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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Challenges in Chemistry Graduate Education: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13407.
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CHALLENGES IN

CHEMISTRY
GRADUATE
EDUCATION

A WORKSHOP SUMMARY

Committee on Challenges in Chemistry Graduate Education

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Challenges in Chemistry Graduate Education: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13407.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS    500 Fifth Street, NW    Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under award number CHE-1147410, and by the National Institutes of Health under award number N01-OD-4-2139, TO#273.

The report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13:    978-0-309-25708-4

International Standard Book Number-10:    0-309-25708-5

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Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Challenges in Chemistry Graduate Education: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13407.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Challenges in Chemistry Graduate Education: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13407.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Challenges in Chemistry Graduate Education: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13407.
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COMMITTEE ON CHALLENGES IN
CHEMISTRY GRADUATE EDUCATION

JOSEPH S. FRANCISCO (Chair), Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

ROBERT G. BERGMAN, University of California, Berkeley

CHARLES T. KRESGE, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan

DOUGLAS RAY, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

Staff

SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Senior Program Associate

AMANDA CLINE, Administrative Assistant

DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Program Officer

RACHEL YANCEY, Senior Program Assistant

DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Board Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Challenges in Chemistry Graduate Education: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13407.
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BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY

PABLO DEBENEDETTI (Co-chair), Princeton University, New Jersey

C. DALE POULTER (Co-chair), University of Utah, Salt Lake City

ZHENAN BAO, Stanford University, California

ROBERT BERGMAN, University of California, Berkeley

HENRY BRYNDZA, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware

EMILY CARTER, Princeton University, New Jersey

MARY JANE HAGENSON, Chevron Phillips Chemical Company, LLC, The Woodlands, Texas

CAROL J. HENRY, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

JILL HRUBY, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts

JOSEF MICHL, University of Colorado, Boulder

MARK A. RATNER, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois

ROBERT E. ROBERTS, Institute for Defense Analyses, Washington, D.C.

DARLENE J. S. SOLOMON, Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, California

ERIK J. SORENSEN, Princeton University, New Jersey

JEAN TOM, Bristol-Myers Squibb, West Windsor, New Jersey

WILLIAM C. TROGLER, University of California, San Diego

DAVID WALT, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts

Staff

DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director

AMANDA CLINE, Administrative Assistant

DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Program Officer

KATHRYN HUGHES, Program Officer

TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Senior Program Officer

SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Senior Program Associate

RACHEL YANCEY, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Challenges in Chemistry Graduate Education: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13407.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This workshop report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for clarity, objectivity, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop report:

Ryan Dirkx, Arkema Inc.

Michael Doyle, University of Maryland

Robert Grubbs, California Institute of Technology

William Lee Olbricht, Cornell University

George Whitesides, Harvard University

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Thomas H. Dunning, Jr., University of Illinois. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution.

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Chemistry graduate education is under considerable pressure. Pharmaceutical companies, long a major employer of synthetic organic chemists, are drastically paring back their research divisions to reduce costs. Chemical companies are opening new research and development facilities in Asia rather than in the United States to take advantage of growing markets and trained workforces there. Universities, especially public universities, are under significant fiscal constraints that threaten their ability to hire new faculty members. Future federal funding of chemical research may be limited as the federal budget tightens. All of these trends have major consequences for the education of chemistry graduate students in U.S. universities.

To explore and respond to these intensifying pressures, the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology held a workshop in Washington, DC, on January 23-24 2012, titled "Graduate Education in Chemistry in the Context of a Changing Environment." The workshop brought together representatives from across the chemical enterprise, representing leaders and future leaders of academia, industry, and government. The goal of the workshop was not to come to conclusions, but to have an open and frank discussion about critical issues affecting chemistry graduate education, such as the attraction and retainment of the most able students to graduate education, financial stressors on the current support model and their implications for the future model, competencies needed in the changing job market for Ph.D. chemists, and competencies needed to address societal problems such as energy and sustainability.

Challenges in Chemistry Graduate Education: A Workshop Summary is organized into six chapters and summarizes the workshop on "Graduate Education in Chemistry in the Context of a Changing Environment."

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