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Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence (2011)

Chapter:Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
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Appendix D

Biosketches of Committee
Members and Staff

Ira Shoulson, M.D. (Chair) (IOM), is professor of neurology, pharmacology, and human science and director of the Program for Regulatory Science and Medicine at Georgetown University—new full-time academic positions effective January 1, 2011. Previously, Dr. Shoulson was the Louis C. Lasagna Professor of Experimental Therapeutics and professor of neurology, pharmacology and medicine at the University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry in Rochester, New York. He received his M.D. degree (1971) and postdoctoral training in medicine (1971–1973) and neurology (1975–1977) at the University of Rochester and in experimental therapeutics at the National Institutes of Health (1973–1975). Dr. Shoulson founded the Parkinson Study Group (www.parkinson-strudy-group.org) in 1985 and the Huntington Study Group (www.huntington-study-group.org) in 1994—international academic consortia devoted to research and development of treatments for Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and related neurodegenerative and neurogenetic disorders. He has served as principal investigator of the National Institutes of Health–sponsored trials “Deprenyl and Tocopherol Antioxidative Therapy of Parkinsonism,” the “Prospective Huntington At Risk Observational Study,” and more than 25 other controlled multi-center studies. He was formerly a member of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council and president of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics. He is currently associate editor of Archives of Neurology and a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. He has authored more than 280 scientific reports.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
×

Rebecca A. Betensky, Ph.D., is professor of biostatistics at the Harvard School of Public Health and a biostatistician at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). She directs the statistical core of the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at MGH and she is co-leader of the Biostatistics Program at the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center. She graduated from Stanford University with a Ph.D. in 1992. Her current methodological research interests are in the areas of latent class modeling for genomic data and survival analysis under complex sampling and with auxiliary information. Dr. Betensky’s research involves the use of penalization, either in a frequentist or Bayesian setting, to enable model fitting with the high dimensional data. This research is motivated by problems that Dr. Betensky encounters in her collaborations in neuro-oncology and neurologic diseases.

Peter Como, Ph.D., joined the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2009 as a lead reviewer and neuropsychologist in the Division of Ophthalmic, Neurological and Ear, Nose and Throat Devices, Neurodiagnostic and Neurotherapeutic Devices Branch. He obtained his doctorate in clinical psychology/neuropsychology from the University of Delaware. Prior to joining the FDA, Dr. Como was an associate professor of neurology, psychiatry, and brain and cognitive science at the University of Rochester Medical Center for 25 years. He served in a clinical capacity as a neuropsychologist in the Movement and Inherited Neurological Disorders Unit in the Department of Neurology. Dr. Como was also a principal investigator in several clinical research studies (observational and clinical drug trials) in Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Tourette syndrome. Dr. Como has been invited to speak at major national and international meetings with respect to his expertise in neuropsychology, clinical trials, and neurological movement disorders. Dr. Como was part of the clinical investigative team who presented to an FDA advisory panel, which ultimately led to the approval of tetrabenazine for the treatment of chorea, associated with Huntington’s disease, in 2008.

Ray Dorsey, M.D., is an associate professor of neurology at The Johns Hopkins University where he directs the movement disorders division and neurology telemedicine. His research focuses on developing new treatments and improving the way health care is delivered, including the use of telemedicine, for neurological disorders. He previously was an assistant professor of neurology at the University of Rochester and an associate for the consulting firm, McKinsey & Company. He attended medical and business school at the University of Pennsylvania.

Charles E. Drebing, Ph.D., is the acting mental health service line manager at the Bedford Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center, and the as

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
×

sociate director for the New England Mental Illness Research, Education & Clinical Center. Since joining the staff of the VA in 1992, he has been involved with a range of studies examining interventions for psychiatric rehabilitation settings, as well as studies of health services utilization within the VA. The majority of his research has been focused on understanding and enhancing rehabilitation interventions designed to help veterans with comorbid substance abuse and psychiatric disorders return to full lives in the community. He has conducted a range of studies examining existing VA vocational rehabilitation services, how they are used by veterans, what factors predict their success or failure, and how their outcomes can be enhanced. His research includes studies of contingency management interventions designed to enhance vocational rehabilitation and transitional housing programs, studies of motivational interviewing interventions designed to enhance vocational rehabilitation, studies of a supported self-employment treatment model, and studies of a harm reduction intervention for problem gambling. He has also examined the role of families and social support in health care utilization, including studies of family supports and problem recognition, treatment entry, and treatment outcome. He has published over 50 articles, including a book for family members of adults with problem gambling, and several chapters on psychiatric interventions. His most current research work includes studies of supported employment for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder, examination of peer support and peer-provided supported education, new contingency management applications, and pathways-to-care studies of common VA rehabilitation interventions.

Alan I. Faden, M.D., received his medical degree from the University of Chicago and neurology training at the University of California at San Francisco. He is the David S. Brown Professor in Trauma, and professor of anesthesiology, anatomy and neurobiology, neurosurgery, and neurology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. He also serves as director of the Shock, Trauma and Anesthesiology Research Organized Research Center and the Charles “McC” Matthias National Study Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems at the University of Maryland, Baltimore. In addition to providing oversight for clinical research related to trauma and critical care, Dr. Faden directs an active preclinical research program in neurotrauma, supported by multiple grants from the National Institutes of Health. He has published 325 peer-reviewed papers. Dr. Faden was previously professor of neuroscience, neurology, and pharmacology at Georgetown University, where he served as dean for research and scientific director of the medical center, associate dean for biomedical sciences for the graduate school, and director of the Georgetown Institute for Cognitive and Computational Sciences. Prior to Georgetown he was professor and vice chair of neurology at the University of California, San Francisco, where he

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
×

also held positions as chief of neurology at the San Francisco Veterans Administration Medical Center and director of the Center for Neural Injury. Dr. Faden is editor-in-chief of Neurotherapeutics. He served as president of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, inaugural president of the National Neurotrauma Society, and as president of the San Francisco Neurological Society.

Robert T. Fraser, Ph.D., is a professor in the University of Washington’s Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, joint with the Departments of Neurological Surgery and Neurology and a consultant with Associates in Rehabilitation and Neuropsychology, Seattle, Washington. He was recently appointed to the U.S. Social Security Administration to advise on the revision to the disability eligibility process. He is an active counseling and rehabilitation psychologist, a certified rehabilitation counselor, and a certified life care planner who directs neurological vocational services within rehabilitation medicine. Within neurological rehabilitation, he has specialized in epilepsy, brain injury, and multiple sclerosis. Dr. Fraser has received master’s degrees in rehabilitation counseling (University of Southern California) and public administration (Seattle University). His doctorate is in rehabilitation psychology from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, with a dissertation focused on the use of task analysis in the national classification and utilization of state agency vocational rehabilitation personnel.

Tamar Heller, Ph.D., is head of the Department of Disability and Human Development, University of Illinois at Chicago and director of its University Center of Excellence in Developmental Disabilities for the State of Illinois. She also directs the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Aging with Developmental Disabilities: Lifespan Health and Function and projects on family support and health promotion interventions for individuals with disabilities. One of these projects is the Special Olympics Research Collaborating Center. She is past president of the board of the Association of University Centers on Disabilities. In 2005 she was Senator Obama’s delegate to the White House Conference on Aging. As a co-founder of the national Sibling Leadership Network, she is a member of its executive board.

Richard Keefe, Ph.D., is professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina. He received his B.A. from Princeton University and his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from New York University. His research is primarily devoted to understanding cognitive dysfunction and its treatment in patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, including those at high risk for schizophrenia. Dr. Keefe has had a leadership role for cognitive methods in several large National Institute of Mental Health studies including the Clinical Antipsychotic Tri

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
×

als in Intervention Effectiveness, Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia, Treatment Units for Research on Neurocognition and Schizophrenia, and Treatment and Evaluation Network for Trials in Schizophrenia projects. He has published more than 150 scientific papers, and has authored two books. He serves on the editorial boards of several journals, including Schizophrenia Research, Schizophrenia Bulletin, and Clinical Innovations in Neuroscience, and is an associate editor of Psychological Medicine. He is president-elect of the International Society for Central Nervous System Clinical Trials and Methodology, and on the scientific board of National Alliance on Mental Illness and the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation. He is the founder and chief executive officer of NeuroCog Trials, Inc. He is also a co-principal investigator and director of the Neurocognitive Core for the Translational and Clinical Research Schizophrenia project at the Institute of Mental Health in Singapore.

Mary R. T. Kennedy, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Speech-Language-Hearing Science Department at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities. She has over 30 years of clinical and research experience working with individuals with cognitive and communication disorders as a result of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Dr. Kennedy has published and presented widely on these topics in both peer-reviewed scientific journals and publications aimed at translating evidence into practice. Her research has been funded by grants on the executive functions, language, and metacognition of survivors of TBI and the academic impact of these impairments. Her current projects involve translating research evidence into practical assessment and instruction techniques that support individuals with TBI they transition back to college. Dr. Kennedy chairs the Academy of Neurological Communication Disorders & Sciences committee that systematically reviews research evidence and develops practice guidelines on managing cognitive and communication disorders after TBI.

Harvey Levin, Ph.D., is professor at the Baylor College of Medicine, in the Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Pediatrics, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. Dr. Levin is also director of the Center of Excellence for Traumatic Brain Injury at the Michael E. De Bakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Houston, Texas. He obtained his M.A. in clinical psychology and Ph.D. in clinical psychology/neuropsychology at the University of Iowa in 1972. Following his graduate work, he interned at the Illinois Masonic Medical Center in Chicago, as well as the University of Iowa Hospital in Iowa City where he completed a postdoctoral fellowship in clinical neuropsychology. He is board certified in clinical neuropsychology, and is a Texas licensed psychologist. His subspecialty is neuropsychology, and his clinical interests are in brain injury, epilepsy, and stroke. He conducts research at Baylor College in cognitive neuropsychology.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
×

Cynthia D. Mulrow, M.D. (IOM), is clinical professor of medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and senior deputy editor of the Annals of Internal Medicine. Dr. Mulrow’s expertise is in clinical methodology, information synthesis, and clinical guidelines. She is a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and currently serves on the IOM Board on Health Care Services. She was previously director of the San Antonio Veterans Administration Cochrane Center, program director of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Generalists Physician Scholars Program, and director of the San Antonio Evidence-based Practice Center. Dr. Mulrow has served on several editorial boards, including the British Medical Journal and the American Journal of Medicine. She was a member of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and has served on guideline development panels for the RAND Corporation and U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. She currently participates in multiple groups that develop reporting standards for medical research including the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Group (reporting standards for trials), the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Group (reporting standards for systematic reviews), and the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Group (reporting standards for observational studies).

Hilaire Thompson, Ph.D., R.N., FAAN, is an assistant professor in the School of Nursing at the University of Washington and a core faculty of the Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center. Dr. Thompson’s research has focused on improving outcomes from traumatic brain injury (TBI). In particular, her efforts have focused on understanding and improving the delivery of health care services to persons with TBI and the use of translational approaches to manage and reduce symptoms following injury. She currently serves as the Clinical Practice Guideline Series editor for the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses. Dr. Thompson earned her Ph.D. in nursing from the University of Pennsylvania in 2003, after completing her M.S. and post-M.S. Certificate in adult medical-surgical nursing and as an adult acute care nurse practitioner, respectively, from Virginia Commonwealth University. She also received her B.S.N. from Catholic University of America in 1992 and an M.S. in clinical epidemiology from the University of Washington in 2008.

John Whyte, M.D., Ph.D., is a physiatrist and experimental psychologist specializing in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation. He was the founding director of the Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, begun in 1992, and continues in this position. His research focuses on cognitive impairment and cognitive rehabilitation after brain injury as well as the special methodo

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
×

logic challenges posed by rehabilitation research. Dr. Whyte has received research funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, the Department of the Army, and a number of private foundations. He is the past president of the Association of Academic Physiatrists, former chair of the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research’s Advisory Board, and past principal investigator and program director (now associate program director) of the Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist Training Program, a NIH-funded program to train physiatric researchers.

CONSULTANTS

Jennifer J. Vasterling, Ph.D., obtained her doctorate in psychology from Vanderbilt University in 1988, subsequently completing pre- and postdoctoral training in clinical neuropsychology at the Boston Veterans Affairs Medical Center. She currently serves as the chief of psychology at the Veterans Administration (VA) Boston Healthcare System and as a clinical investigator within the Behavioral Sciences Division of the VA National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Dr. Vasterling is a professor of psychiatry at Boston University School of Medicine and a lecturer in psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. Prior to her current positions, Dr. Vasterling served as the associate director for research for the VA South Central (VISN 16) Mental, Illness, Research, Education, and Clinical Center, staff psychologist at the New Orleans Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and as a clinical professor of psychiatry and neurology at Tulane University School of Medicine. Dr. Vasterling’s research has centered on furthering understanding of the neurocognitive and emotional changes that accompany war-zone deployment and posttraumatic stress responses. Her recent work includes leadership of the Neurocognition Deployment Health Study, a prospective study examining short- and long-term neuropsychological and emotional outcomes of military deployment to Iraq.

Barbara G. Vickrey, M.D., M.P.H., is professor and vice chair of the Department of Neurology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where she directs the Health Services Research Program in Neurology. She is also associate director for research at the Greater Los Angeles Veterans Administration Parkinson Disease Center and an affiliated investigator at the RAND Corporation. Dr. Vickrey’s research focuses on translating evidence from clinical trials into routine medical practice and improved patient health outcomes. She led a multisite randomized trial that demonstrated substantially improved quality and better patient and care-giver outcomes from a coordinated care approach to dementia care delivery. Her research has led to enhanced clinical trials for epilepsy and multiple

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
×

sclerosis by developing widely used instruments to quantify how these patients view their health-related quality of life. Currently, Dr. Vickrey leads an American Heart Association Outcomes Research Center investigating methods to address racial and ethnic disparities in stroke and training postdoctoral fellows in this field of investigation. She received her M.D. from Duke University School of Medicine and her M.P.H. from UCLA School of Public Health. In 1998, she received the Alice S. Hersh Young Investigator Award from AcademyHealth.

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE STAFF

Rebecca N. Koehler, Ph.D., is a program officer and study director at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. She most recently worked as a postdoctoral fellow from 2007 to 2010 at the U.S. Military Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Research Program, where she initiated and carried out research projects exploring human genetic factors influencing HIV infection and clinical disease course. These studies were influential in uncovering specific alleles contributing to protection from HIV in East African populations. Dr. Koehler earned her Ph.D. at Georgetown University in biology, with a concentration in molecular and cellular biology. Her doctoral work focused on the transcriptional regulation of the ADE genes in the genetic model system yeast. Prior to graduate school Dr. Koehler participated in the Jesuit Volunteer Corps for one year in Los Angeles, serving as a case manager at the Saint Joseph Homeless Service Center. She is a graduate of the University of Notre Dame with a bachelor of science in biology and a minor in art history.

Erin E. Wilhelm, M.P.H., was an associate program officer at the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies, with the Board on the Health of Select Populations. Previously, Ms. Wilhelm served as the research associate on two studies evaluating disability criteria, related to cardiovascular diseases and HIV/AIDS. In October 2010, she coordinated a three-day workshop for TRICARE at the IOM, bringing together experts on quality management systems and scopes of practice for behavioral health professionals in the Military Health System. Prior to joining the IOM in 2009, Ms. Wilhelm served as a guest researcher at Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), where she contributed to a literature review and portfolio analysis for the Trans-NIH Working Group on Climate Change and Health. Among other roles, she has also served as a publications editor for the Corporate Executive Board, a best practice research firm in Washington, DC, and a staff writer for the St. Petersburg Times in Tampa, Florida. Ms. Wilhelm holds a Master of Public Health in global health from

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
×

The George Washington University and a dual Bachelor of Arts in broadcast journalism and political science from the University of South Florida.

Alicia Jaramillo-Underwood was a program assistant at the Institute of Medicine (IOM) until August 2011 when she joined the National Academies’ Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Prior to joining the IOM, she graduated from Georgetown University in May 2010 with a B.A. degree in psychology. In the interim from graduation and joining the staff, Alicia spent 6 months in Heidelberg, Germany, as a volunteer with the American Red Cross. From 2009 to 2010 Alicia was a research assistant at Georgetown University’s Department of Psychology, conducting interviews for a cross-cultural study on emotions. In the summers of 2007 and 2008, she volunteered at the American Red Cross as an instructor, as well as in the pharmacy at Prince William County Hospital, in Manassas, Virginia. Alicia has taught English, traveled to Tamaulipas, Mexico, on a medical mission, and has volunteered in other capacities as well, including briefly for the neurosurgery department at Georgetown University Hospital.

Jon Q. Sanders is a veteran program associate with the Board on the Health of Select Populations at the Institute of Medicine (IOM). He received his B.A. degree in anthropology with a minor in geosciences from Trinity University and recently completed the program management certification at George Mason University. In his 10 years with the National Academies Mr. Sanders has worked on a variety of projects on topics ranging from childhood obesity to national security, and most recently on a multiple award-winning project on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health. He is coauthor of Sitting Down at the Table: Mediation and Resolution of Water Conflicts (2001). His research interests include public health, emergency management, and environmental decision making.

Frederick (Rick) Erdtmann, M.D., M.P.H., is currently director of the Board on the Health of Select Populations and the Medical Follow-Up Agency at the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Prior to joining the IOM he was a career military physician in the U.S. Army. While in the military, he served as chief of several large departments of preventive medicine at U.S. installations at home and overseas. He also was commander of the military community hospital at Ft. Carson, Colorado, and later served as hospital commander for the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. He had several assignments at the Army Surgeon General’s Office, working on military health care policies. He received his undergraduate degree from Bucknell University and an M.P.H. from the University of California, Berkeley. He is a graduate of Temple University Medical School and is board certified in the specialty of preventive medicine.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13220.
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may affect 10 million people worldwide. It is considered the "signature wound" of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. These injuries result from a bump or blow to the head, or from external forces that cause the brain to move within the head, such as whiplash or exposure to blasts. TBI can cause an array of physical and mental health concerns and is a growing problem, particularly among soldiers and veterans because of repeated exposure to violent environments. One form of treatment for TBI is cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT), a patient-specific, goal-oriented approach to help patients increase their ability to process and interpret information. The Department of Defense asked the IOM to conduct a study to determine the effectiveness of CRT for treatment of TBI.

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