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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Second Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13288.
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REVIEW OF THE 21ST CENTURY TRUCK PARTNERSHIP, SECOND REPORT

Committee to Review the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Phase 2

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Second Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13288.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  •  500 Fifth Street, NW  •  Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract DENT-0006206 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Second Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13288.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Second Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13288.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Second Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13288.
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COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE 21ST CENTURY TRUCK PARTNERSHIP, PHASE 2

JOHN H. JOHNSON, Michigan Technological University, Chair

JOSEPH M. COLUCCI, NAE,1 Automotive Fuels Consulting, Inc.

CORALIE COOPER,2 Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management, Boston, Massachusetts

DAVID E. FOSTER, University of Wisconsin-Madison

LARRY J. HOWELL, Consultant, Royal Oak, Michigan

JOHN G. KASSAKIAN, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

DAVID F. MERRION, Consultant, Detroit Diesel Corporation (retired), Brighton, Michigan

THOMAS E. REINHART, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas

BERNARD ROBERTSON, NAE, Chrysler Corporation (retired), Bloomfield Hills, Michigan

CHARLES E. SALTER, Consultant, Chambersburg, Pennsylvania

KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, NAE, General Motors, Research and Development Planning Center (retired), Fort Myers, Florida

WALLACE R. WADE, NAE, Ford Motor Company (retired), Novi, Michigan

Project Staff

JAMES J. ZUCCHETTO, Senior Program Officer/Board Director, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Study Director

MADELINE WOODRUFF, Senior Program Officer

E. JONATHAN YANGER, Senior Project Assistant

LANITA JONES, Administrative Coordinator

_____________________

1 NAE = member, National Academy of Engineering.

2 Resigned from the committee, January 18, 2011.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Second Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13288.
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BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS

ANDREW BROWN, JR., NAE,1 Delphi Corporation, Troy, Michigan, Chair

RAKESH AGRAWAL, NAE, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

WILLIAM F. BANHOLZER, NAE, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan

MARILYN BROWN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

MICHAEL L. CORRADINI, NAE, University of Wisconsin-Madison

PAUL DECOTIS, Long Island Power Authority, Albany, New York

CHRISTINE EHLIG-ECONOMIDES, NAE, Texas A&M University, College Station

WILLIAM FRIEND, NAE, Bechtel Group, Inc. (retired), McLean, Virginia

SHERRI GOODMAN, CNA, Alexandria, Virginia

NARAIN HINGORANI, NAE, Consultant, Los Altos Hills, California

ROBERT J. HUGGETT, Consultant, Seaford, Virginia

DEBBIE NIEMEIER, University of California, Davis

DANIEL NOCERA, NAS,2 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

MICHAEL OPPENHEIMER, Princeton University, New Jersey

DAN REICHER, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California

BERNARD ROBERTSON, NAE, Chrysler Corporation (retired), Bloomfield Hills, Michigan

ALISON SILVERSTEIN, Consultant, Pflugerville, Texas

MARK H. THIEMENS, NAS, University of California, San Diego

RICHARD WHITE, Oppenheimer & Company, New York, New York

Staff

JAMES J. ZUCCHETTO, Senior Program/Board Director

JOHN HOLMES, Senior Program Officer and Associate Board Director

DANA CAINES, Financial Manager

ALAN CRANE, Senior Program Officer

JONNA HAMILTON, Program Officer

LANITA JONES, Administrative Coordinator

ALICE WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant

E. JONATHAN YANGER, Senior Project Assistant

_____________________

1 NAE = member, National Academy of Engineering.

2 NAS = member, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Second Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13288.
×

Acknowledgments

The Committee to Review the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Phase 2, is grateful to the representatives of the 21st Century Truck Partnership, including the four government agencies—the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Transportation, and the U.S. Department of the Army—and to the representatives from companies and national laboratories who contributed significantly of their time and effort to this National Research Council (NRC) study by giving presentations at meetings or responding to committee requests for information. The committee also acknowledges the valuable contributions of other individuals who provided information and presentations at the committee’s open meetings. (Appendix B lists all of those presentations.)

The committee offers its special appreciation to Ken Howden, Director, 21st Century Truck Partnership, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies (formerly the Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies), for his significant contributions in coordinating responses to its questions and in making presentations to the committee.

Finally, the chairman gratefully recognizes the committee members and the staff of the NRC Board on Energy and Environmental Systems for organizing and planning the committee meetings and gathering information and drafting sections of the report. Jim Zucchetto in particular has done an outstanding job of facilitating the work of the committee and helping it to write a focused and timely report.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

•   Andrew Brown, Jr. (NAE), Delphi Corporation

•   Douglas Chapin (NAE), MPR Associates

•   Duke Drinkard, 21st Century Driver and Truck Alliance

•   Roger Fruechte, General Motors (retired)

•   Trevor Jones (NAE), ElectroSonics Medical

•   Drew Kodjak, International Council for Clean Transportation

•   Adrian Lund, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety

•   Dale Stein (NAE), Michigan Technological University (retired)

•   Ward Winer (NAE), Georgia Institute of Technology

•   John Woodrooffe, University of Michigan

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lawrence Papay (NAE). Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Second Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13288.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Second Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13288.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Second Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13288.
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Figures and Tables

FIGURES

1-1   Trends in actual and projected U.S. transportation fuel use, 1995-2035

1-2   Historical trends in emission standards for new diesel engines, 1970-2010

1-3   Illustrations of typical vehicles in the various weight classes

2-1   Interrelations among participants in the 21st Century Truck Partnership

2-2   Department of Energy goal setting process for technology programs

2-3   Some areas of common interest among the collaborative government agencies in the 21st Century Truck Partnership

2-4   Department of Energy project management and innovation process

3-1   High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) engine efficiency improvements

3-2   Cummins waste heat recovery (WHR) system, second-generation architecture

3-3   Schematic representation of the evolution of combustion processes to be used at different engine loads and speeds

3-4   Emission control system architecture generally being applied to meet 2010 new engine emissions standards of the Environmental Protection Agency

4-1   Relative performance of energy-storage systems

5-1   Aerodynamic and tire power consumption for tractor-trailer combination

5-2   Tractor-trailer (T-T) combination truck showing areas of energy-saving opportunities

5-3   Summary of trailer aerodynamic device fuel consumption reduction (baseline Cd of 0.625)

5-4   Example rolling resistance coefficients for heavy-duty truck tires

6-1   Payback time versus fuel price, by device, used 2,000 hours per year

8-1   Cummins organic Rankine cycle waste heat recovery with energy returned mechanically to crankshaft

9-1   High-productivity vehicle descriptions and operational efficiency potentials compared to 5-axle tractor-semitrailer or double baselines.

TABLES

1-1   Summary of Annual Miles and Fuel Use for Different Classes of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles in the United States Based on 2002 Survey Data

1-2   Department of Energy Budgets for Heavy-Vehicle Technologies, 1999-2011 (millions of dollars)

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Second Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13288.
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3-1   Accomplishments of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Projects

3-2   Accomplishments of Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) Projects

3-3   Accomplishments of Other Engine Projects Funded in Part by the Department of Energy

3-4   Major 21CTP-Related Projects Addressing Advanced Combustion Fundamentals

3-5   Engines Under Development by the Environmental Protection Agency for Series Hydraulic Hybrid Trucks

3-6   EPA’s Homogeneous-Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Features for a Series Hydraulic Hybrid Demonstrator Shuttle Bus

3-7   High Power Density–Low Heat Rejection Program Targets of the Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center

3-8   Adaptation of Commercial Engines for Military Use

3-9   Army Broad Agency Announcements (2010-2013): Summary of Three Programs for Powertrain Technology Development

3-10  Major 21CTP-Related Projects Funded in FY 2010 Addressing Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels and Non-Petroleum- Based Fuels

3-11  Department of Energy 21CTP Supported Aftertreatment Research Programs

3-12  Projects Attributed to Health Effects Studies Receiving Funding from the Department of Energy as Part of 21CTP

4-1   Hybrid Vehicle Architectures, Their Status as of 2009, and Primary Applications

4-2   Heavy-Duty Hybrid Funding for FY2007-FY2010

4-3   Electric-Vehicle Battery Materials, Production, and Recycling Capabilities Being Developed by 12 Domestic Manufacturers, with Amount of Department of Energy Funding

4-4   Nine Domestic Manufacturing Facilities for Battery Cell Production and Pack Assembly and Amount of Total Investment

4-5   Fuel Economy Improvements for Parallel and Series Hydraulic Hybrid Trucks

4-6   Maximum Incremental Cost of a Hybrid Truck Qualifying for a Tax Credit

4-7   Hybrid Truck Tax Credit as a Function of Fuel Economy

4-8   Hybrid Trucks—Break-even Cost Analysis (Future 2015-2020 Technology)

5-1   Heavy-Duty Truck Power Consumption (each hour)

6-1   Comparison of Attributes of Idle Reduction Systems

6-2   Status of Navistar Auxiliary Power Unit System Versus Program Goals

6-3   Comparison of Fuel Consumption Rates for Various Types of Idle Operation

6-4   Cab Comfort Technology Summary

8-1   Comparison of SuperTruck Projects and Technologies to Be Explored by Each of Three Teams

9-1   Maximum Truck Size and Weight Limits for 13 of 20 States Subject to the ISTEA Freeze

9-2   Summary of Fuel Saving Opportunities

E-1   Available Models of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Hybrid Vehicles and Electric Trucks

F-1   Proposed Drive-Cycle Weightings (percent) for Hybrid Vehicles Without Power Take-off

G-1   History of Heavy-Duty Truck Aerodynamic and Tire Rolling Resistance Coefficients

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In July 2010, the National Research Council (NRC) appointed the Committee to Review the 21st Century Truck Partnership, Phase 2, to conduct an independent review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership (21CTP). The 21CTP is a cooperative research and development (R&D) partnership including four federal agencies-the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-and 15 industrial partners. The purpose of this Partnership is to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, increase heavy-duty vehicle safety, and support research, development, and demonstration to initiate commercially viable products and systems. This is the NRC's second report on the topic and it includes the committee's review of the Partnership as a whole, its major areas of focus, 21CTP's management and priority setting, efficient operations, and the new SuperTruck program.

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