National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13347.
×

A RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH,
AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF
ENGINEERED
NANOMATERIALS

Committee to Develop a Research Strategy for Environmental,
Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

National Materials and Manufacturing Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                   OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13347.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS    500 Fifth Street, NW    Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was supported by Contract EP-C-09-003 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-25328-4

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-25328-4

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Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13347.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13347.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13347.
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COMMITTEE TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH, AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF ENGINEERED NANOMATERIALS

Members

JONATHAN M. SAMET (Chair), University of Southern California, Los Angeles

TINA BAHADORI, American Chemistry Council, Washington, DC (until May 2012)

JURRON BRADLEY, BASF, Florham Park, NJ

SETH COE-SULLIVAN, QD Vision, Inc., Lexington, MA

VICKI L. COLVIN, Rice University, Houston, TX

EDWARD D. CRANDALL, University of Southern California, Los Angeles

RICHARD A. DENISON, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC

WILLIAM H. FARLAND, Colorado State University, Fort Collins

MARTIN FRITTS, SAIC-Frederick, Frederick, MD

PHILIP HOPKE, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY

JAMES E. HUTCHISON, University of Oregon, Eugene

REBECCA D. KLAPER, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

GREGORY V. LOWRY, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA

ANDREW MAYNARD, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor

GUNTER OBERDORSTER, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY

KATHLEEN M. REST, Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, MA

MARK J. UTELL, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY

DAVID B. WARHEIT, DuPont Haskell Global Centers for Health and Environmental Sciences, Newark, DE

MARK R. WIESNER, Duke University, Durham, NC

Staff

EILEEN ABT, Project Director

TINA MASCIANGIOLI, Senior Program Officer

ERIK SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer

KEEGAN SAWYER, Associate Program Officer (until August 2011)

KERI SCHAFFER, Research Associate

NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor

MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center

RADIAH ROSE, Manager, Editorial Projects

TAMARA DAWSON, Program Associate

ORIN LUKE, Senior Program Assistant (until June 2011)

Sponsor

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13347.
×

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY1

Members

ROGENE F. HENDERSON (Chair), Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM

PRAVEEN AMAR, Clean Air Task Force, Boston, MA

MICHAEL J. BRADLEY, M.J. Bradley & Associates, Concord, MA

JONATHAN Z. CANNON, University of Virginia, Charlottesville

GAIL CHARNLEY, HealthRisk Strategies, Washington, DC

FRANK W. DAVIS, University of California, Santa Barbara

RICHARD A. DENISON, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC

CHARLES T. DRISCOLL, JR., Syracuse University, New York

H CHRISTOPHER FREY, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

RICHARD M. GOLD, Holland & Knight, LLP, Washington, DC

LYNN R. GOLDMAN, George Washington University, Washington, DC

LINDA E. GREER, Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC

WILLIAM E. HALPERIN, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark

PHILIP K. HOPKE, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY

HOWARD HU, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

SAMUEL KACEW, University of Ottawa, Ontario

ROGER E. KASPERSON, Clark University, Worcester, MA

THOMAS E. MCKONE, University of California, Berkeley

TERRY L. MEDLEY, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, DE

JANA MILFORD, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder

FRANK O’DONNELL, Clean Air Watch, Washington, DC

RICHARD L. POIROT, Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, Waterbury

KATHRYN G. SESSIONS, Health and Environmental Funders Network, Bethesda, MD

JOYCE S. TSUJI, Exponent Environmental Group, Bellevue, WA

Senior Staff

JAMES J. REISA, Director

DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Scholar

RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Officer for Environmental Studies

ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis

SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology

EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer

MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center

RADIAH ROSE, Manager, Editorial Projects

image

1This study was planned, overseen, and supported by the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13347.
×

OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

Macondo Well-Deepwater Horizon Blowout: Lessons for Improving Offshore Drilling Safety (2012)

Feasibility of Using Mycoherbicides for Controlling Illicit Drug Crops (2011)

Improving Health in the United States: The Role of Health Impact Assessment (2011)

A Risk-Characterization Framework for Decision-Making at the Food and Drug Administration (2011)

Review of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Draft IRIS Assessment of Formaldehyde (2011)

Toxicity-Pathway-Based Risk Assessment: Preparing for Paradigm Change (2010)

The Use of Title 42 Authority at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2010)

Review of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Draft IRIS Assessment of Tetrachloroethylene (2010)

Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use (2009)

Contaminated Water Supplies at Camp Lejeune— Assessing Potential Health Effects (2009)

Review of the Federal Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research (2009)

Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment (2009)

Phthalates and Cumulative Risk Assessment: The Tasks Ahead (2008)

Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution (2008)

Respiratory Diseases Research at NIOSH (2008)

Evaluating Research Efficiency in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2008)

Hydrology, Ecology, and Fishes of the Klamath River Basin (2008)

Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2007)

Models in Environmental Regulatory Decision Making (2007)

Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-first Century: A Vision and a Strategy (2007)

Sediment Dredging at Superfund Megasites: Assessing the Effectiveness (2007)

Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects (2007)

Scientific Review of the Proposed Risk Assessment Bulletin from the Office of Management and Budget (2007)

Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues (2006)

New Source Review for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (2006)

Human Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals (2006)

Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment (2006)

Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards (2006)

State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions (2006)

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13347.
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Superfund and Mining Megasites—Lessons from the Coeur d’Alene River Basin (2005)

Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion (2005)

Air Quality Management in the United States (2004)

Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River (2004)

Atlantic Salmon in Maine (2004)

Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin (2004)

Cumulative Environmental Effects of Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Development (2003)

Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002)

Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002)

The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002)

Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001)

Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001)

Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001)

A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001)

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (twelve volumes, 2000-2012)

Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000)

Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000)

Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000)

Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000)

Waste Incineration and Public Health (2000)

Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999)

Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (four volumes, 1998-2004)

The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997)

Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996)

Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996)

Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995)

Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995)

Biologic Markers (five volumes, 1989-1995)

Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994)

Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993)

Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992)

Science and the National Parks (1992)

Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991)

Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991)

Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990)

Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press
(800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13347.
×

BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY

Members

RYAN R. DIRKX (Co-Chair), Arkema Inc., Bristol, PA

C. DALE POULTER (Co-Chair), University of Utah, Salt Lake City,

ZHENAN BAO, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA

ROBERT G. BERGMAN, University of California, Berkeley

HENRY E. BRYNDZA, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, DE

EMILY A. CARTER, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ

PABLO G. DEBENEDETTI, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ

CAROL J. HENRY, The George Washington University, Washington, DC

CHARLES E. KOLB, JR., Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA

JOSEF MICHL, University of Colorado, Boulder

C. DALE POULTER, University of Utah, Salt Lake City

MARK A. RATNER, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL

ROBERT E. ROBERTS, Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA

DARLENE J.S. SOLOMON, Agilent Laboratories, Santa Clara, CA

ERIK J. SORENSEN, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ

WILLIAM C. TROGLER, University of California, San Diego

Senior Staff

DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director

TINA MASCIANGIOLI, Senior Program Officer

DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Program Officer

KATHRYN HUGHES, Program Officer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13347.
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OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY

Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Revised Edition (2011)

Promoting Chemical Laboratory Safety and Security in Developing Countries (2010)

Research at the Intersection of the Physical and Life Sciences (2010)

BioWatch and Public Health Surveillance: Evaluating Systems for the Early Detection of Biological Threats: Abbreviated Version (2010)

Strengthening High School Chemistry Education Through Teacher Outreach Programs: A Workshop Summary to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable (2009)

Catalysis for Energy: Fundamental Science and Long-Term Impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy Basic Energy Science Catalysis Science Program (2009)

Effectiveness of National Biosurveillance Systems: BioWatch and the Public Health System: Interim Report (2009)

A Framework for Assessing the Health Hazard Posed by Bioaerosols (2008)

Disrupting Improvised Explosive Device Terror Campaigns: Basic Research Opportunities: A Workshop Report (2008)

Test and Evaluation of Biological Standoff Detection Systems: Abbreviated Version (2008)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13347.
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NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD

Members

ROBERT H. LATIFF (Chair), R. Latiff Associates, Alexandria, VA

DENISE F. SWINK (Vice-Chair), Independent Consultant, Germantown, MD

PETER R. BRIDENBAUGH, NAE, Retired, ALCOA, Boca Raton, FL

VALERIE M. BROWNING, ValTech Solutions, LLC, Port Tobacco, MD

YET-MING CHIANG, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

PAUL CITRON, NAE, Retired, Medtronic, Inc., Minnetonka, MN

GEORGE T. (RUSTY) GRAY, II, Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, NM

CAROL A. HANDWERKER, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

THOMAS S. HARTWICK, Independent Consultant, Snohomish, WA

SUNDARESAN JAYARAMAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA

DAVID W. JOHNSON, JR., NAE, Stevens Institute of Technology, Bedminster, NJ

THOMAS KING, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, TN

MICHAEL F. MCGRATH, Analytic Services Inc., Arlington, VA

NABIL NASR, Golisano Institute for Sustainability, Rochester, NY

PAUL S. PEERCY, NAE, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI

ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Herndon, VA

VINCENT J. RUSSO, Aerospace Technologies Associates, LLC, Dayton, OH

ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, GE Aviation, Cincinnati, OH

KENNETH H. SANDHAGE, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA

HAYDN WADLEY, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA

STEVEN WAX, Independent Consultant, Reston, VA

Staff

DENNIS CHAMOT, Acting Director

ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer

RICKY D. WASHINGTON, Executive Assistant

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

LAURA TOTH, Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13347.
×

OTHER REPORTS OF THE NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD

Opportunities in Protection Materials Science and Technology for Future Army Applications (2011)

Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems (2011)

Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science and Engineering (2010)

Assessment of Corrosion Education (2009)

Proceedings of a Workshop on Materials State Awareness (2008)

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering: A Transformational Discipline for Improved Competitiveness and National Security (2008)

Managing Materials for a Twenty-first Century Military (2008)

A Path to the Next Generation of U.S. Bank Notes: Keeping Them Real (2007)

Assessment of Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Technology for Detection and Identification of Concealed Explosives and Weapons (2007)

Fusion of Security System Data to Improve Airport Security (2007)

Proceedings of the Materials Forum 2007: Corrosion Education for the 21st Century (2007)

Managing Materials for a 21st Century Military (2007)

A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (2006)

Proceedings from the Workshop on Biomedical Materials at the Edge: Challenges in the Convergence of Technologies (2006)

Defending the U.S. Air Transportation System Against Chemical and Biological Threats (2006)

Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy (2005)

Going to Extremes: Meeting the Emerging Demand for Durable Polymer Matrix Composites (2005)

High-Performance Structural Fibers for Advanced Polymer Matrix Composites (2005)

Nanotechnology for the Intelligence Community (2005)

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13347.
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Preface

Over the last decade, government agencies, academic institutions, industry, and others have conducted many assessments of the environmental, health, and safety (EHS) aspects of nanotechnology. The results of those efforts have helped to direct research on the EHS aspects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). However, despite the progress in assessing research needs and despite the research that has been funded and conducted, developers, regulators, and consumers of nanotechnology-enabled products remain uncertain about the types and quantities of nanomaterials in commerce or in development, their possible applications, and their associated risks. To address those uncertainties, the Environmental Protection Agency asked the National Research Council to perform an independent study to develop and monitor the implementation of an integrated research strategy to address the EHS aspects of ENMs.

In this report, the Committee to Develop a Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials presents a conceptual framework for the proposed research strategy and identifies critical research gaps and tools needed to address them. The committee identifies highpriority research that needs to be undertaken in the short and long term and the resources needed. The report concludes with a discussion of mechanisms to ensure effective implementation of the committee’s research strategy. In a subsequent report, the committee will evaluate research progress.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council Report Review Committee. The purpose of the independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following for their review of this report: Nathan Baker, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Michael Ellenbecker, University of Massachusetts Lowell; Richard Flagan, California Institute of Technology; Robert Hurt, Brown University; Jacqueline Isaacs, Northeastern University; Jennifer Kuzma, Univer-

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13347.
×

sity of Minnesota; Terry Medley, E.I. duPont de Nemours & Co.; James Murday, University of Southern California; Andre Nel, University of California, Los Angeles; Joanne Shatkin, CLF Ventures, Inc.; Robert Tanguay, Oregon State University; David Tirrell, California Institute of Technology; Jason Unrine, University of Kentucky; Paul Westerhoff, Arizona State University; and Yannis Yortsos, University of Southern California.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by the review coordinator, Richard B. Schlesinger, Pace University, and the review monitor, Julia M. Phillips, Sandia National Laboratories. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the committee and the institution.

The committee gratefully acknowledges the following for making presentations to the committee: Lynn Bergeson, Bergeson & Campbell, P.C.; P. Lee Ferguson, Duke University; Richard Judson, Jeffrey Morris, and James Willis, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Subhas Malghan, U.S. Food and Drug Administration; Scott McNeil, Science Applications International Corporation; Giovanni Parmigiani, Harvard University; Paul Schulte, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Justin Teeguarden, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Alan Tessier, National Science Foundation; Sally Tinkle, National Nanotechnology Coordination Office, and formerly with the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; and Jason Unrine, University of Kentucky.

The committee is also grateful for the assistance of National Research Council staff in preparing this report. Staff members who contributed to the effort are Eileen Abt, project director; James Reisa, director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Tina Masciangioli and Erik Svedberg, senior program officers; Keegan Sawyer, associate program officer; Keri Schaffer, research associate; Norman Grossblatt, senior editor; Mirsada Karalic-Loncarevic, manager, Technical Information Center; Radiah Rose, manager, editorial projects; Orin Luke, senior program assistant; and Tamara Dawson, program associate.

I would especially like to thank the members of the committee for their efforts throughout the development of this report.

Jonathan M. Samet, Chair
Committee to Develop a Research Strategy
for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects
of Engineered Nanomaterials

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13347.
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3     CRITICAL QUESTIONS FOR UNDERSTANDING HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF ENGINEERED NANOMATERIALS

Introduction

Prior Research-Gap Analysis— An Overview

Research-Gap Analysis and Identification of Critical Research Questions

References

4     NEW TOOLS AND APPROACHES FOR INDENTIFYING PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERED NANOMATERIALS THAT INDICATE RISKS

Characterized Nanomaterials for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research

Tools, Standardized Characterization Methods, and Nomenclature of Engineered Nanomaterials

Standardized Experimental Protocols for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research

Exposure Modeling

Models for Predicting Human Health, Organismal, and Ecologic Effects

Exposure to Dose Models

Informatics

References

5     RESEARCH PRIORITIES AND RESOURCE NEED

Overview

Adaptive Research and Knowledge Infrastructure for Accelerating Research Progress and Providing Rapid Feedback to Advance Research

Characterizing and Quantifying the Origins of Nanomaterial Releases

Processes Affecting both Exposure and Hazard

Nanomaterial Interactions in Complex Systems Ranging from Subcellular Systems to Ecosystems

Resources for Addressing Research Priorities

References

6     IMPLEMENTING THE RESEARCH STRATEGY AND EVALUATING PROGRESS

Introduction

Infrastructure for Implementation and Accountability

Evaluating and Assessing Progress for Revising the Strategy

Resources

Key Audiences Needed to Implement the Strategy

Concluding Remarks

References

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13347.
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APPENDIXES

A     BIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ON THE COMMITTEE TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH, AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF ENGINEERED NANOMATERIALS

B     IMPLEMENTATION SCENARIOS: INFORMATICS AND INFORMATION-SHARING

BOXES, FIGURES, AND TABLES

BOXES

1-1  Elements of a Research Strategy

2-1  Incorporating Green-Chemistry Principles into Nanomaterial Development and Application

2-2  Life-Cycle Assessment, Life-Cycle Inventory, and Data Needs

6-1  National Science Foundation Data-Management Plan

6-2  Research-Progress Indicators

6-3  Indicators of Progress in Implementation

FIGURES

S-1  Conceptual framework for informing the committee’s research strategy

1-1  A general framework for integrating particulate-matter research

2-1  Conceptual framework for informing the committee’s research agenda

2-2  Potential human and ecosystem exposure through the value chain and life cycle of nanomaterial production, use, and disposal

3-1  Central topics for EHS research on ENMs

3-2  The number of peer-reviewed publications relating to exposure and hazard

3-3  The number of peer-reviewed publications relating to environmental issues

3-4  Projection of the size of the nanotechnology market

3-5  Extrapolation of dosimetry of inhaled particles from rats to humans

3-6  Concept of ENM toxicity testing for human health risk assessment

3-7  Ecologic hazard end points for making predictions of the environmental effects of nanomaterials

TABLES

1-1  Key Reports That Assess or Provide Information on Research Needs and Strategies for Addressing the Environmental, Health, and Safety Implications of Engineered Nanomaterials

2-1  Risk-Related Concerns from NRC (2009) as Applied to Nanomaterials

2-2  Illustration of Potential Releases of and Exposures to Carbon Nanotubes across the Value Chain and Lifecycle of a Textile Application

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The nanotechnology sector, which generated about $225 billion in product sales in 2009, is predicted to expand rapidly over the next decade with the development of new technologies that have new capabilities. The increasing production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) may lead to greater exposures of workers, consumers, and the environment, and the unique scale-specific and novel properties of the materials raise questions about their potential effects on human health and the environment. Over the last decade, government agencies, academic institutions, industry, and others have conducted many assessments of the environmental, health, and safety (EHS) aspects of nanotechnology. The results of those efforts have helped to direct research on the EHS aspects of ENMs. However, despite the progress in assessing research needs and despite the research that has been funded and conducted, developers, regulators, and consumers of nanotechnology-enabled products remain uncertain about the types and quantities of nanomaterials in commerce or in development, their possible applications, and their associated risks.

A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials presents a strategic approach for developing the science and research infrastructure needed to address uncertainties regarding the potential EHS risks of ENMs. The report summarizes the current state of the science and high-priority data gaps on the potential EHS risks posed by ENMs and describes the fundamental tools and approaches needed to pursue an EHS risk research strategy. The report also presents a proposed research agenda, short-term and long-term research priorities, and estimates of needed resources and concludes by focusing on implementation of the research strategy and evaluation of its progress, elements that the committee considered integral to its charge.

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