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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Application of Lightweighting Technology to Military Aircraft, Vessels, and Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13277.
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APPLICATION OF LIGHTWEIGHTING TECHNOLOGY
TO MILITARY AIRCRAFT, VESSELS, AND VEHICLES

Committee on Benchmarking the Technology and Application of Lightweighting

National Materials and Manufacturing Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

                                OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Application of Lightweighting Technology to Military Aircraft, Vessels, and Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13277.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS      500 Fifth Street, NW      Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This is a report of work supported by Contract No. W911NF-08-D-0005, DO# 2, between the Department of Defense and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-22166-5
International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-22166-8
ISBN 0-309-22166-8

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Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Application of Lightweighting Technology to Military Aircraft, Vessels, and Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13277.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Application of Lightweighting Technology to Military Aircraft, Vessels, and Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13277.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Application of Lightweighting Technology to Military Aircraft, Vessels, and Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13277.
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COMMITTEE ON BENCHMARKING THE TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION OF LIGHTWEIGHTING

L. CATHERINE BRINSON, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, Chair

JOHN ALLISON, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

JULIE CHEN, University of Massachusetts, Lowell

DAVID R. CLARKE, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

BRADFORD COWLES, Pratt & Whitney (retired), Tolland, Connecticut

GEORGE T. (“RUSTY”) GRAY III, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

ERIC GREENE, Eric Greene Associates, Annapolis, Maryland

WESLEY L. HARRIS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

MANISH MEHTA, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, Michigan

GREGORY B. OLSON, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois

CHARLES SAFF, The Boeing Company, St. Louis, Missouri

DARREL R. TENNEY, NASA Langley Research Center (retired), Hampton, Virginia

FRANCIS W. ZOK, University of California, Santa Barbara

Staff

MADELINE WOODRUFF, Study Director

DENNIS CHAMOT, Acting Director, National Materials and Manufacturing Board

RICKY D. WASHINGTON, Administrative Coordinator

LAURA TOTH, Senior Program Assistant

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Application of Lightweighting Technology to Military Aircraft, Vessels, and Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13277.
×

NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD

ROBERT H. LATIFF, R. Latiff Associates, Alexandria, Virginia, Chair

DENISE F. SWINK, Independent Consultant, Germantown, Maryland, Vice Chair

PETER R. BRIDENBAUGH, NAE, ALCOA (retired), Boca Raton, Florida

VALERIE M. BROWNING, ValTech Solutions, LLC, Port Tobacco, Maryland

YET-MING CHIANG, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

PAUL CITRON, NAE, Medtronic, Inc. (retired), Minnetonka, Minnesota

GEORGE T. (RUSTY) GRAY II, Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico

CAROL A. HANDWERKER, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

THOMAS S. HARTWICK, Independent Consultant, Snohomish, Washington

SUNDARESAN JAYARAMAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

DAVID W. JOHNSON, JR., NAE, Stevens Institute of Technology, Bedminster, New Jersey

THOMAS KING, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

MICHAEL F. McGRATH, Analytic Services, Inc., Arlington, Virginia

NABIL NASR, Golisano Institute for Sustainability, Rochester, New York

PAUL S. PEERCY, NAE, University of Wisconsin-Madison

ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Herndon, Virginia

VINCENT J. RUSSO, Aerospace Technologies Associates, LLC, Dayton, Ohio

ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, GE Aviation, Cincinnati, Ohio

KENNETH H. SANDHAGE, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

HAYDN WADLEY, University of Virginia, Charlottesville

STEVEN WAX, Independent Consultant, Reston, Virginia

Staff

DENNIS CHAMOT, Acting Director

ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer

RICKY D. WASHINGTON, Executive Assistant

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

LAURA TOTH, Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Application of Lightweighting Technology to Military Aircraft, Vessels, and Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13277.
×

Preface

Lightweighting is a concept well known to structural designers and engineers in applications from laptops to bicycles to automobiles to buildings and airplanes. Reducing the weight of structures can provide many advantages, including increased energy efficiency, better design, improved usability, and better coupling with new, multifunctional features. At the same time, the methods needed to achieve implementation of lightweighting are not well understood. And although lightweighting is a challenge in commercial structures, the special demands of military vehicles significantly stress the already complex process.

It is in this context that the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), through Reliance 21,1 requested that the National Research Council (NRC) conduct a study, under the auspices of the National Materials and Manufacturing Board, to assess the current state of lightweighting implementation in air, sea, and land vehicles and recommend ways to improve the use of lightweight materials and lightweighting solutions. Appointed by the NRC, the Committee on Benchmarking the Technology and Application of Lightweighting comprised members chosen for their expertise in materials (including ceramics, polymers, metals, and composites); use of materials in air, sea, and land transport vehicles; systems engineering; and technology assessment, economics, and transfer. Short biographies of the committee members are provided in Appendix A. The committee’s statement of task is given in Chapter 1, along with the committee’s interpretation of its task and a description of how it carried out its work.

The committee’s work was aided greatly by a number of people, including the DoD’s Reliance 21 Materials and Processing Team and the experts who took the time to speak to the committee: Bruno Barthelemy, Gene Camponeschi, Julie Christodoulou, John Deloach, Lisa Prokurat Franks, John Gill, Roger Halle, Robert Hathaway, Charles Kuehmann, James Malas, Suveen Mathaudhu, Mark Middione, Jim Ogonowski, Robert Rapson, and Robert Sielski. Appendix B lists the presentations made to the committee.

My personal thanks go to the entire complement of committee members for their outstanding expertise, limitless enthusiasm, and dedicated efforts in discussing the vast amount of information on lightweighting that we received and in writing the report. I am particularly grateful to Frank Zok and Brad Cowles for their exceptional dedication and vision at key points in the process. They served as unofficial committee co-chairs, providing leadership to see the report through to the final version. We are all grateful to Madeline Woodruff, a senior program officer in the NRC’s Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, who served tirelessly as study director and assisted

1 Reliance 21 is a management process developed by the Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) that involves the science and technology (S&T) executives of all the military components under the aegis of the DDR&E. All the DoD and military service S&T organizations prepare biennial S&T strategic plans that are informed by and harmonized with an overarching DoD S&T strategic plan.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Application of Lightweighting Technology to Military Aircraft, Vessels, and Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13277.
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the committee in the preparation of its report under the direction of Dennis Chamot, acting director, National Materials and Manufacturing Board. The study benefited greatly from the work and advice of Janice Mehler, associate executive director, Report Review Committee. Special appreciation is expressed to Daniel Talmage, who helped with the preparation of the report during the final stage of the project, and to Laura Toth and Ricky D. Washington for assistance with meeting arrangements and communications with the committee.

L. Catherine Brinson, Chair
Committee on Benchmarking the Technology
and Application of Lightweighting

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Application of Lightweighting Technology to Military Aircraft, Vessels, and Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13277.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

Thanks go to the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report:

William F. Baker (NAE), Skidmore, Owings & Merrill,

Jay Baron, Center for Automotive Research,

Charles N. Calvano, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School,

W. Peter Cherry (NAE), Independent Consultant,

Donald U. Gubser, Naval Research Laboratory,

Elizabeth A. Holm, Sandia National Laboratories,

Paul J. Kern (NAE), The Cohen Group,

Richard R. Paul, Independent Consultant,

Richard L. Rumpf, Rumpf Associates International, Inc.,

Mark Schaeffer, Mantech SRS,

Robert E. Schafrik, GE Aircraft Engines,

Haydn Wadley, University of Virginia, and

Ben Wang, Florida State University.

Although these reviewers provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the committee’s findings or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review was overseen by R. Steven Berry, University of Chicago. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Application of Lightweighting Technology to Military Aircraft, Vessels, and Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13277.
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Lightweighting is a concept well known to structural designers and engineers in all applications areas, from laptops to bicycles to automobiles to buildings and airplanes. Reducing the weight of structures can provide many advantages, including increased energy efficiency, better design, improved usability, and better coupling with new, multifunctional features. While lightweighting is a challenge in commercial structures, the special demands of military vehicles for survivability, maneuverability and transportability significantly stress the already complex process.

Application of Lightweighting Technology to Military Vehicles, Vessels, and Aircraft assesses the current state of lightweighting implementation in land, sea, and air vehicles and recommends ways to improve the use of lightweight materials and solutions. This book considers both lightweight materials and lightweight design; the availability of lightweight materials from domestic manufacturers; and the performance of lightweight materials and their manufacturing technologies. It also considers the "trade space"--that is, the effect that use of lightweight materials or technologies can have on the performance and function of all vehicle systems and components. This book also discusses manufacturing capabilities and affordable manufacturing technology to facilitate lightweighting.

Application of Lightweighting Technology to Military Vehicles, Vessels, and Aircraft will be of interest to the military, manufacturers and designers of military equipment, and decision makers.

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