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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2011. In the Light of Evolution: Volume V: Cooperation and Conflict. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13223.
×

Index

A

Actinobacteria, 34, 35, 44

Actinomycete bacteria, 38, 41

Actinorhizal plants, 30–31

Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 18–19, 24

Allelopathy, 129

Alloparents and alloparental care, 49–50, 66–67, 299–300, 304, 307, 308–309, 311–312, 315

Altruism, xv–xvi, 11 (see also Restraint; Human prosocial sentiments; specific attributes)

evolution of, 131–132, 343–362

greenbeard alleles, 17, 56

indirect genetic effects, xvi

parental manipulation of offspring, 188

phenotypic gambit and, 11

as selfish act, 50

Amoeba (see Dictyostelium discoideum)

Amundsen, Roald, 370

Angelman syndrome (AS), 260, 282–283, 284–285

Anopheles gambiae, 178, 186

Antibiotic resistance (see also Chemotherapy; Malaria)

broad-spectrum drug use and, 251

evidence-based management, 248–249

fitness advantages of, 243–246

fitness costs of, 243

hypothetical pathway, 240

in-host competition of clones and, 242–243, 250–251

lateral transfer of genes, 219, 251

management strategies, 238, 239–240, 246–248

radical pathogen cure and, 235, 237, 238, 241, 246

real-world context, 240–246

selection for, 235, 236, 238–239, 241–242, 243–246, 248

single-gene knockout, 200

useful life span of drug, 239–240

Antibiotics

in animal feeds, 238

mutualist production of, 26, 30, 32, 38, 39, 44, 92

restrictions on use, 238

Ants (see also Fire ants; Social Hymenoptera)

alloparental care, 50

bacterial mutualism, 30–31, 39, 44

brain evolution, 177, 187–188

fungus-growing, 30–31, 39

greenbeard behavior, 56, 67

hexamerins, 184

immunity genes, 171, 178, 179

kin recognition, 49–50, 56

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2011. In the Light of Evolution: Volume V: Cooperation and Conflict. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13223.
×

odorant receptor genes, 174

origins of eusociality, 169

runaway social selection, 67

slave making, 176

social foraging behavior, 187

unicoloniality, 50, 67, 68

Apis mellifera (see also Honey bee), 53, 169, 174, 178–179, 181, 183, 185–186

Arms race, evolutionary, 166, 178, 180, 209, 215

Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia, iv, viii, xiii, 84, 135, 211

Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of Asian Art, viii Asobara tabida, 228–229

Autism, 236, 254, 277, 284–285, 289, 291–292

Avise, John C., xiii–xiv

Ayala, Francisco J., xiii–xiv

Azolla filiculoides, 43

B

Baboons, 327, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 339, 350

Bacteria (see also Bacterial; “Mycetocyte” bacteria; Myxococcus xanthus; other individual species) mobile DNA, 219

Bacterial symbioses, defined, 28

Bacterial-eukaryotic mutualisms

benefits provided to hosts, 26–27, 29–30, 32

breakdown of, 2, 29, 31, 33, 43–45, 46, 47

greenbeard genes, 18

host association origins, 27, 31, 33, 34, 35–36, 45–46, 47

host localization, 28, 30, 32

maintenance of, 29, 38–42

methods, 29, 46–47

origins, xvi, 29, 36–38, 46

from parasitism, 2, 30–31, 35, 36–37, 46, 47

stabilizing forces, 2, 31, 33

symbiont capture, 29, 42–43

transmission among hosts, 30, 32, 45, 46

Bacterial parasites, 28

Bacteriocins, 18, 129, 192, 226, 242

Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, 30–31, 38, 39, 41

Baffin Island Inuit, 371

Bdelloid rotifers, 233

Beckwith-Weidemann syndrome, 280–281, 282, 283, 284–285

Bees, primitive eusocial (see also Honey bees)

brain evolution, 176–177, 187–188

gland development genes for chemical signaling, 173, 187

metabolism and nutrition genes, 172, 185–186

molecular evolution study, 169

origins of eusociality, 169 (see also Honey bees; Social Hymenoptera)

ovary development, 181

piRNA pathway, 171, 172, 181

reproduction-related genes, 171–172, 181

Beewolves, 32–33, 41

Behavioral economics games, 347–349

Beta-glycosidases, 175

Biodiversity, defined, xiii

Biofilms (see also Multispecies biofilms)

defined, 140

single-species, 193

Bioluminescence, 26, 30, 40

Bipolar disorder, 285

Birds (see also Cooperative breeding in birds)

coloration and plumage, 66

Blowfly (Calliphora vicina), 184

Bobtail squid, 30–31, 41, 155

Bonobos (Pan paniscus), 336, 361

Boyd, Robert, 301, 363–382

Bradyrhizobium japonicum, 41, 45

Brain evolution, 176–177, 187–188

Bumble bees, 169, 179

Burkholderia spp., 30–31, 37–38, 40–41, 44

Byproduct cooperation, 11, 31, 38, 39, 157, 333

C

Cancer, 138, 236, 237, 252, 275, 277, 278–282

Capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), 327, 343, 357, 358–359

Cell-cell adhesion, 94, 95, 97, 107, 114, 158, 166, 203, 204

Central Inuit, 366–369, 370

Centromere drive, 221, 223–224, 225

Chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus), 327–328, 330

Cheaters/cheating

in bacterial mutualisms, 2, 40–41, 46

controls, 166, 191, 198, 201–206, 211

defining, 198–199

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2011. In the Light of Evolution: Volume V: Cooperation and Conflict. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13223.
×

Dictyostelium discoideum, 166, 198–201, 211

distinguishing, 40–41, 340–341

facultative, 198, 199, 200

falsebeards, 55

fixed, 198, 199, 200

kin discrimination and, 166, 191, 198, 201, 202–203

lottery-like role assignment and, 166, 191, 202, 204–206

Myxococcus xanthus, 88, 93, 107–109, 110

noble resistor genes and, 166, 191, 208

pleiotropy and, 166, 191, 201, 202, 203–204

primate insensitivity to, 325, 332, 340–341

punishment of, 40, 300, 330, 332, 340, 341, 342, 346, 348, 349, 360, 361

relatedness within social groups and, 191, 197–198, 201–202

by single-gene knockouts, 200–201

social parasites, 198, 199, 202

by wild clones, 199–200

Chemotherapy (see also Antibiotic)

aims of patient treatment, 239–240

cancer, 252

combination drug therapy, 237

multiple-strain infection and, 235–236

radical pathogen cure, 235, 237, 238, 241, 246

social structure of the pathogen and, 235

Cheney, Dorothy L., 300, 325–342

Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), 300, 327

Chickens, meiotic drive in, 225

Chimeras/chimerism, 191, 197–198, 200, 221

Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

attribution of intentions, 330, 332

cognitive constraints, 335, 365, 366, 380

cultural adaptation, 378, 380, 381

contingent altruism, 337–338, 360

detection of noncooperators, 340

emotional constraints, 336

generosity in, 351–353

helping behavior, 353–355

inequity aversion, 361

prosocial sentiments and behavior, 343, 351–356, 381

recognition of others’relationships, 300, 328

Chlorobi, 34, 35

Chloroflexi, 34, 35

Cichlid fish (Astatotilapia burtoni), 328

Clark University, vii

Clostridium difficile, 251

Cognitive ability, and cultural adaptation, 363, 364–366, 371–372, 380–381

Coloration, warning, 20

Conflict (see also Cheaters/cheating; Genetic conflict; Genomic imprinting; Pathology from evolutionary conflict; Sexual conflict)

condition-based power, 207

controls, 193, 206–208

in Dictyostelium discoideum, 166, 191, 200, 206–208, 210–211

embryo-maternal, 236, 260

first-strike power, 206

insider-outsider theory, 80–81

interlocus, 56, 57, 62

male parentage (worker policing), 2, 49, 51, 52–53

in model organisms of cooperation, 193–194

parent-offspring, 236, 260, 265, 271, 272

power asymmetries and, 166, 202, 206–208, 261–262

resolution during group formation of breeding birds, 80

siblings, 261–262

weaning, 260

within-group, 91, 111

Consanguineous matings, 264

Cooperation (see also Vertebrate cooperation)

laboratory-friendly models, 194–195

and major transitions in evolution, 193–194

Cooperative breeding in birds

among-generation bet-hedging, 73, 82

benefits of philopatry hypothesis, 71, 72, 80, 81

climatic uncertainty and reproductive success, 71, 74, 75, 76, 77–78, 79, 81, 82, 83–84

conflict resolution during group formation, 80

ecological constraints hypothesis, 3, 70, 71, 72, 73, 80, 81

environmental quality (temporal variation) and, 69, 70–72, 73–74, 79–82

fecundity variance, 3, 69, 72, 74, 77–78, 82

fitness optimization, 72

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2011. In the Light of Evolution: Volume V: Cooperation and Conflict. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13223.
×

group size, 69–70, 72, 73, 74, 77–78, 79, 82, 83

habitat heterogeneity and reproductive success, 71, 74, 76, 77, 79, 81–82, 83, 84

inclusive fitness benefits, 70

insider-outsider conflict theory, 80–81

kin neighborhoods and, 81–82

obligate plural breeders, 74

reproductive skew, 80

territory quality (spatial variation), 69, 70–72, 73, 74, 79–81

within-generation bet-hedging (risk aversion) hypotheses, 3, 69, 72–74, 79, 82, 83

Cooperative breeding in humans (see also Dogon people)

alloparenting, 299–300, 303, 304, 307, 308–309, 311–312, 315

cooperative breeding hypothesis, 306

grandmaternal survival and grandoffspring survival, 304

Hadza of Tanzania, 304

kin selection theory, 306, 309

!Kung, 304

life history theory, 306

Maya of the Yucatan, 304

parent-offspring conflict theory, 308

parental manipulation theory, 308

social dominance theory, 308

Coral reef communities, 129

Coriobacterium glomerans, 32–33

Crespi, Bernard J., 236, 275–297

Crespi-Badcock theory, 284

Crozier’s paradox, 56, 60, 66

Cryptotermes secundus, 175

Cultural adaptation

Baffin Island Inuit, 371

bowmaking example, 374–375

Central Inuit, 366–369, 370

cognitive ability and, 363, 364–366, 371–372, 380–381

cognitive biases and, 379

essentiality for humans, 366–371

evidence for, 377–379

food preparation practices and taboos, 378–379

and global expansion, 364

kayak keel design example, 375–376

learning from others and, 363, 365, 366, 369–371, 372–377

lost European explorer experiment, 370

lost technology examples, 370–271

maladaptations, 379–381

modeling successful behaviors, 376–378

Netsilik, 366, 370

Polar Inuit, 371

population process, 371–377

social learning biases and, 379–380

West Greenland Inuit, 375

Cyanobacterium spp., 32–33

Cyphomyrmex longiscapus, 41

Cytoplasmic incompatibility, 228, 229

D

Daphnia species, 233

Darwinian medicine, 235

Day, Troy, 235–236, 237–252

Depression, 285

Dictator Game, 300, 345–346, 348, 351

Dictyostelium discoideum

altruism, 166, 196–197

cell adhesion genes, 166, 203, 204

characteristics, 195

cheaters/cheating, 166, 198–201, 211

cheating controls, 166, 191, 201–206, 211

chimerism, 191, 197–198, 200

condition-based power, 207

conflict, 166, 191, 200, 206–208, 210–211

differentiation-inducing factor signaling system, 204, 207–208, 211

dimA gene, 204

evolutionary arms races in social genes, 207

farming of bacteria, 166, 210, 211

first-strike power, 206

fruiting bodies, 195, 196–197, 198

kin discrimination, 166, 191, 198, 201, 202–203

life cycles, 196

lottery-like role assignment, 166, 191, 202, 204–206

as a model system, 191, 194, 195–199

noble resistor genes, 166, 191, 208

pleiotropy, 166, 191, 201, 202, 203–204

power asymmetries, 166, 206–208

prestarvation factor, 195

rates of change in social genes, 191

relatedness within social groups, 191, 197–198, 201–202

sexual cycle, 209–210, 211

single-gene knockouts, 200–201

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2011. In the Light of Evolution: Volume V: Cooperation and Conflict. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13223.
×

social cycle, 191, 195–196

wild clones, 199–200

Dictylostelium purpureum, 203, 209

Didemnid ascidians, 32

Dimorphopterus pallipes, 41

Diplosoma spp., 41, 43

Diptera, 178

DNA binding proteins, 221

Dobzhansky, Theodosius, xiii, xiv

Dogon people of Mali

alloparenting, 299–300, 303, 304, 307, 308–309, 311–312, 315

asymmetries in genetic relatedness and conflict, 309

behavioral data, 323

child growth determinants, 306–307, 311–312, 316–319, 323

child survival determinants, 303, 308, 309–311, 313, 315–320, 322–323

conflicts of interest, 315

cooperative breeding hypothesis, 303, 306, 308

ethnographic background, 299, 305

fissioning of WEGs, 313–315, 323

genetic relatedness, 312–313

grandparental investment, 312–313, 315–320

kin selection theory and, 305, 306, 309, 312, 313–314, 315, 321

maternal importance, 309–310

parental manipulation of children, 299–300, 307, 308

polygynous vs. monogamous families, 303, 305, 309–312

power structure, 315

reproductive success, 307

sex differences in work, 307

siblings, 306–308, 321

study population, 321

wealth, 310–311, 322

work-eat groups (WEGs), 308–315, 321–322

Drosophila, 179, 182, 185, 187

cryptic X-drive systems, 224–225

D. anannassae, 43, 229–230

D. melanogaster, 178, 186, 188, 220, 223, 224, 227, 231

D. obscura, 213

D. simulans, 224–225, 231

flamenco locus, 220

gland patterning genes, 173

lateral gene transfers, 43, 229–230

P-elements, 222

pesticide resistance, 231

segregation distorter, 223, 224

temperature adaptation, 231

Wolbachia infection, 43, 229–230

E

Eavesdropping, 300, 327, 328–329

Ecological constraints hypothesis, 70, 71, 72, 73, 80, 81

Endoriftia persephone, 30–31, 41

Escherichia coli, 92, 251

restraint evolution in colicin producing strains, 120–130

Salmonella enterica mutualism, 132

Eukaryotes, evolution of, 193

Euprymna scolopes, 41

Eusocial insects (see also Honey bees; Social Hymenoptera; Termites)

brain development and function, 171, 176–177, 329

chemical signaling, 173–176

cladogram, 169

conditional helping, 13

core traits, 168

genes implicated in origin or maintenance of, 170–172

greenbeard genes, 18

group effects, 20, 50

hygienic behaviors, 178

immunity genes, 170, 178–180

laboratory-friendly models, 194–195

and kin selection theory, 2, 50, 56–59

metabolism and nutrition genes, 172, 183–186

molecular genetic mechanisms in origin and maintenance, 165, 167–189

multiple mating by queens, 178

origins, 169

prospects and challenges in molecular evolution, 186–189

reproduction, 167, 180–182

worker policing, 2, 52–53

F

Fairness an inequity aversion, 300, 325, 335, 340, 342, 346, 347, 351, 360–361

Falsebeards, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 65

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2011. In the Light of Evolution: Volume V: Cooperation and Conflict. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13223.
×

Feral dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), 340

Fire ants (Solenopsis), 18

GP-9 gene, 67, 171, 175–176

Firebugs, 32–33

Firmicutes, 34, 35

Fischman, Brielle J., 165, 167–189

Foster, Kevin R., 89, 137–164

Frank, Steven A., 236, 275–297

Frankia spp., 30–31

Franklin Expedition of 1845–1846, 370

Franklin, John, 370

Frequency-dependent effects, xvi, 1, 7, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 93, 110, 130, 182

G

Game theory, 19–20, 300, 345–349

Gamete killing, 224

Generosity, 300, 345, 347, 349, 351–353, 359

Genetic conflict (see also Genomic imprinting)

defined, 216

inbreeding, 259, 261, 287, 293–294, 295

sex determination, 214, 217, 228, 230

types of, 216–218

Genetic diversity, and social heterosis, 67–68

Genetic drift, 24, 92, 93, 107, 110, 111

Genome-eliminating supernumerary chromosome, 214

Genomic imprinting

adolescent sexual maturation, 236, 271–272

asymmetries of relatedness and, 236, 253, 254–257, 262, 273

birth order and, 270–271

blended vs. unblended relatedness, 268–269

DNA methylation suppression of TEs and, 220, 230

effects of, 254, 259, 271, 281

epigenetic imprints, 280

extended kinship, 26

fathers, 260–261, 264, 269–270, 273–274

and fetal development, 260

as genetic conflict, 218

identifying genes, 282

kinship categories and, 257–263, 273–274

kith and kin selection and, 263–264, 273

mothers, 259–260, 264, 273

partner change and, 253, 259, 262, 264–265, 267–268

and sexual maturation, 236, 265–272

sibs, 255, 261–262

symmetric kin, 255, 259

Global Malaria Action Plan, 241

Greenbeard genes

alloparental care, 49–50, 66–67

altruistic, 17

attractive traits, 66

bacterial-eukaryotic mutualisms, 18

Crozier’s paradox, 56, 60, 66

eusocial insects, 56, 67

examples of behavior, 56

facultative, 16, 18

falsebeard interaction with, 55–56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 65

genetic kin recognition, 1, 49, 55, 56, 64

harmful, 16, 18

helpful, 16, 18, 56–61

interlocus conflict, 56, 57, 62

key feature, 18

kin selection mechanisms, 55–56, 68

kind selection, 5, 7, 16–19, 21, 24

multilocus, 56–57, 65–66

nepotism, 65–67, 68

obligate, 16, 18

payoff matrix, 19, 58

persistence of alleles, 60

and phenotype matching, 57, 58, 59

pheromonal communication, 175–176

and runaway social selection, 65–67

selection pressures, 66

and unicoloniality, 67

Group-level selection, 49, 50

H

Habitat saturation, 71

Haig, David, 236, 253–274

Haldane’s rule, 225

Hamilton, William D., xvi, 50

Hamilton’s rule (see also Inclusive fitness)

defined, xvi, 50

and genetic diversity, 68

and helping behavior, 49, 50, 55, 56–59, 60, 61–62, 63, 66, 67, 68

indirect genetic effects, 11

and kin discrimination, 258

in kind selection, 16

in kith selection, 12, 14, 15

neighbor-modulated approach, 5, 6–7, 9, 12, 14, 15, 22, 23

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2011. In the Light of Evolution: Volume V: Cooperation and Conflict. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13223.
×

Hamiltonian medicine, 235

Haplodiplody hypothesis, 51

Harding, Brittany N., 88, 117–136

Harvard University, vii–viii

Hawk-Dove game, 20–21

Hayes, Isaac, 371

Henrich, Joseph, 301, 363–382

Hepatoblastoma, 281

Hexamerins, 184

Hitchhiking, 93, 110

Homing endonucleases, 223

Homo heidelbergensis, 364

Honey bees (Apis mellifera), 53, 181–182, 183–184, 185, 187

brain-related genes, 165, 171

carbohydrate metabolism, 165, 185–186

cAMp/CREB signaling pathways, 171

CREB binding protein, 171

dance communication, 176, 177

hexamerins, 184

immunity genes, 165, 179

insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1, 165, 185

juvenile hormone, 165, 185

Major Royal Jelly, 183–184

metabolism and nutrition genes, 165–166, 172, 184

molecular origins of sociality, 165, 169

odorant receptor genes, 165, 174

queen pheromone 9-ODA, 174

reproduction-related genes, 172, 181–182

sex determination, 181–182

social foraging behavior, 187

vitellogenin axis, 185

whole-genome sequence, 169

Horizontal gene transfer

bacterial mutualisms, 2, 30, 32, 36, 37–38, 40, 42, 43, 44–45, 46

and endemic variation, 106

House, Bailey R., 300, 343–362

Huijben, Silvie, 235–236, 237–252

Human genome, transposable elements, 219

Human prosocial sentiments (see also specific attributes)

dimensions of, 345–346

game theory applied to, 300, 345–349

limits on altruistic preferences, 347

motives underlying altruism, 349–351

nonhuman primates compared to, 350–355

phylogenetic foundations, 350

Humans

bacterial mutualisms, 30–31, 38

microbiome, 138, 154

veil of ignorance model, 204

vocal signals, 173

Hybrid incompatibility genes, 225, 229, 289–290, 291

Hydrozoans, 56

Hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), 327, 337

Hymenoptera. See Social Hymenoptera

I

Immunity genes, 171, 178, 179

Imprinted genes (see Genomic imprinting)

Imprinting, learned, 257

Inclusive fitness (see also Hamilton’s rule; Social selection)

indirect genetic effects, 21

kith selection, 12–16

relatedness and, 24, 70

social effects modeling, 8–10, 22, 24

Indirect fitness gains, xvi, 7, 21, 50, 71, 73, 75, 226, 255, 266, 272 (see also Kin selection)

Indirect genetic effects, 8, 9, 11, 16, 261, 281

Infertility, 275, 277, 286, 290

Insects. See Social Hymenoptera; Social insects

Insider-outsider theory, 80–81

Insulin growth factor gene (IGF2), 280–281, 282, 291

Interbirth intervals, 261

Interlocus conflice, 56, 57, 62

Intralocus antagonism, 287

J

Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), 337

Jewel wasp (Nasonia vitripennis), 169

K

Kane, Elisha, 371

Kerr, Benjamin, 88, 117–136

Kin-directed behavior, 257

Kin recognition

adhesion genes, 203

cheating control, 166, 191, 198, 201, 202–203

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2011. In the Light of Evolution: Volume V: Cooperation and Conflict. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13223.
×

in eusocial insects, 49–50, 54–55, 56, 64–65

greenbeard genes and, 7, 16–19, 55–59

phenotype matching, 55, 56, 57, 264

Kin selection

altruism, 50

caste-rearing nepotism and, 54, 55

conditional helping, 13

defined, 6–7, 263

environmental cues, 55

failures, 51

genetic recognition, 55

genetic relatedness and, 67–68

greenbeard genes, 1, 7, 16–19, 55–59

group selection hypothesis, 54–55

haplodiplody hypothesis, 51

heritability of the indirect selection effect, 16

monogamy hypothesis, 51

multilevel selection models, 7

neighbor-modulated approach, 5, 6–7, 9, 12, 14, 15, 22, 23

phenotypic gambit, 11

reproductive skew theory and, 54

successes, 51

Kind selection

defined, 1, 5, 263–264

greenbeard genes, 1, 5, 7, 16–19, 21, 24, 264

kin selection compared to, 16–19

phenotype matching, 264

Kinship

asymmetric, 236, 253, 254–257

and cheating, 191, 197–198, 201–202

instinctive categories vs. cultural classification, 258

symmetric, 259

Kith selection (see also Mutualisms)

defined, 1, 2, 5, 12–16, 264

multiple partners, 24

phenotypic expression and, 13

Kraemer, Susanne A., 88, 91–115

L

Language development, 260, 285, 365

Leishmania, 221–222

Life-history theory, 273

Lion (Panthera leo), 340

Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), 339

Long-tailed tit (Aegithalos caudatus), 73

Lotus strigosus, 41

M

Malaria

cases per year, 247

fitness effects drug resistance, 243–246

genetic diversity of infections, 242–243

radical pathogen cure, 235, 237, 238, 241, 246

resistance to drugs, 240–241

rodent model, 242, 243–244

treatment goals, 241

vector control, 252

Manipulation, 1, 13, 15, 40

Marmosets, 343, 357

Maternal effect dominant embryonic arrest (Medea) system, 227

Maternally expressed factors, 227, 259, 260, 261, 271, 277, 280, 282, 283, 284, 285, 291

Meiotic drive elements, 166, 213, 214, 216, 218, 223–225, 230, 288

Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, 155–156

Microbes (see Bacterial; Dictyostelium discoideum; Multispecies biofilms; Myxococcus xanthus)

examples of natural microbial communities, 138–139

social interactions, 87–89, 138–139, 192

Mitochondria, 2, 32, 37–38, 193, 214, 227, 228, 287–288

Mitri, Sara, 89, 137–164

Monogamy, 3, 51, 189, 303, 319

Multispecies biofilms

cell-cell adhesion and, 158

abundance of additional species, 147–148

between-species cooperation, 155–156

bottlenecks, 151, 157

characteristics of communities, 140

competition among microbial groups, 150–154

ecological competition in, 144–147, 150–154, 157

examples, 138–139

fitness calculations, 161

human microbiome, 138, 154

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2011. In the Light of Evolution: Volume V: Cooperation and Conflict. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13223.
×

invasion analysis, 150–151, 152–153, 157, 162–163

model framework, 158–161

motility and, 158

mutualism constraints, 148–150, 152–153, 154–157

nutrient concentration and diffusion rate, 89, 142–143, 147, 150–153, 154, 158

quorum sensing, 88, 140, 154

secretor/nonsecretor models, 88–89, 141–154, 158–161

segregation index, 162

Simpson’s paradox, 150

single-species simulation, 142–144, 151

size of the growth area, 146–147

social insulation, 89, 147–148, 154, 157–158, 162

social phenotypes, 139–140

spatial structure and, 89, 137, 139, 140, 149, 151, 152–153, 154–155, 158

statistical analysis, 163

within-species cooperation, 89, 155–156

Multicellularity, cooperation, 193

Mutualisms (see also Bacterial-eukaryotic mutualisms)

between-species cooperation, 155–156, 157, 210

cheating in, 2, 40–41, 46

chemotaxis and, 156, 158

complex, 15

Hamilton’s rule and, 12, 15

inclusive fitness modeling, 6, 7, 12

inoculation density on agar plates and, 156–157

multispecies simulation, 148–150, 154–157

nutrient competition and, 155–156

partner choice and partner fidelity feedback, 13, 24

spatial structure and ecological feedback and, 131

social selection, 1, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 15, 24

within-species cooperation, 155–156, 157

“Mycetocyte” bacteria, 32–33, 37–38

Myxococcus xanthus

balancing selection, 110

cell-cell adhesion, 94, 95, 97, 107

cheater-cooperator population dynamics, 110

cheater strains with social defects, 88, 93, 107–109

chimeric load, 109

coevolution, 91, 93, 109, 111

conflict, within-group, 111

DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, 114–115

endemic variation, 91, 93, 106

genetic structure of fruiting body groups, 91, 92–93, 94, 98–100, 102, 104, 106

horizontal gene transfer, 106

kin selection, 93, 109

laboratory origin of minority phenotypes, control for, 104–105, 113–114

maintenance of social diversity, 110–111

migration into “foreign” groups, 91, 93–94, 106, 107, 108, 109, 111

model of population biology, 108, 194

motility systems, 92, 95

phage transduction, 106

phase variation, 105–106

phenotypic and genetic diversity, 88, 94, 95, 98–100

phylogenetic relationships, 102–103

regeneration of clonality, 110

sample collection and strain isolation, 94, 111–112

social conflict within groups, 91

spore production, 87, 91, 92, 97, 101–102, 105, 107

sporulation assays, 113

starvation response, 87–88, 92, 104

statistical analyses, 114

swarming motility assays, 111–112

swarming phenotypes, 91, 95–97, 102, 105

territorial kin discrimination, 94, 107, 110

N

Nahum, Joshua R., 88, 117–136

Nasonia wasps, 169, 178, 179, 182, 227, 229

Nasutitermes termites, 179, 180

Neanderthals, 364

Neotermes koshunensis, 175

Nepotism, 49, 50, 51, 53–54, 55, 56, 64, 65, 66, 68, 263, 347

Netsilik, 366, 370

Neurospora, 220

New York University, vii

Nitrogen fixation, 30, 32, 37, 38, 39, 40

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2011. In the Light of Evolution: Volume V: Cooperation and Conflict. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13223.
×

Nonacs, Peter, 2, 49–68

Nonadditive fitness effects, 18, 19, 20–21, 22

Nonhuman primates (see Chimpanzees; Vertebrate cooperation; other individual species)

altruistic social preferences in, 350–359

fairness and inequity aversion, 360–361

punishment of conspecifics, 360

Nontransitivity

in male mating systems, 129

in overgrowth patterns, 129

prevalence in natural ecosystems, 129–130

and restraint evolution in E. coli, 119–120, 121, 122, 127, 128, 129–130

spatial structure and, 130

in sperm competition, 129

victim-exploiter relationships, 129–130

O

Odorant receptor genes, 174

Oxytocin, 285

P

Paper wasps (Polistes dominulus), 177, 329

Parasitism

bacterial, 28

manipulation of host reproduction, 40

restraint in host-parasite systems, 131

social, 198, 199, 202

transition from mutualism, 45, 46

transition to mutualism, 2, 30–31, 35, 36–37, 46, 47

vertical transmission, 42

virulence/infectivity, 131

Parent-offspring conflict, 236, 260, 265, 271, 272

Parental manipulation of offspring, 189, 299, 306, 307

Partner choice

in bacterial mutualism, 31, 33, 38, 39, 40, 41–42, 46

in kith selection, 13, 24

Partner fidelity feedback

in bacterial mutualism, 31, 33, 38–40, 41–42

in kith selection, 13, 14, 15, 24

Parthenogenesis, 228, 229

Paternally expressed factors, 259, 260–261, 271, 277, 278, 280, 282, 283, 284

Pathology from evolutionary conflict cancer, 236, 237, 252, 275, 277, 278–282

growth conflict, 236, 275, 276–277, 278–285, 290, 291–292

maternally expressed factors, 277, 280, 282, 283, 284, 285, 291

model of opposing forces, 275, 278, 279, 284, 286, 292–293

morphology and feeding-related behavior, 277, 282–283

paternally expressed factors, 277, 280, 282, 283, 284

psychiatric disorders, 236, 275, 277, 283–285, 290, 291–292

sexual conflict, 285–287

Pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), 178–179

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), 305

Peking University, viii

Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum, 155–156

Phenotype matching, 56, 57, 264

Philanthus triangulum, 41

Photosynthates, 32–33, 38

Pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), 339, 341

Pinyon jays (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus), 326–327

piRNA pathway, 171, 172, 181, 220, 222

Planctomycetes, 34, 35

Plasmids, 218, 234

antibiotic resistance, 219

colicin, 120, 132

killer, 214, 226

R-M system, 226

Ti, 18–19, 24

Plasmodium falciparum, 242, 244

Plasmodium chabaudi, 242, 243, 244

Pleiotropy, 166, 191, 201, 202, 203–204

Pogo elements, 221

Polar Inuit, 371

Polygamy, 51

Polygyny, 175, 262, 299, 303, 305, 309, 310, 311–312, 317, 319, 321

Populus, 221

Power

age and, 262, 315

asymmetries, 166, 202, 206–208, 261–262

condition-based, 207

conflict control by, 206–208, 211

first-strike, 206

mediation of competition and, 207–208

sibs, 261–262, 306

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2011. In the Light of Evolution: Volume V: Cooperation and Conflict. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13223.
×

Poxviruses, 219

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), 260, 271, 282–283, 285

Predation/predators, 24 (see also Myxococcus xanthus) and horizontal gene transfer, 42

Price’s equation, 8, 9, 10

Princeton University, vii

Prochloron spp., 32–33, 41

Prosocial Test, 351–356

Proteobacteria, 34, 35, 36, 87, 92 (see also Myxococcus xanthus)

Pseudogenes, 221

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 151, 153

Pseudonocardia spp., 30–31

Public goods games, 347

Pufferfish, 219

Punishment of cheaters, 40, 300, 330, 332, 340, 341, 342, 346, 347, 348, 349, 360, 361

Q

Queller, David C., 1, 5–25, 166, 191–211

Quorum sensing, 88, 140, 154, 192, 195–196

R

Ravens (Corvus corax), 300, 330

Read, Andrew F., 235–236, 237–252

Reciprocity, 12, 13, 15

Regus, John U., 27–47

Reproductive skew theory, 49, 51, 53–54, 55, 64, 65, 68

Restraint, evolution of

in colicin producing E. coli strains, 88, 120–130, 132–135

competition assay, 133–134

defined, 118

ecological dynamics, 120, 121–122, 128–129, 132

evolution of resistant strain, 122–124

experimental treatments, 132–133

in host-parasite communities, 131

in hypercycle communities, 131

Lotka-Volterra model, 130

migration patterns and, 88, 121–122, 127, 130, 132, 134–135

in nontransitive communities, 88, 119–120, 121, 122, 127, 128, 129–131

positive assortment and, 118, 120, 121, 125, 129, 131–132

rock-paper-scissors game, 88, 119–120

simulation of ecoevolutionary dynamics, 124–127, 134–135, 136

spatial structure and, 130–131

survival of the weakest, 119

in victim-exploiter communities, 130–131

Restriction-modification (R-M) systems, 226

Reticulitermes flavipes, 184

Retinoblastoma, 281

Retrogenes, 221

Retroposons, 218, 219, 221–222

Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), 327, 329–331

Rhizobia, 30–31, 32, 36, 39, 40, 44

Rhizobiales, 36

Richerson, Peter J., 301, 363–382

Rickettsia, 42

Riftia pachyptila, 41

Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 340

Robinson, Gene E., 165, 167–189

Rubenstein, Dustin R., 3, 69–85

Runaway social selection, 67

S

Sachs, Joel L., 2, 27–47

Sackler, Arthur M., vii–viii. See also Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium

Sackler, Jillian, vii, viii

Salmonella enterica, 131

Schizophrenia, vii, 236, 254, 284, 285

Scrub jays (Aphelocoma californica), 330

Self-splicing introns, 218–219, 223

Selfish genetic elements

B (supernumerary) chromosomes, 166, 213–214, 223–224, 227

clade selection hypothesis, 232

defined, 214

domestication, co-option, or exaptation, 221

“epi-transposon” hypothesis, 222

evolutionary function, 166, 216, 230–233, 234

gene converters, 223

and genetic conflict, 214, 215, 216–218, 224, 228

harmful effects, 220, 218–233

host dependency, 216

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2011. In the Light of Evolution: Volume V: Cooperation and Conflict. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13223.
×

imprinted genes, 166 (see also Genomic imprinting)

interspecies lateral transfers, 219, 222, 229–230

meiotic drive elements, 166, 213, 214, 216, 218, 223–225, 230, 288

modification-rescue systems, 166, 225, 226, 227, 228, 234

organellar genes, 166, 214, 217–218, 227–230

parasitic hypothesis, 215, 216, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232–233, 234

postsegregation distorters, 225–227, 229

safe havens, 216, 220, 222, 223

transposons and other mobile elements, 166, 214, 215, 217, 218, 220, 221–222, 230–233, 234

types and consequences, 218–233

Selfish-herd defense, 20

SETMAR gene, 221

Sex chromosome drive, 223, 224–225

Sex ratios, 2, 40, 51, 64, 227, 230, 276

Sexual conflict (see also Genomic imprinting)

Gaussian fitness function, 296

genetic models of sexually antagonistic traits, 296

quadratic fitness, 294

sex-limited traits, 277, 285–286, 291

sexual antagonism over trait with same fitness consequences, 277, 286–290, 291

X inactivation consequences, 295

X vs. autosome theory, 236, 275–276, 277, 287–290, 293–296

Sexual maturation

adolescence, 271–272

another-mouth-to-feed scenario, 266–267, 269

birth order and, 270–271

blended vs. unblended relatedness, 268–269

effects of imprinted genes, 271

father absence and, 269–270

genomic imprinting and, 265–272

helper-at-the-nest scenario, 267, 268–270, 271

life expectancy and, 266

partner change and, 267–268

pygmies, 266

Siblings, conflict, 261–262

Side-blotch lizards (Uta stansburiana), 56, 129

Silk, Joan B., 300, 343–362

Silver-Russell syndrome, 271, 282, 283

Skophammer, Ryan G., 27–47

Slave making, 176

Slime molds, 56

Social brain hypothesis, 177

Social effects, modeling, 8–10

Social foraging behavior, 187

Social heterosis, 67–68

Social Hymenoptera

caste-biasing nepotism, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 64, 65–67, 68

environmental cues, 49, 55, 56, 58, 64–65

genetic recognition, 2–3, 49, 55

greenbeard traits, 2–3, 49, 55–60, 65–67

haplodiplody hypothesis, 51

immune gene evolution, 178–180

kin recognition, 2–3, 49–50, 54–55, 64–65

kin selection mechanisms, 50–51, 54–59, 67–68

male parentage conflicts (worker policing), 2, 49, 51, 52–53

monogamy hypothesis, 3, 51

reproductive skew theory, 2, 49, 51, 53–54, 55, 64, 65, 68

runaway social selection, 49–50

sex investment ratios, 2, 49, 51–52

simulating evolution of cooperation, 2–3, 49, 56–59

Social immunity, 178

Social selection

byproduct social effects, 11

causality, 6, 7, 8, 10–11, 14

Hamilton’s rule and, 5–6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 22, 23, 49, 55, 56–59

indirect genetic effects approach, 8, 21

kind selection, 5, 6, 7, 16–23

kith selection, 5, 6, 7, 12–16

indirect genetic effects, 11

modeling social effects, 8–10

mutualisms, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 15, 24

neighbor-modulated approach, 5, 6–7, 9, 12, 14, 15, 22, 23

phenotype matching, 6, 9, 10, 11–12, 13, 14–15, 22, 23, 57–59

reciprocity, 12, 13, 15

runaway, 67

selfish effects, 24

social causality, 6, 9, 10, 11–12, 14

population structure (relatedness) and, 6, 10

separation condition, 6, 10

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2011. In the Light of Evolution: Volume V: Cooperation and Conflict. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13223.
×

Staphylococcus aureus, 151, 153

State University of New York at Stony Brook, viii

Stinkbugs, 30–31, 40–41, 43

Strassmann, Beverly I., 299, 303–324

Strassmann, Joan E., 166, 191–211

Streptomyces philanthi, 32–33, 41

Stromatolites, 138, 139

Superb starlings (Lamprotornis superbus), 69, 74–84 (see Cooperative breeding)

Superorganisms, 2

T

Tamarins, 343, 357–358

Termites (see also Eusocial insects)

hexamerins, 184, 187

immune gene evolution, 171, 179–180

juvenile hormone, 184

metabolism and nutrition genes, 165–166, 172, 184

origins of eusociality, 169

queen pheromone gene (Neofem2), 175, 187

within-colony competition, 153, 154

Third-Party Punishment Game, 346

Ti plasmid, 18–19, 24

Tragedy of the commons, 130–131

Transposons, 166, 215, 217, 218–219

Tribolium beetles, 227

Trichogramma wasps, 227

Trust, 300, 345, 347, 348

Trust Game, 345, 348

Tubeworms, 30–31, 41

Tufted capuchins, 360

U

Ubiquitin pathway, 283

Ultimatum Games, 345–346, 348, 360

Unicoloniality, 50, 67, 68

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage site, 305

United States Agency for International Development, 305

V

Vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), 338

Velicer, Gregory J., 88, 91–115

Vertebrate cooperation

attribution of intentions, 300, 325, 326, 329–331

attribution of knowledge, 326, 331–332

cognitive constraints, 334–335

contingent altruism measures, 325, 336–339

detection of noncooperators, 325, 340–342

emotional constraints, 335–336

mechanisms, 332–334

recognition of others’relationships, 300, 326–329

Vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops), 300, 327, 333, 340

Vibrio fischeri, 30–31, 38, 40, 41, 45, 155

Viviparous lizards, 129

Volvocales, 193

W

Wasps, 300 (see also Social Hymenoptera)

immunity genes, 178

origins of eusociality, 169, 177, 187–188

Water fern, 32–33, 43

Weaning, 260, 283, 319

Werren, John H., 166, 213–234

West Greenland Inuit, 375

Wilms’tumor, 281

Wolbachia, 40, 42, 43, 228–230, 234

Woodard, S. Hollis, 165, 167–189

World Health Organization, 240, 311

X

X inactivation, 287, 293, 294, 295

Xavier, Joao B., 89, 137–164

Y

Yeast, 56, 226

Z

Zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), 328

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 2011. In the Light of Evolution: Volume V: Cooperation and Conflict. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13223.
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Biodiversity—the genetic variety of life—is an exuberant product of the evolutionary past, a vast human-supportive resource (aesthetic, intellectual, and material) of the present, and a rich legacy to cherish and preserve for the future. Two urgent challenges, and opportunities, for 21st-century science are to gain deeper insights into the evolutionary processes that foster biotic diversity, and to translate that understanding into workable solutions for the regional and global crises that biodiversity currently faces. A grasp of evolutionary principles and processes is important in other societal arenas as well, such as education, medicine, sociology, and other applied fields including agriculture, pharmacology, and biotechnology. The ramifications of evolutionary thought also extend into learned realms traditionally reserved for philosophy and religion.

The central goal of the In the Light of Evolution (ILE) series is to promote the evolutionary sciences through state-of-the-art colloquia—in the series of Arthur M. Sackler colloquia sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences—and their published proceedings. Each installment explores evolutionary perspectives on a particular biological topic that is scientifically intriguing but also has special relevance to contemporary societal issues or challenges. This book is the outgrowth of the Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium "Cooperation and Conflict," which was sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences on January 7-8, 2011, at the Academy's Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California. It is the fifth in a series of colloquia under the general title "In the Light of Evolution." The current volume explores recent developments in the study of cooperation and conflict, ranging from the level of the gene to societies and symbioses.

Humans can be vicious, but paradoxically we are also among nature's great cooperators. Even our great conflicts-wars-are extremely cooperative endeavors on each side. Some of this cooperation is best understood culturally, but we are also products of evolution, with bodies, brains, and behaviors molded by natural selection. How cooperation evolves has been one of the big questions in evolutionary biology, and how it pays or does not pay is a great intellectual puzzle. The puzzle of cooperation was the dominant theme of research in the early years of Darwin's research, whereas recent work has emphasized its importance and ubiquity. Far from being a rare trait shown by social insects and a few others, cooperation is both widespread taxonomically and essential to life. The depth of research on cooperation and conflict has increased greatly, most notably in the direction of small organisms.

Although most of In the Light of Evolution V: Cooperation and Conflict is about the new topics that are being treated as part of social evolution, such as genes, microbes, and medicine, the old fundamental subjects still matter and remain the object of vigorous research. The first four chapters revisit some of these standard arenas, including social insects, cooperatively breeding birds, mutualisms, and how to model social evolution.

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