Burris, John E., Chair
John E. Burris, Ph.D., became president of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund in July 2008. He is the former president of Beloit College. Prior to his appointment at Beloit in 2000, Dr. Burris served for 8 years as director and CEO of the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. From 1984 to 1992 he served as the executive director of the Commission on Life Sciences at the National Research Council/National Academies. He received an A.B. in biology from Harvard University in 1971, attended the University of Wisconsin-Madison in an M.D.-Ph.D. program, and received a Ph.D. in marine biology from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, in 1976. A professor of biology at the Pennsylvania State University from 1976 to 1985, he held an adjunct appointment there until coming to Beloit. His research interests are in the areas of marine and terrestrial plant physiology and ecology. He has served as president of the American Institute of Biological Sciences and is or has been a member of a number of distinguished scientific boards and advisory committees including the Grass Foundation; the Stazione Zoologica “Anton Dohrn” in Naples, Italy; the American Association for the Advancement of Science; the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan; and the Morgridge Institute for Research. He has also served as a consultant to the National Conference of Catholic Bishops’ Committee on Science and Human Values.
Bailar, John C.
John C. Bailar III, MD, Ph.D. (statistics), is professor emeritus at the University of Chicago and founding chair of the Department of Health Studies there. For many years his professional interests centered on the causes and prevention of disease. More recently he has focused on improving quality and performance in science generally. He was at the U.S. National Cancer Institute (1956-1980), Harvard University (1980-1988), and McGill University (1988-1995) before he went to Chicago. At present he is scholar in residence at the National Academies. He was a MacArthur Fellow (1990-1995). He has published widely in the statistics and epidemiology literature, including, recently, the health effects of air pollution. Bailar has served on more than 30 committees at the U.S. National Academies, and as chair or co-chair of 12 of them.
Beck, Harold L.
Mr. Beck is an expert in radiation dose reconstruction. A physicist for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/Atomic Energy Commission for over 36 years, he retired in 1999 as the Director of the Environmental Science Division of the DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) in New York City and is presently a private consultant conducting various dose reconstructions in cooperation with scientists at the National Cancer Institute and Vanderbilt University. During his tenure at EML, he also served as director of the EML Instrumentation Division and as acting deputy director of the Laboratory. Mr. Beck has authored well over 100 publications on radiation physics, radiation measurement, dose reconstruction, environmental radiation, and radiation dosimetry. His efforts in the development of the scientific approach to reconstructing fallout doses to the U.S. population from above-ground nuclear weapons testing in Nevada earned him the DOE Meritorious Service Award in 1988, the second highest award in the department. Mr. Beck served as scientific vice president for radiation measurements and dosimetry of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) from 1996 to 2003 and in 2004 was elected to distinguished emeritus membership in NCRP. From 2004 to 2006, he served as a member of the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Board on Radiation Effects Research, Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board. He currently serves as a member of the Veterans (federal advisory) Board on Dose Reconstruction and the U.S. Scientific Review Group, Department of Energy Russian Health Studies Program. He has served as an expert member or chair on a number of NCRP and NRC scientific studies related to radiation dosimetry.
Andre Bouville obtained his Ph.D. in physics at the University Paul-Sabatier in Toulouse in 1970. He was scientific secretary of the United Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) from 1970 to 1972 and remained associated with that committee as a consultant until 2000. From 1972 to 1984, Dr. Bouville was employed in France by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, where he contributed to a number of environmental and dosimetric studies related to nuclear facilities. He joined the National Cancer Institute in 1984, where, first as an expert and then as a senior radiation physicist, he has been involved mainly in the estimation of radiation doses resulting from radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and from the Chernobyl accident. He was head of the Radiation Dosimetry Unit of the Radiation Epidemiology Branch until his retirement at the end of 2010.
Corso, Phaedra S.
Phaedra S. Corso, Ph.D., MPA, is associate professor and head of the Department of Health Policy and Management in the College of Public Health at the University of Georgia (UGA). Prior to joining the UGA faculty in 2006, Dr. Corso worked for 15 years at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as an economic and policy analyst, most recently in the area of injury and violence prevention. Her research focuses on the practical application of economic evaluation for setting public health policy and assessing health-related quality of life in vulnerable populations. Dr. Corso has co-edited two editions of a primer on how to conduct economic evaluations in public health settings, a book on the incidence and economic costs of injury, and has produced numerous peer-reviewed articles on economic evaluation applied to prevention interventions. She holds a master’s degree in public administration from UGA (1991) and a doctoral degree in health policy from Harvard University (2000).
Culligan, Patricia J.
Patricia J. Culligan, Ph.D., is professor of civil engineering and engineering mechanics at Columbia University and the vice dean of academic affairs for Columbia Engineering. Her research focuses on applying geoengineering principles to understand and control the migration of contaminants from waste disposal sites. She studies the behavior of miscible contaminants, nonaqueous phase liquids and colloids in soil and fractured rock and the effectiveness of in situ remediation strategies for the cleanup of waste sites. She also has interest and experience in the design of land-based disposal sites for waste materials. Dr. Culligan has received numerous awards, including
MIT’s Arthur C. Smith Award for Undergraduate Service (1999), the National Science Foundation Career Award (1999), and Columbia University’s Presidential Award for Outstanding Teaching (2007). She is also the author or coauthor of more than 80 journal articles, book chapters, and refereed conference papers. Dr. Culligan has a Ph.D. in civil engineering from Cambridge University, England. She currently serves on the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board at the National Academies.
DeLuca, Paul M., Jr.
Paul M. DeLuca, Jr., Ph.D., received a bachelor of science degree in physics and math in 1966 and a doctorate in nuclear physics from the University of Notre Dame in 1971. That same year he joined the University of Wisconsin–Madison as a research associate, and in 1975 he was appointed to the faculty of the Department of Radiology. Following the creation of the Department of Medical Physics in 1981, he served as chair from 1987 through 1998 and holds an appointment as professor in the Departments of Medical Physics, Radiology, Human Oncology, Engineering Physics and Physics. In 1999, DeLuca assumed a role in the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health as associate dean for research and graduate studies, and his administrative role was expanded in 2001 with his appointment as vice dean. In that role, he was closely involved with the development of the Wisconsin Institutes of Medical Research. He began serving as provost and vice chancellor for academic affairs in July 2009. His research interests have concentrated on fast neutron dosimetry including production of intense sources of fast neutrons, determination of elemental neutron kerma factors and application of microdosimetry to radiation dosimetry. DeLuca is an internationally recognized expert in high energy particle radiation effects on humans. He is a member of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements and currently serves as vice chairman. He is also a member and chair of the Nonproliferation and International Security Division Review Committee at Los Alamos. Other national and international associations and professional society affiliations include the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, the American Physical Society, the Health Physics Society, the NCRP, the Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards, and the Institute of Physics.
Guilmette, Raymond A.
Raymond L. Guilmette, Ph.D., received a B.S. in nuclear engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and an M.S. in environmental health sciences and a Ph.D. in radiological health from New York University. For almost 40 years, he has been studying the metabolism, biokinetics, dosimetry,
and biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides, developing methods for removing radionuclides from the body (decorporation), and studying the mechanisms of deposition, clearance, and retention of inhaled materials. Most of this research was performed at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI; formerly the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute), where he worked for 23 years. From 2000 through 2007, he was team leader for internal dosimetry at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, assessing radiation doses for workers who were exposed to radionuclides associated with the nuclear weapons industry. In 2007, he returned to LRRI as director of the Center for Countermeasures Against Radiation, where he is evaluating the efficacy of chemical compounds designed to decorporate radionuclides as well as drugs designed to ameliorate the effects of acute radiation syndrome from large external radiation doses. He is a past president of the Health Physics Society, received its Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award in 2002, and has given several honorary lectures (Newell Stannard Memorial Lecture, 2006; G. William Morgan Lecture, HPS, 2009; inaugural Patricia W. Durbin Memorial Lecture, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2010). He is a member of scientific committees of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the NCRP (also a board member), and the International Agency for Research on Cancer.
Hornberger, George M.
George M. Hornberger, Ph.D., is distinguished university professor at Vanderbilt University, where he is the director of the Vanderbilt Institute for Energy and the Environment. He has a shared appointment as the Craig E. Philip Professor of Engineering and as Professor of Earth and Environmental Sciences there. He previously was a professor at the University of Virginia for many years, where he held the Ernest H. Ern Chair of Environmental Sciences. He also has been a visiting scholar at the Australian National University, Lancaster University, Stanford University, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the University of Colorado, and the University of California at Berkeley. His research is aimed at understanding complex water-energy-climate interrelationships and how hydrological processes affect the transport of dissolved and suspended constituents through catchments and aquifers. He is an ISI “Highly Cited Researcher” in environmental sciences and engineering, a recognition given to the top 250 individual researchers in each of 21 subject categories. Hornberger is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), the Geological Society of America, and the Association for Women in Science. He was president of the Hydrology Section of AGU from 2006 to 2008. He has been a member of the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board (a presidential appointment) since April 2004. He has served on numerous boards and committees of the
National Academies, including as chair of the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources (1996-2000) and chair of the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources (2003-2009). Professor Hornberger won the Robert E. Horton Award (Hydrology Section) from the AGU in 1993. In 1995, he received the John Wesley Powell Award from the USGS. In 1999, he was presented with the Excellence in Geophysical Education Award by the AGU and in 2007 he was selected Virginia Outstanding Scientist. Professor Hornberger was elected to the U.S. National Academy of Engineering in 1996.
Margaret Karagas, Ph.D., is professor of community and family medicine in the Department of Epidemiology at Dartmouth Medical School. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Washington. Professor Karagas’ research includes several epidemiological studies focusing on the etiologic mechanisms and prevention of human cancers and other adverse health outcomes. Among these are investigations to determine the incidence rates of basal cell and squamous cell skin cancer and to assess the extent of any increases in rates over the past 20 years. Another aspect of this research is a population-based case-control study of these malignancies that is designed to quantify the risks associated with tanning lamps, ingestion of arsenic-containing drinking water, immunosuppressive therapy, and other factors. The research has been extended to study the effects of arsenic on bladder cancer and to conduct chemical analyses of household drinking water supplies. Her work also includes studies of melanoma among women and collaborative investigations of markers of individual susceptibility and biological response to environmental agents.
Kasperson, Roger E.
Roger E. Kasperson received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1966. Before joining the Clark University faculty he taught at the University of Connecticut and Michigan State University. He has written widely on issues connected with risk analysis, risk communication, global environmental change, risk and ethics, and environmental policy. Dr. Kasperson is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has been honored by the Association of American Geographers for his hazards research, and he is a recipient of the 2006 Distinguished Achievement Award of the Society for Risk Analysis. He has been a consultant or advisor to numerous public and private agencies on energy and environmental issues and has served on various committees of the NRC and the Council of the Society for Risk Analysis. From 1992 to 1996 he chaired the International Geographical Union Commission on
Critical Situations/Regions in Environmental Change. He was vice president for academic affairs at Clark University from 1993 to 1996, and in 1999 he was elected director of the Stockholm Environment Institute, a post he held through 2004. He now serves on the Board on Environmental Sciences and Toxicology of the NRC and is on the executive steering committee of the START Programme of the IGBH. He is research professor and distinguished scientist at Clark University.
Klaunig, James E.
James E. Klaunig, Ph.D., is the Robert B. Forney Professor and director of toxicology in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology as well as the founding director of the Center for Environmental Health and associate director of the Cancer Center at Indiana University. He also serves as the program director of the Molecular and Environmental Carcinogenesis Program for the Indiana University Cancer Center. Dr. Klaunig’s research interests are dedicated to understanding the mechanisms of chemically induced carcinogenesis with emphasis on the epigenetic (nongenotoxic) modes of action. This has involved studies into the role of oxidative stress/ oxidative damage, Kupffer cell activation, modulation of cell-to-cell communication, cell growth and apoptosis in this process, and understanding the multistage nature of the cancer process. Dr. Klaunig also served the state of Indiana as the director of toxicology and the state toxicologist from 1991 to 2003. Dr. Klaunig is board certified in toxicology and a fellow in the Academy of Toxicological Sciences. He has published over 180 peer-reviewed manuscripts and book chapters in toxicology, carcinogenesis, and risk assessment and has mentored over 40 M.S., Ph.D., and postdoctoral fellows in toxicology and chemical carcinogenesis. He has served as an associate editor of Toxicological Sciences and is currently the editor-in-chief of Toxicologic Pathology. He received a B.S. in biology from Ursinus College and a Ph.D. in experimental pathology from the University of Maryland.
Timothy Mousseau, Ph.D., received his doctoral degree in 1988 from McGill University and completed a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada postdoctoral fellowship in population biology at the University of California, Davis, before joining the faculty of the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of South Carolina in 1991. He is currently an associate vice president for research and graduate education and dean of the graduate school. Professor Mousseau’s experience includes having served as a program officer at the National Science Foundation, on the editorial board for several journals, and on the USGS and a variety
of international grant foundation advisory panels. He has published over 100 scholarly articles and has edited two books. He is currently co-editor-in-chief of a new annual review series, The Year in Evolutionary Biology, published by the New York Academy of Sciences. He was elected a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2008. His primary areas of research interest include the genetic basis of adaptation in natural populations. Since 1999, Professor Mousseau and his collaborators have explored the ecological consequences of low-dose radiation in populations of plants, animals, and people inhabiting the Chernobyl region of Ukraine and Belarus. Dr. Mousseau’s current research is aimed at elucidating the causes of variation among different species in their apparent sensitivity to radionuclides.
Murphy, Sharon B.
Sharon B. Murphy, M.D., joined the Institute of Medicine as a scholar-in-residence in October 2008. Previously, she was the inaugural director of the Greehey Children’s Cancer Research Institute and professor of pediatrics at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio from 2002 to 2008. She earned her B.S. from the University of Wisconsin (1965) and her medical degree, cum laude, from Harvard Medical School (1969). She completed postdoctoral training in pediatrics at the University of Colorado (1969-1971) and in pediatric hematology and oncology at the University of Pennsylvania (1971-1973). A pediatric oncologist and clinical cancer researcher, Dr. Murphy has devoted the past 35 years to improving cure rates for childhood cancer, particularly childhood lymphomas and leukemias. She was chair of the Pediatric Oncology Group from 1993 to 2001. She has been recognized for her achievements by the Association of Community Cancer Centers (2001), the Distinguished Service Award for Scientific Leadership from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (2005), the Distinguished Career Award from the American Society of Pediatric Hema-tology and Oncology (2009), and the Pediatric Oncology Award from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (2010).
Shore, Roy E.
Roy E. Shore, Ph.D., DrPH, received his degrees from Syracuse University (Ph.D.) and Columbia University (DrPH in epidemiology). At New York University (NYU) School of Medicine he was a professor, director of the Epidemiology Program in the Department of Environmental Medicine, and an associate director of the NYU Cancer Center. He is currently vice chairman and chief of research at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Hiroshima-Nagasaki, which conducts health studies of the Japanese
atomic bomb survivors. Dr. Shore has authored or co-authored over 100 publications pertaining to radiation epidemiology and risk assessment. He has served on a number of radiation committees for the NRC/National Academies and the NCRP, and he was a long-time member of Committee 1 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection pertaining to radiation biology and risk assessment. He has also served as an expert consultant to UNSCEAR and the World Health Organization (WHO).
Stram, Daniel O.
Daniel O. Stram, Ph.D., is professor in the Department of Preventive Medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California. He received his Ph.D. in statistics from Temple University in 1983 and served as a postdoctoral fellow in the Biostatistics Department of the Harvard School of Public Health from 1984 to 1986. From 1986 to 1989 he was a research associate at RERF in Hiroshima, Japan. Dr. Stram’s main areas of research are in the statistical problems that arise in the design, analysis, and interpretation of epidemiological studies of cancer and other diseases. His work on radiation epidemiology studies includes (1) helping to characterize the statistical nature of errors in dose estimates for the atomic bomb survivor study, (2) developing a multilevel variance components model for the dosimetry used in the Colorado Plateau uranium miners cohort for the purpose of better understanding dose and dose rate effects in those data, (3) characterizing study power and sample size issues in epidemiologic studies in which a complex dosimetry system is used to estimate radiation dose. Besides the field of radiation epidemiology, his past and current research has focused on statistical issues relevant to clinical trials of treatment for pediatric cancer, nutritional epidemiology studies, and to studies of the genetics of complex diseases. He is an elected fellow of the American Statistical Association and has authored or co-authored over 200 peer-reviewed articles.
Margot Tirmache, Ph.D., is director of scientific assessment at the Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). She was the chief of the laboratory of epidemiology at IRSN for the period 1999-2008 and an epidemiologist in the same laboratory since 1980. She has a scientific background (Ph.D. equivalent) in biology and genetics, completed by specific diploma at the Medical University of Paris (Paris XI), related to epidemiology and oncology. During the period 1975-1979 she worked at the Institute of Cancer in Villejuif (IGR) in charge of the French coordination of a case-control study initiated by the National Cancer Institute, aiming to a joint
American-European analysis of lung cancer risk and tobacco consumption in different countries. She started in the radiation epidemiology field in 1980 and was in charge of the first cohort study in this field in France (uranium miners cohort). She conducted and coordinated several epidemiologic studies in relation to low chronic radiation exposure of various types: alpha exposure (radon decay exposure), external exposure (occupational cohorts), post-Chernobyl studies, and studies in the Urals. She also coordinated several multinational European contracts in the field of radiation epidemiology. She is a member of the French delegation at UNSCEAR, contributing to recently published reports on radon and on Chernobyl effects. She is also member of Committee 1 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, where she is presently in charge of a working group that is analyzing cancer risk linked to alpha emitters (radon decay, uranium, plutonium). She is also an expert of the WHO.
Lance Waller, Ph.D., is the Rollins Professor and chair of the Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics at Emory University. His interests involve statistical analysis of spatially referenced data. Examples include tests of spatial clustering of disease cases, for example around a hazardous waste site; small area estimation; hierarchical models with spatially structured random effects; and spatial point process models. Recent applications include spatiotemporal mapping of disease rates, statistical methods for assessing environmental justice, the analysis of spatial trends in Lyme disease incidence and reporting, spatial modelling of the spread of raccoon rabies, and point process analysis of sea turtle nesting locations in Florida. He is interested in both the statistical methodology and the environmental and epidemiologic models involved in the analysis of this type of data. He teaches courses in spatial biostatistics, applied linear models, and Geographic Information Systems in public health. Waller has authored or coauthored more than 100 articles and one book. He has served the National Academies as a member of the Committee to Assess Potential Health Effects from Exposures to PAVE PAWS Low-level Phased-Array Radiofrequency Energy, the Committee on Review of Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques, and the Committee on the Utility of Proximity-Based Herbicide Exposure Assessment in Epidemiologic Studies of Vietnam Veterans. He received his Ph.D. in operations research from Cornell University in 1992.
Woloschak, Gayle E.
Gayle E. Woloschak, Ph.D., is professor of radiation oncology at the Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University. She received her bachelor’s degree in biological sciences summa cum laude from Youngstown State University in Ohio and her Ph.D. in microbiology from the Medical College of Ohio in 1980. Afterward, she served as a postdoctoral research fellow in the Department of Immunology and Department of Cell Biology. In previous scientific positions she has worked at the Mayo Clinic and Argonne National Laboratory. Gayle Woloschak’s laboratory is pursuing several areas of genetic research. Her projects include understanding the molecular basis of motor neuron disease in a mouse model and in humans. This project involves uncovering genes that cause motor neuron disease in a mouse model and also in humans. Her laboratory has several candidate genes that are being analyzed using a variety of different chip-based and protein-interaction approaches. Another project involves understanding the molecular basis of normal tissue responses to ionizing radiation and radiation-sensitivity syndromes. This project involves identifying differences in molecular responses of normal tissues to the effects of ionizing radiation. The hope is to identify genes that can be used to distinguish people who are more or less likely to have particular late effects following radiation exposure. Her laboratory is an investigator on a related project with Dr. Jeri Logemann to identify people at risk for swallowing problems following head and neck cancer radiotherapy.
Wong, Jeffrey J.
Jeffrey J. Wong, Ph.D., is chief scientist for the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) at the California Environmental Protection Agency in Sacramento, California. For more than 20 years, he has managed DTSC’s efforts in environmental measurements, biological and exposure monitoring, toxicology and risk assessment, and pollution prevention approaches and technologies; he is currently leading efforts focused on nanotechnologies, other emerging contaminants, and green chemistry. Prior to his work in the DTSC, Dr. Wong was involved in forensic investigations for the Department of Justice and pesticide toxicity evaluation for the Department of Food and Agriculture. Dr. Wong has served on panels for the National Academies, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE. He was appointed by President Clinton to serve on the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. Dr. Wong earned his Ph.D. at the University of California, Davis.
Crowley, Kevin D.
Kevin D. Crowley is senior board director of the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board (NRSB) at the National Research Council–National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC. He is responsible for managing the NRSB’s work on nuclear safety and security, radioactive-waste management and environmental cleanup, and radiation health effects. He is also the principal investigator for a long-standing cooperative agreement between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Energy to provide scientific support for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan. Dr. Crowley’s professional interests and activities focus on safety, security, and technical efficacy of nuclear and radiation-based technologies. He has directed over 20 National Research Council studies on these and other topics, including Safety and Security of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (2004, 2006); Going the Distance? The Safe Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste in the United States (2006); Medical Isotope Production without Highly Enriched Uranium (2009); America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation (2009); and Analysis of Cancer Risks in Populations near Nuclear Facilities. Before joining the National Academies staff in 1993, Dr. Crowley held teaching/research positions at Miami University of Ohio, the University of Oklahoma, and the U.S. Geological Survey. He holds M.A. and Ph.D. degrees, both in geology, from Princeton University.
Kosti, Ourania (Rania)
Rania Kosti joined the staff of the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board in January 2011. Prior to her current appointment, Rania was a post-doctoral fellow at the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, DC, where she conducted research on biomarker development for early cancer detection using case-control epi-demiologic study designs. She focused primarily on prostate, breast, and liver cancers and trying to identify those individuals who are at high risk of developing malignancies. She contributed on hypotheses generation, study design, data analysis and management of clinical databases and biospecimen repositories. Dr Kosti also trained at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) (2005-2007) in the Cancer and Developmental Biology Laboratory; the same period she volunteered in NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics. Rania received a BSc. in biochemistry from the University of Surrey, UK, an MSc in molecular medicine from the University College London and a Ph.D in molecular endocrinology from St Bartholomew’s Hospital in London, UK.