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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13280.
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PREDICTING OUTCOMES

OF INVESTMENTS IN

MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR

OF FEDERAL FACILITIES

Committee on Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and
Repair for Federal Facilities

Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13280.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS     500 Fifth Street, N.W.     Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report was supported by a series of contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the sponsor agencies of the Federal Facilities Council. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13:   978-0-309-22186-3
International Standard Book Number-10:   0-309-22186-2

Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13280.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scien-tifc and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13280.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13280.
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COMMITTEE ON PREDICTING OUTCOMES OF INVESTMENTS IN MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR FOR FEDERAL FACILITIES

DAVID A. SKIVEN, Engineering Society of Detroit Institute, Brighton, Michigan, Chair

GET W. MOY, AECOM, Inc., Arlington, Virginia, Vice Chair

MICHAEL A. AIMONE, Battelle Memorial Institute, Fairfax, Virginia

BURCU AKINCI, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

ALFREDO H-S. ANG, University of California, Irvine

JOSEPH BIBEAU, Eagle Enterprises of Tennessee LLC, Lebanon

IVAN DAMNJANOVIC, Texas A&M University, College Station

LUCIA E. GARSYS, Hillsborough County, Florida

DANIEL F. GELDERMANN, CALIBRE Systems, Alexandria, Virginia

MICHAEL R. GREENBERG, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey

WILLIAM G. STAMPER, CBC Solutions, Inc., Burke, Virginia

ERIC TEICHOLZ, Graphic Systems, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts

DONALD R. UZARSKI, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Staff

LYNDA STANLEY, Study Director

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

RICKY WASHINGTON, Administrative Coordinator

LAURA TOTH, Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13280.
×

BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT

DAVID J. NASH, MELE Associates, Vienna, Virginia, Chair

ADJO A. AMEKUDZI, George Institute of Technology, Atlanta

ALFREDO H-S. ANG, University of California, Irvine

HILLARY BROWN, New Civic Works, Inc., New York, New York

JESUS M. de la GARZA, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg

PETER MARSHALL, U.S. Navy (retired), Norfolk, Virginia

JAMES B. PORTER JR., Sustainable Operations Solutions, LLC, Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania

JAMES RISPOLI, Project Time and Cost, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina

DAVID A. SKIVEN, Engineering Society of Detroit Institute, Brighton, Michigan

DEBORAH SLATON, Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Northbrook, Illinois

E. SARAH SLAUGHTER, Built Environment Coalition, Cambridge, Massachusetts

JANICE L. TUCHMAN, Engineering News Record, New York, New York

JAMES P. WHITTAKER, Facility Engineering Associates, Fairfax, Virginia

Staff

DENNIS CHAMOT, Acting Director

LYNDA STANLEY, Senior Program Officer

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

RICKY WASHINGTON, Administrative Coordinator

LAURA TOTH, Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13280.
×

Preface

The federal government operates a portfolio of about 429,000 buildings and 482,000 other structures whose core purposes are to support the conduct of public policy, to help to defend the national interest, and to provide services to the U.S. public. Since 1990, studies have been issued, research has been undertaken, and technology has advanced in support of more strategic and more cost-effective management of federal facilities.

However, although progress has been made, major issues persist in regard to the maintenance and repair of federal facilities:

•   Federal facilities continue to deteriorate.

•   Federal agencies continue to operate and maintain facilities that are excess to their missions.

•   Each federal agency approaches reinvestment in maintenance and repair differently

•   Federal facilities program managers have been unable to communicate effectively the link between reinvestment in facilities’ maintenance and repair and the core missions of their agencies.

•   Federal facilities program managers have been unable to communicate effectively the link between reinvestment in facilities’ maintenance and repair and the core missions of their agencies.

So, what is different now that merits a new look at and a new study about the maintenance and repair of federal facilities? In fact, much has changed in the last 10 years. Recognition of the importance of buildings that protect their occupants in the event of disaster arose in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. In the aftermath, new security standards, risk assessment and risk mitigation

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13280.
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processes, and new technologies have been developed. Public debate about the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions associated with global climate change has brought the significance of buildings and their operations to the forefront, because the electricity used by buildings accounts for 40 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Facilities also use substantial amounts of the nation’s energy, water, and materials, and contribute to air and water pollution. Accordingly, they are an important factor in achieving—or not achieving—public policy goals for energy security and environmental sustainability. Because most of the buildings and other facilities used today will still be in use 30 years from now, better processes for operating and maintaining facilities will be essential if we are to achieve substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, energy use, and water use.

In 2011, the federal operating environment of increasing fiscal constraints and a growing national debt provides an additional impetus to reexamine how investments in federal facilities are made. Operating and maintaining unneeded facilities constitute a drain on the federal budget and result in lost opportunities to strategically invest to improve the condition of those facilities that support current missions, to reduce energy and water use, and to meet other public policy objectives. Strategic investments in maintenance and repair activities can also result in economic benefits when products, supplies, and equipment are purchased and when federal agencies contract out maintenance and repair activities to private-sector firms.

For those reasons and others, the Federal Facilities Council asked the National Research Council to appoint an ad hoc committee of experts to develop methods, strategies, and procedures to predict outcomes of investments in maintenance and repair of federal facilities. The committee appointed to undertake that task, the Committee on Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair for Federal Facilities, was composed of experts from public, private, and academic organizations who had a wealth of experience in addressing the complex and diverse issues surrounding facilities management. The committee reviewed previous reports that focused on federal facilities management; held discussions with representatives of private-sector organizations, professional societies, and numerous federal agencies; and conducted research on specific relevant topics to formulate its findings and recommendations.

Based on its work, the committee concluded that new, more proactive, and more transparent approaches to the maintenance and repair of federal facilities are needed. New approaches will have to identify specific outcomes that can result from a given level of maintenance and repair investment and identify the risks— the probability of adverse consequences—associated with a lack of investment. Those approaches will help federal facilities managers and decision-makers to improve their targeting of investments to achieve multiple objectives and help them to manage risk.

Implementation of a more strategic, risk-based approach to investment in federal facilities maintenance and repair will require a continuous-improvement

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13280.
×

mind-set at all levels of government. Improvement goals and objectives should focus on the following:

•   Ensuring that federal facilities are safe, secure, and in compliance with a host of health, safety, and environmental regulations,

•   Disposing of excess facilities that no longer support agencies’ missions and reducing the total federal facilities “footprint,” and

•   Operating mission-supportive facilities efficiently and effectively to reduce their overall costs and to support energy efficiency and other public policy objectives.

As a nation, we cannot continue to ignore the risks and potential consequences of under-maintaining federal facilities. During a period of decreasing budgets, downsizing, and increased competition for federal funding, the federal government and its agencies have the opportunity—and the responsibility—to implement new approaches to strategically reinvest in the portfolio of federal facilities. By taking a leadership role, the government can both address the deterioration of the nation’s public assets and also help to achieve other public policy goals, such as energy security and sustainability.

  David A. Skiven, Chair
Committee on Predicting Outcomes of
Investments in Maintenance and Repair for
Federal Facilities
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13280.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13280.
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Acknowledgments

The committee acknowledges the substantial contributions of members of the Federal Facilities Council and of Valerie Short of Jacobs Engineering, Michael Telson of the University of California, and Robert Moore of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (retired). The committee also thanks the following, who willingly and enthusiastically volunteered their time and ideas: Al Antelman, Valerie Baldwin, Steven Beattie, William Broglie, Karl Calvo, Douglas Christensen, James J. Dempsey, Andrew Dichter, Terrell Dorn, Maria Edelstein, Douglas Ellsworth, Michael Grussing, Dino Herrera, Jay Janke, Gerald Kokos, Peter Lufkin, Lance Marrano, Peter Marshall, William McNab, Lander Medlin, Joseph Morganti, Patrick Okamura, Peter O’Konski, Carl Rabenaldt, Dominic Savini, Robert St. Thomas, Kim Toufectis, Cynthia Vallina, Alex Willman, Stephen Wooldridge, Richard N. Wright, and John Yates.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of the report:

William W. Badger, Arizona State University,

William W. Brubaker, Hill International Inc. (retired),

Donald Coffelt, Carnegie Mellon University,

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13280.
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David G. Cotts, Consultant (retired),

Dennis P. Ferrigno, CAF & Associates, LLC,

Chris Hendrickson, Carnegie Mellon University,

Robert N. Jortberg, U.S. Navy (retired),

Richard G. Little, Keston Institute for Public Finance and Infrastructure Policy,

Judith Passwaters, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company,

Kumares C. Sinha, Purdue University,

Michael Vorster, Virginia Tech, and

Alan Washburn, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lloyd Duscha, Department of Defense (retired). Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13280.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13280.
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The Committee on Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair for Federal Facilities dedicates this report to our chair and valued colleague, David A. Skiven, who provided unwavering leadership and inspiration through all phases of the study process. He was a leader, gifted engineer, manager, mentor, and a tireless volunteer on behalf of the National Research Council, its Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment, and the Engineering Society of Detroit Institute. Dave died shortly after the report was released to the public.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13280.
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The deteriorating condition of federal facilities poses economic, safety, operational, and environmental risks to the federal government, to the achievement of the missions of federal agencies, and to the achievement of public policy goals. Primary factors underlying this deterioration are the age of federal facilities--about half are at least 50 years old--and decades of inadequate investment for their maintenance and repair. These issues are not new and there are no quick fixes. However, the current operating environment provides both the impetus and the opportunity to place investments in federal facilities' maintenance and repair on a new, more sustainable course for the 21st Century. Despite the magnitude of investments, funding for the maintenance and repair of federal facilities has been inadequate for many years, and myriad projects have been deferred.

Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities identifies processes and practices for transforming the current portfolio of federal facilities into one that is more economically, physically, and environmentally sustainable. This report addresses ways to predict or quantify the outcomes that can be expected from a given level of maintenance and repair investments in federal facilities or facilities' systems, and what strategies, measures, and data should be in place to determine the actual outcomes of facilities maintenance and repair investments.

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