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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
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Building the U.S. Battery Industry
for Electric Drive Vehicles

PROGRESS, CHALLENGES, AND OPPORTUNITIES

Summary of a Symposium

Charles W. Wessner, Rapporteur

Subcommittee on Electric Drive Battery Research and Development Activities

Committee on Competing in the 21st Century:
Best Practice in State and Regional Innovation Initiatives

Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy

Policy and Global Affairs

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                    OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS     500 Fifth Street NW     Washington DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by: Contract/Grant No. DE-DT0000584, TO# 29, between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Energy. This report was prepared by the National Academy of Sciences under award number SB134106Z0011, TO# 4 (68059) from the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This report was prepared by the National Academy of Sciences under award number 99-06-07543-02 from the Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. The statements, findings, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Economic Development Administration, or the U.S. Department of Commerce. Additional support was provided by the Michigan Economic Development Corporation and Michigan’s University Research Corridor. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu/.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
×

Subcommittee on Electric Drive Battery Research and Development Activities

Mary L. Good (NAE), Chair

Dean Emeritus, Donaghey College of Engineering and Information Technology

Special Advisor to the Chancellor for Economic Development

University of Arkansas at Little Rock

Raymond G. Boeman

Director, Energy Partnerships

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Michael G. Borrus

Founding General Partner

X/Seed Capital Management

Ralph Brodd

President

Broddarp of Nevada

Robert Kruse

Principal

EV Consulting

W. Clark McFadden II

Senior Counsel

Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP

Daniel Sperling

Director, Institute of Transportation Studies

University of California, Davis

Committee on Competing in the 21st Century:
Best Practice in State and Regional Innovation Initiatives

Mary L. Good (NAE), Chair

Dean Emeritus, Donaghey College of Engineering and Information Technology

Special Advisor to the Chancellor for Economic Development

University of Arkansas at Little Rock

Michael G. Borrus

Founding General Partner

X/Seed Capital Management

William C. Harris

President and CEO

Science Foundation Arizona

W. Clark McFadden II

Senior Counsel

Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP

David T. Morgenthaler

Founding Partner

Morgenthaler Ventures

Edward E. Penhoet (IOM)

Director

Alta Partners

Tyrone C. Taylor

President

Capitol Advisors on Technology, LLC

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
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PROJECT STAFF

Charles W. Wessner

Study Director

McAlister T. Clabaugh

Program Officer

David S. Dawson

Senior Program Assistant

Sujai J. Shivakumar

Senior Program Officer

David E. Dierksheide

Program Officer

Peter Engardio

Consultant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
×

For the National Research Council (NRC), this project was overseen by the Board on Science, Technology and Economic Policy (STEP), a standing board of the NRC established by the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and the Institute of Medicine in 1991. The mandate of the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy is to advise federal, state, and local governments and inform the public about economic and related public policies to promote the creation, diffusion, and application of new scientific and technical knowledge to enhance the productivity and competitiveness of the U.S. economy and foster economic prosperity for all Americans. The STEP Board and its committees marshal research and the expertise of scholars, industrial managers, investors, and former public officials in a wide range of policy areas that affect the speed and direction of scientific and technological change and their contributions to the growth of the U.S. and global economies. Results are communicated through reports, conferences, workshops, briefings, and electronic media subject to the procedures of the National Academies to ensure their authoritativeness, independence, and objectivity. The members of the STEP Board* and the NRC staff are listed below:

Paul L. Joskow, Chair

President

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Ernst R. Berndt

Louis E. Seley Professor in Applied Economics

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

John Donovan

Chief Technology Officer

AT&T Inc.

Alan M. Garber (IOM)

Provost

Harvard University

Ralph E. Gomory (NAS/NAE)

Research Professor

Stern School of Business

New York University

Mary L. Good (NAE)

Dean Emeritus, Donaghey College of Engineering and Information Technology

Special Advisor to the Chancellor for Economic Development

University of Arkansas at Little Rock

William H. Janeway

Partner

Warburg Pincus, LLC

Richard K. Lester

Japan Steel Industry Professor

Head, Nuclear Science and Engineering

Founding Director, Industrial Performance Center

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

 

*As of September 2012.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
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William F. Meehan III

Lecturer in Strategic Management

Raccoon Partners Lecturer in Management

Graduate School of Business

Stanford University

and

Director Emeritus

McKinsey and Co., Inc.

David T. Morgenthaler

Founding Partner

Morgenthaler Ventures

Luis M. Proenza

President

The University of Akron

William J. Raduchel

Chairman

Opera Software ASA

Kathryn L. Shaw

Ernest C. Arbuckle Professor of Economics

Graduate School of Business

Stanford University

Laura D’Andrea Tyson

S.K. and Angela Chan Professor of Global Management

Haas School of Business

University of California, Berkeley

Harold R. Varian

Chief Economist

Google, Inc.

Alan Wm. Wolff

Senior Counsel

McKenna Long & Aldridge LLP

STEP Staff

Stephen A. Merrill

Executive Director

Paul T. Beaton

Program Officer

McAlister T. Clabaugh

Program Officer

Aqila A. Coulthurst

Program Coordinator

Charles W. Wessner

Program Director

David S. Dawson

Senior Program Assistant

David E. Dierksheide

Program Officer

Sujai J. Shivakumar

Senior Program Officer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
×

Contents

PREFACE

I. OVERVIEW

II. PROCEEDINGS

DAY ONE

Welcome

Greg Main, Michigan Economic Development Corporation

Opening Remarks I

Carl Levin, United States Senate

Opening Remarks II

Introduction by Charles W. Wessner, The National Academies

Sridhar Kota, White House Office of Science and Technology Policy

Opening Remarks III

Jennifer Granholm, State of Michigan

Overview of NAS Study: Building the Battery Industry for Electric Vehicles

Mary Good, University of Arkansas at Little Rock

Keynote Address

Introduction by John R. Chalifoux, Original Equipment Suppliers Association

Debbie Stabenow, United States Senate

Panel I: The Federal Outlook for the U.S. Battery Industry

Moderator: Charles W. Wessner, The National Academies

The Department of Energy Perspective

Patrick B. Davis, U.S. Department of Energy

Vehicle Technologies Program

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
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The Army Perspectives

Grace Bochenek, U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center

John Pellegrino, U.S. Army Research Laboratory

Panel II: The State of Battery R&D and Manufacturing in the United States

Moderator: Ralph C. Brodd, Kentucky-Argonne National Battery Manufacturing R&D Center

The Battery Industry Perspective

Jason M. Forcier, A123 Systems

Mohamed Alamgir, Compact Power

The Automotive Industry Perspective

Nancy Gioia, Ford Motor Company

The University/Startup Perspective

Ann Marie Sastry, University of Michigan and Sakti3

Panel III: Strengthening the Supply Chain

Moderator: Jim Greenberger, National Alliance for Advanced Technology Batteries

Battery Manufacturer Perspective

Tom Watson, Johnson Controls

Defining the Supply Chain: Gaps and Opportunities

Michael E. Reed, Magna E-Car Systems

Battery Materials Availability and Recycling

Linda Gaines, Argonne National Laboratory

Panel IV: Market Drivers: Creating Demand for Electric Vehicles

Moderator: Robert Kruse, EV Consulting LLC

Incentives for the Electric Vehicle Market

Daniel Sperling, University of California-Davis

The Industry Perspective: Transforming the Automotive Industry

Gary Smyth, General Motors

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
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Early Adoption of Hybrid Vehicles

Bill Van Amburg, CALSTART

Panel V: Building the Battery Workforce

Moderator: Bill Harris, Science Foundation Arizona

Workforce Needs and Opportunities

Robert Kamischke, EnerDel

Technical Training and Workforce Development

Simon Ng, Wayne State University

DAY TWO

Welcome and Introduction

Andy Levin, Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth

Panel VI-A: Federal and State Programs to Support the Battery Industry

Moderator: Charles W. Wessner, The National Academies

The Department of Energy Battery R&D Program and Goals

David Howell, U.S. Department of Energy

Department of Defense Battery R&D Programs and Goals

Sonya Zanardelli, U.S. Army Tank and Automotive

Research, Development, and Engineering Center

The Kentucky-Argonne National Battery Manufacturing R&D Center

Ralph C. Brodd, Kentucky-Argonne National Battery

Manufacturing R&D Center

Panel VI-B: Federal and Michigan Programs to Support the Battery Industry

Moderator: Sujai Shivakumar, The National Academies

The Department of Commerce and the Role of the Manufacturing Extension Partnership

David C. Stieren, Manufacturing Extension Partnership

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
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Michigan Investments in Batteries and Electric Vehicles

Eric Shreffler, Michigan Economic

Development Corporation

Roundtable: What Have We Learned and Next Steps

Moderator: Mary Good, University of Arkansas at Little Rock

Bill Harris, Science Foundation Arizona

Les Alexander, A123 Systems

Gary Krause, Michigan Economic Development Corporation

III.           APPENDIXES

A       Agenda

B       Biographies of Speakers

C       Participants List

D       Bibliography

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
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ha

Preface

Responding to the challenges of fostering regional growth and employment in an increasingly competitive global economy, many U.S. states and regions have developed programs to attract and grow high-technology companies, develop the talent and resources necessary to create innovation clusters, and sustain manufacturing and high value employment. These state and regionally based initiatives have a broad range of goals and increasingly include significant resources that often focus on driving innovation and often in partnership with foundations and universities. These are being joined by recent initiatives to coordinate and concentrate investments from a variety of federal agencies that provide significant resources to develop regional centers of innovation, business incubators, and other strategies to encourage entrepreneurship and high-tech development.

In this regard, the state of Michigan is making significant investments to develop an electrified-vehicle industrial cluster. The state offered more than $1 billion in grants and tax credits to manufacturers of lithium-ion battery cells, packs, and components. Michigan has also invested in research centers and skilled-worker training programs for electrified vehicles.

Efforts by the federal government to ensure that the U.S. has a domestic manufacturing base for advanced batteries are complementing Michigan’s initiatives. The federal government in 2009 awarded $2.4 billion in grants under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to manufacturers of lithium-ion cells, battery packs, and materials.1 A host of other financial incentives have also been introduced to help companies commercialize new vehicle technologies, build production lines, build supply chains, and encourage consumers to buy electric-gas hybrid cars.

To review the developments, as well as the needs and challenges, of the U.S. electric drive battery industry in Michigan, the National Academies Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP), in cooperation with the Michigan Economic Development Corporation and the Department of Energy, convened a symposium, on Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities.

The symposium, held on 26-27 July 2010 in Livonia, Michigan, and this report of that symposium, address the first of two key elements of the Statement of Task (described below) of a committee of the National Research Council.

______________________

1 The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P. L. 115-5) is a $787 billion economic stimulus packaged signed by President Barack Obama on Feb. 17, 2009. See Department of Energy, “The Recovery Act: Transforming America’s Transportation Sector—Batteries and Electric Vehicles,” July 14, 2010 (http://www.whitehouse.gov/files/documents/Battery-and-Electric-Vehicle-Report-FINAL.pdf)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
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STATEMENT OF TASK

The Overall Project

An ad hoc subcommittee will plan and conduct two public symposia to review and analyze the potential contributions of public-private partnerships and identify other relevant issues for the Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies, Energy Storage Team's activities in the energy storage research and development area. The symposia will also identify lessons from these and other domestic and international experiences to help inform DoE as to whether its activities are complete and appropriately focused. Additional topics that emerge in the course of the planning may also be addressed. The two symposia will gather representatives from leading battery manufacturers, automotive firms, university researchers, academic and industry analysts, congressional staff, and federal agency representatives. An individually-authored summary of each symposium will be issued.

This Report

The symposium that is the subject of this report was held in Michigan in order to provide direct access to the policymakers and industrial participants drawn from the concentration of battery manufacturers and automotive firms in the region. The symposium reviewed the current state, needs, and challenges of the U.S. advanced battery manufacturing industry; challenges and opportunities in battery R&D, commercialization, and deployment; collaborations between the automotive industry and battery industry; workforce issues, and supply chain development. It also focused on the impact of DoE's investments and the role of state and federal programs in support of this growing industry. This task of this report is to summarize the presentations and discussions that took place at this symposium. Needless to say, the battery industry has evolved very substantially since the conference was held, and indeed some of the caveats raised by the speakers with regard to overall demand for batteries and the prospects of multiple producers now seem prescient. At the same time, it is important to understand that it is unrealistic to expect that all recipients of local, state, or federal support in a complex and rapidly evolving industry will necessarily succeed. A number of the firms discussed here have been absorbed by competitors, others have gone out of business, and others continue to progress.2

______________________

2 The Overview chapter of this report takes note of these recent developments.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
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THE CONTEXT OF THIS REPORT

Since 1991, the National Research Council, under the auspices of the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, has undertaken a program of activities to improve policymakers' understandings of the interconnections of science, technology, and economic policy and their importance for the American economy and its international competitive position. The Board's activities have corresponded with increased policy recognition of the importance of knowledge and technology to economic growth.

One important element of STEP’s analysis concerns the growth and impact of foreign technology programs.3 U.S. competitors have launched substantial programs to support new technologies, small firm development, and consortia among large and small firms to strengthen national and regional positions in strategic sectors. Some governments overseas have chosen to provide public support to innovation to overcome the market imperfections apparent in their national innovation systems.4 They believe that the rising costs and risks associated with new potentially high-payoff technologies, and the growing global dispersal of technical expertise, underscore the need for national R&D programs to support new and existing high-technology firms within their borders.

Similarly, many state and local governments and regional entities in the United States are undertaking a variety of initiatives to enhance local economic development and employment through investment programs designed to attract knowledge-based industries and grow innovation clusters.5 These state and regional programs and associated policy measures are of great interest for their potential contributions to growth and U.S. competitiveness and for the “best practice” lessons they offer for other state and regional programs.

STEP’s project on State and Regional Innovation Initiatives is intended to generate a better understanding of the challenges associated with the transition of research into products, the practices associated with successful state and regional programs, and their interaction with federal programs and private initiatives. The study seeks to achieve this goal through a series of complementary assessments of state, regional, and federal initiatives; analyses of specific industries and technologies from the perspective of crafting supportive public policy at all three levels; and outreach to multiple

______________________

3 National Research Council, Innovation Policies for the 21st Century, C. Wessner, ed., Washington DC: National Academies Press, 2007.

4 For example, a number of countries are investing significant funds in the development of research parks. For a review of selected national efforts, see National Research Council, Understanding Research, Science and Technology Parks: Global Best Practices, C. Wessner, ed., Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2009.

5 For a scoreboard of state efforts, see Robert Atkinson and Scott Andes, The 2010 State New Economy Index: Benchmarking Economic Transformation in the States, Kauffman Foundation and ITIF, November 2010.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
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stakeholders. The overall goal is to improve the operation of state and regional programs and, collectively, enhance their impact.

WORKSHOP SUMMARY

This report captures the presentations and discussions of the STEP symposium on Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities. It includes an introduction highlighting key issues raised at the meeting and summary of the meeting’s presentations. This workshop summary has been prepared by the workshop rapporteur as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop. The planning committee’s role was limited to planning and convening the workshop. The statements made are those of the rapporteur or individual workshop participants and do not necessarily represent the views of all workshop participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

On behalf of the National Academies, we express our appreciation for the insights, expertise, and perspectives provided by the many well-informed contributors to this meeting. We would also like to extend special recognition to Gary Krause from the Michigan Economic Development Corporation and his colleagues, along with McAlister Clabaugh and David Dawson of the STEP staff, for their commitment and excellent organization of the event. We are also indebted to Peter Engardio, formerly of Businessweek and now with the Boston Consulting Group, for his preparation of the introduction and summary of the meeting. We also wish to thank Dr. Sujai Shivakumar and David Dawson of the STEP staff for their tireless efforts to prepare the report for publication among many other competing priorities.

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL REVIEW

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality and objectivity. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Robert Bachrach, Energy & Environmental Solutions; Robert Boege, ASTRA; Martin Dober, Michigan Economic Development Corporation; and Paul DeCotis, Long Island Power Authority. Although the reviewers listed

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
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above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the STEP Board and the institution.

Charles W. Wessner Mary L. Good
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13370.
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Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities: Summary of a Symposium Get This Book
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Since 1991, the National Research Council, under the auspices of the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, has undertaken a program of activities to improve policymakers' understandings of the interconnections of science, technology, and economic policy and their importance for the American economy and its international competitive position. The Board's activities have corresponded with increased policy recognition of the importance of knowledge and technology to economic growth. The goal of the this symposium was to conduct two public symposia to review and analyze the potential contributions of public-private partnerships and identify other relevant issues for the Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies, Energy Storage Team's activities in the energy storage research and development area. The symposia will also identify lessons from these and other domestic and international experiences to help inform DoE as to whether its activities are complete and appropriately focused. Additional topics that emerge in the course of the planning may also be addressed. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Summary of a Symposium gathers representatives from leading battery manufacturers, automotive firms, university researchers, academic and industry analysts, congressional staff, and federal agency representatives. An individually-authored summary of each symposium will be issued.

The symposium was held in Michigan in order to provide direct access to the policymakers and industrial participants drawn from the concentration of battery manufacturers and automotive firms in the region. The symposium reviewed the current state, needs, and challenges of the U.S. advanced battery manufacturing industry; challenges and opportunities in battery R&D, commercialization, and deployment; collaborations between the automotive industry and battery industry; workforce issues, and supply chain development. It also focused on the impact of DoE's investments and the role of state and federal programs in support of this growing industry. This task of this report is to summarize the presentations and discussions that took place at this symposium. Needless to say, the battery industry has evolved very substantially since the conference was held, and indeed some of the caveats raised by the speakers with regard to overall demand for batteries and the prospects of multiple producers now seem prescient. At the same time, it is important to understand that it is unrealistic to expect that all recipients of local, state, or federal support in a complex and rapidly evolving industry will necessarily succeed. A number of the firms discussed here have been absorbed by competitors, others have gone out of business, and others continue to progress.

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