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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13438.
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Nuclear Physics

Exploring the Heart of Matter

Committee on the Assessment of and Outlook for Nuclear Physics
Board on Physics and Astronomy
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                   OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13438.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS      500 Fifth Street, NW      Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Grant No. PHY-80933 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation and by Grant No. DE-SC0002593 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

Cover: “Circles in a Circle” by Wassily Kandinsky.

Dedication (p. xv): Photo courtesy of University of California, Berkeley, Department of Physics.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-0-309-26040-4
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26040-X
Library of Congress Control Number: 2013931504

Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu; and the Board on Physics and Astronomy, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001; http://www.national-academies.org/bpa.

Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13438.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13438.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13438.
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COMMITTEE ON THE ASSESSMENT OF AND OUTLOOK FOR NUCLEAR PHYSICS

STUART J. FREEDMAN, University of California at Berkeley, Chair

ANI APRAHAMIAN, University of Notre Dame, Vice-Chair

RICARDO ALARCON, Arizona State University

GORDON A. BAYM, University of Illinois

ELIZABETH BEISE, University of Maryland

RICHARD F. CASTEN, Yale University

JOLIE A. CIZEWSKI, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

ANNA HAYES-STERBENZ, Los Alamos National Laboratory

ROY J. HOLT, Argonne National Laboratory

KARLHEINZ LANGANKE, GSI Helmholtz Zentrum Darmstadt and Technische Universität Darmstadt

CHERRY A. MURRAY, Harvard University

WITOLD NAZAREWICZ, University of Tennessee

KONSTANTINOS ORGINOS, The College of William and Mary

KRISHNA RAJAGOPAL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

R.G. HAMISH ROBERTSON, University of Washington

THOMAS J. RUTH, TRIUMF/British Columbia Cancer Research Centre

HENDRIK SCHATZ, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

ROBERT E. TRIBBLE, Texas A&M University

WILLIAM A. ZAJC, Columbia University

Staff

JAMES C. LANCASTER, Director

DONALD C. SHAPERO, Senior Scholar

CARYN J. KNUTSEN, Associate Program Officer

TERI G. THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator

SARAH NELSON WILK, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow

BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13438.
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BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY

ADAM S. BURROWS, Princeton University, Chair

PHILIP H. BUCKSBAUM, Stanford University, Vice-Chair

RICCARDO BETTI, University of Rochester

JAMES DRAKE, University of Maryland

JAMES EISENSTEIN, California Institute of Technology

DEBRA ELMEGREEN, Vassar College

PAUL FLEURY, Yale University

PETER F. GREEN, University of Michigan

LAURA H. GREENE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University

JOSEPH HEZIR, EOP Group, Inc.

MARC A. KASTNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MARK B. KETCHEN, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center

JOSEPH LYKKEN, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

PIERRE MEYSTRE, University of Arizona

HOMER A. NEAL, University of Michigan

MONICA OLVERA DE LA CRUZ, Northwestern University

JOSE N. ONUCHIC, University of California at San Diego

LISA J. RANDALL, Harvard University

MICHAEL S. TURNER, University of Chicago

MICHAEL C.F. WIESCHER, University of Notre Dame

Staff

DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director

JAMES C. LANCASTER, Associate Director, Senior Program Officer

DAVID B. LANG, Program Officer

CARYN J. KNUTSEN, Associate Program Officer

TERI G. THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator

BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13438.
×

Preface

The National Research Council convened the Committee on the Assessment of and Outlook for Nuclear Physics (NP2010 Committee) as part of the decadal studies of physics and astronomy conducted under the auspices of the Board on Physics and Astronomy. The principal goals of the study were to articulate the scientific rationale and objectives of the field and then to take a long-term strategic view of U.S. nuclear science in the global context for setting future directions for the field. The complete charge is presented in Appendix A.

The NP2010 Committee was composed of experts from universities and national laboratories in the United States, Canada, and Europe, mainly researchers in nuclear physics but also experts in other disciplines (see Appendix C for biographical information about committee members). The committee met four times in person, with the first meeting taking place on April 9-10, 2010, in Washington, D.C., and the fourth and final meeting on February 12-13, 2011 in Irvine, California. To provide an international context for research taking place in the United States, the NP2010 Committee heard from experts representing nuclear science from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development global nuclear forum, from India, Europe, Canada, and Japan. The federal agencies that support nuclear physics research also briefed the committee, providing their perspectives on the issues to be addressed in this report. The committee thanks all those who met with it and supplied information. Their materials and discussions were valuable contributions to the committee’s deliberations.

As chair and vice chair of the committee, we are particularly grateful to the committee members for their willingness to devote many hours to meeting and

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13438.
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discussing all of the issues that arose and then to preparing the report. Finally, we thank the NRC staff for their guidance and assistance.

Stuart Freedman, Chair
Ani Aprahamian, Vice Chair
Committee on the Assessment of and Outlook for Nuclear Physics

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13438.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

John Beacom, Ohio State University,

Paul Debevec, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,

Gerry Garvey, Los Alamos National Laboratory,

Barbara Jacak, Stony Brook University,

Noemie Koller, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey,

Alice Mignerey, University of Maryland,

Martin Savage, University of Washington,

Susan J. Seestrom, Los Alamos National Laboratory,

Brad Sherrill, Michigan State University, and

Priya Vashishta, University of Southern California.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13438.
×

recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William H. Press, University of Texas at Austin, as monitor. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13438.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13438.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2013. Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13438.
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image

STUART JAY FREEDMAN
1944-2012

The committee dedicates this report to Stuart Freedman, its chair, who passed away unexpectedly on November 10, 2012. Stuart brought intellectual leadership, humor, friendship, and the highest standards of scientific excellence to his work. His loss is deeply felt throughout the community of nuclear physicists.

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The principal goals of the study were to articulate the scientific rationale and objectives of the field and then to take a long-term strategic view of U.S. nuclear science in the global context for setting future directions for the field. Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter provides a long-term assessment of an outlook for nuclear physics.

The first phase of the report articulates the scientific rationale and objectives of the field, while the second phase provides a global context for the field and its long-term priorities and proposes a framework for progress through 2020 and beyond. In the second phase of the study, also developing a framework for progress through 2020 and beyond, the committee carefully considered the balance between universities and government facilities in terms of research and workforce development and the role of international collaborations in leveraging future investments.

Nuclear physics today is a diverse field, encompassing research that spans dimensions from a tiny fraction of the volume of the individual particles (neutrons and protons) in the atomic nucleus to the enormous scales of astrophysical objects in the cosmos. Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter explains the research objectives, which include the desire not only to better understand the nature of matter interacting at the nuclear level, but also to describe the state of the universe that existed at the big bang. This report explains how the universe can now be studied in the most advanced colliding-beam accelerators, where strong forces are the dominant interactions, as well as the nature of neutrinos.

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