mechanisms might be improved.

  • Consider mechanisms in place that retain intellectual property (IP) securely and how IP might be secured in future R&D programs.

  • Describe the general elements of an R&D strategy to develop materials for future military aerospace propulsion systems.

To accomplish this study, the National Research Council established the Committee on Military Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems (see Appendix C for biographies of the committee members). The committee visited and received presentations from the sponsor, government research agencies, major propulsion companies, university researchers, and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Materials Technical Committee, which covers the propulsion and materials science domains.

In addition, the committee was provided the document titled Materials for Advanced Aerospace Propulsion and Power Systems (AFRL-RZ-WP-TM-2008-2171). Restricted by the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), that document contains the current plan for materials development within the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and was used as the baseline for current planned R&D efforts within the DOD. Owing to the restricted nature of that AFRL baseline document, the committee’s specific assessment of current and planned U.S. R&D efforts in mate rials for aerospace propulsion is presented in an ITAR-restricted appendix (Appendix D), the text of which is not releasable to the public.

My personal thanks go to all of the members of the committee for their commitment of considerable time and energy. I am particularly grateful to Mike Hudson, Eric Jumper, Bob Latiff, Wesley Harris, and Sylvia Johnson for leading major segments of the study. The committee is also very grateful to Erik Svedberg, the study director, and to Teri Thorowgood, the administrative coordinator until December 2009, for guiding us through the study process. Erik Svedberg not only steered the committee but also provided valuable research contributions.

The committee hopes that this report will increase the efficiency, level of effort, and impact of DOD materials development activities. Budgetary restrictions demand increased collaboration and focus, as significant improvements in the performance and efficiency of U.S. military aerospace propulsion systems are both possible and needed.


George K. Muellner, Chair

Committee on Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13144.
×

Acknowledgments

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Meyer J. Benzakein, Ohio State University,

Dianne Chong, The Boeing Company,

David E. Crow, University of Connecticut,

Alan Epstein, Pratt & Whitney,

Diana Farkas, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,

Bernard L. Koff, Pratt & Whitney (retired),

James E. McGrath, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,

Carolyn W. Meyers, Norfolk State University, and

Charles F. Tiffany, The Boeing Company (retired).

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13144.
×

review of this report was overseen by Hyla Napadensky, retired vice president, Napadensky Energetics, Inc. Appointed by the NRC, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

The committee also thanks its guest speakers, who added to the members’ under standing of the materials issues related to future aerospace propulsion systems:

Joni Arnold, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL),

Drew DeGeorge, Edwards Air Force Base,

Kenneth Eickmann, University of Texas at Austin,

Joan Fuller, Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR),

William Hack, AFRL,

John Halchak, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne,

Dallis Hardwick, AFRL,

Clay Haubert, GE Aviation,

Joseph Koo, University of Texas at Austin,

Ajay Misra, NASA Glenn Research Center,

Francis Preli, Pratt & Whitney,

Tom Russel1, AFOSR,

David Schifler, Office of Naval Research,

Jack Schirra, Pratt & Whitney,

Charlie Stevens, AFRL,

Kathy Stevens, AFRL,

Art Temmesfeld, AFRL,

Malcolm Thomas, Rolls-Royce Group, and

Charles Ward, AFRL.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13144.
×
   

 2.10  Propulsion Materials Research Support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research,

 

60

   

 2.11  Findings,

 

64

3

 

MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT ASSESSMENT

 

68

   

 3.1  Development Process for Structural Materials Research and Development,

 

68

   

 3.2  Organizational Entities of the Air Force Research Laboratory,

 

71

   

 3.3  Materials Research and Databases,

 

80

   

 3.4  Materials Contribution to Current and Emerging Propulsion Systems,

 

89

   

 3.5  Global Competitiveness,

 

101

   

 3.6  The Plan,

 

108

   

 3.7  Findings,

 

115

   

 3.8  Recommendations,

 

117

4

 

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND EXPORT CONTROL

 

118

   

 4.1  Collaborative Materials Development and Intellectual Property,

 

119

   

 4.2  Globalization,

 

122

   

 4.3  Critical Engine Materials,

 

122

   

 4.4  Collaboration and Intellectual Property,

 

124

   

 4.5  Intellectual Property Protection Mechanisms,

 

129

5

 

ELEMENTS OF AN EFFECTIVE R&D STRATEGY

 

131

   

 5.1  Introduction,

 

131

   

 5.2  Elements of an Effective Strategy,

 

133

   

 5.3  Risk Management,

 

142

   

 5.4  Recommendations,

 

143

 

 

APPENDIXES

 

 

   

 A  Statement of Task

 

147

   

 B  The Leading Edge in Aerospace Propulsion

 

149

   

 C  Biographies of Committee Members

 

180

   

 D  ITAR-Restricted Analysis of the Plan1

 

187

   

 E  Materials Development Case Studies

 

188

   

 F  Acronyms

 

198

1

 Note that the text of Appendix D is not releasable to the public under ITAR.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13144.
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The ongoing development of military aerospace platforms requires continuous technology advances in order to provide the nation's war fighters with the desired advantage. Significant advances in the performance and efficiency of jet and rocket propulsion systems are strongly dependent on the development of lighter more durable high-temperature materials. Materials development has been significantly reduced in the United States since the early 1990s, when the Department of Defense (DOD), the military services, and industry had very active materials development activities to underpin the development of new propulsion systems. This resulted in significant improvements in all engine characteristics and established the United States in global propulsion technology.

Many of the significant advances in aircraft and rocket propulsion have been enabled by improved materials and, materials manufacturing processes. To improve efficiency further, engine weight must be reduced while preserving thrust. Materials Needs and Research and Development Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems examines whether current and planned U.S. efforts are sufficient to meet U.S. military needs while keeping the U.S. on the leading edge of propulsion technology. This report considers mechanisms for the timely insertion of materials in propulsion systems and how these mechanisms might be improved, and describes the general elements of research and development strategies to develop materials for future military aerospace propulsion systems. The conclusions and recommendations asserted in this report will enhance the efficiency, level of effort, and impact of DOD materials development activities.

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