ASSESSING THE NECESSITY
Committee on the Use of Chimpanzees in Biomedical
and Behavioral Research
Board on Health Sciences Policy
Institute of Medicine
Board on Life Sciences
Division on Earth and Life Studies
Bruce M. Altevogt, Diana E. Pankevich,
Marilee K. Shelton-Davenport, and Jeffrey P. Kahn, Editors
INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE AND
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, N.W. • Washington, DC 20001
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
This study was requested by Contract No. N01-OD-4-239 Task Order No. 248 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-22039-2
International Standard Book Number-11: 0-309-22039-4
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Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2011. Chimpanzees in biomedical and behavioral research: Assessing the necessity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering and Medicine
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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COMMITTEE ON THE USE OF CHIMPANZEES IN
BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH
JEFFREY P. KAHN (Chair), Johns Hopkins University Berman Institute of Bioethics
JOHN G. BARTLETT, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
H. RUSSELL BERNARD, University of Florida
FLOYD E. BLOOM, The Scripps Research Institute
WARNER C. GREENE, University of California, San Francisco
DIANE E. GRIFFIN, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
EDWARD E. HARLOW, Harvard University School of Medicine
JAY R. KAPLAN, Wake Forest School of Medicine
MARGARET S. LANDI, GlaxoSmithKline
FREDERICK A. MURPHY, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
ROBERT SAPOLSKY, Stanford University
SHARON TERRY, Genetic Alliance
BRUCE M. ALTEVOGT, Study Director
MARILEE K. SHELTON-DAVENPORT, Senior Program Officer
DIANA E. PANKEVICH, Associate Program Officer
LORA K. TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant
ALEX R. REPACE, Senior Project Assistant
ANDREW M. POPE, Director, Board on Health Sciences Policy
FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director, Board on Life Sciences
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This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
Stephen W. Barthold, University of California, Davis
Thomas M. Butler, Independent consultant
Alexander M. Capron, University of Southern California
Timothy Coetzee, National Multiple Sclerosis Society
Frans B. M. de Waal, Emory University
Jane Goodall, Jane Goodall Institute
Beatrice H. Hahn, University of Pennsylvania
Donald A. Henderson, Johns Hopkins University
William D. Hopkins, Agnes Scott College
Steven E. Hyman, Harvard University
Stanley M. Lemon, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Alexander Ploss, The Rockefeller University
Arthur Weiss, University of California, San Francisco
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions
or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Eli Y. Adashi, Immediate Past Dean of Medicine & Biological Sciences, Brown University, and Peter H. Raven, President Emeritus, Missouri Botanical Garden. Appointed by the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
Origin of Study and Committee Statement of Task,
METHODS AND ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT
INTERNATIONAL POLICIES GUIDING CHIMPANZEE USE
SUMMARY OF CHIMPANZEE RESEARCH
Analysis of Federally Supported Research,
Analysis of Private-Sector Supported Research,
Criteria That Guide the Current Use of Chimpanzees,
PRINCIPLES GUIDING THE USE OF CHIMPANZEES IN RESEARCH
Ethologically Appropriate Physical and Social Environments,
Criteria to Assess the Necessity of the Chimpanzee for Biomedical Research,
Criteria for Use of the Chimpanzee in Comparative Genomics and Behavioral Research,
REVIEWING THE NECESSITY OF CURRENT CHIMPANZEE RESEARCH
Development of Chimpanzee Monoclonal Antibodies,
Safety Testing of Monoclonal Antibody Therapies,
FUTURE USE OF CHIMPANZEES IN BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
B Commissioned Paper: Comparison of Immunity to Pathogens in Humans, Chimpanzees, and Macaques
C Information-Gathering Agendas