Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
331 GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS Access The opportunity to reach a given destination within a certain time frame or without being impeded by physical, social, or economic barriers. Access Board Common name for the Architectural and Transportation Bar- riers Compliance Board, an independent Federal agency whose mission is to develop guidelines for accessible facili- ties and services and to provide technical assistance to help public and private entities understand and comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Accessibility The extent to which facilities, including transit vehicles, are barrier-free and can be used by persons with disabilities, including wheelchair users. Access to Jobs Federal funding for programs to increase work-related trans- portation available to low-income individuals, authorized in TEA-21. Nonprofit organizations and municipalities can apply to FTA for funding. ADA See Americans with Disabilities Act. ADA Complementary Paratransit Service Demand-responsive service that is operated in addition to fixed route service to accommodate persons who cannot ride the fixed route service because their disability prevents it. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act, public entities that operate fixed route service (excluding commuter ser- vice) are required to provide complementary paratransit with service characteristics equivalent to the fixed route service. The ADA is very specific in what constitutes equivalent ser- vice and what kinds of persons must be provided this service. A plan describing the service, which documents the planning process, must be submitted to the Federal Transit Adminis- tration regional office and updated annually. Many rural oper- ators are not required to provide complementary paratransit service because they typically do not operate pure fixed route service. Administration on Aging (AoA) The agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that oversees the implementation of the OAA, includ- ing senior nutrition programs, senior centers, and supportive services for elders. Advance Reservation Scheduling Passengers call ahead and reserve, in advance, a ride for a particular date and time. This is used in demand-responsive transportation systems. Transit systems may set limits on the minimum and maximum advance reservation times before the requested trip. Advance reservation of trip requests allows the scheduler/dispatcher to identify ridesharing opportunities and assign rides to vehicles for the most efficient service deliv- ery. A drawback to allowing requests far in advance of the desired trip is that no-shows may be more frequent than with real-time scheduling. Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) The joint Federal-state welfare program until 1996 when wel- fare reform ended AFDC and created TANF. Allocation An administrative distribution of funds among the states, done for funds that do not have statutory distribution formulas. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) Federal law that requires public facilities, including trans- portation services, to be fully accessible for persons with dis- abilities. ADA also requires the provision of complementary or supplemental paratransit services in areas where fixed route transit service is operated. Expands definition of eligibility for accessible services to persons with mental disabilities, temporary disabilities, and the conditions related to substance abuse. The Act is an augmentation to, but does not supersede, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which pro- hibits discrimination on the basis of disability against other- wise qualified individuals in programs receiving Federal assistance. Apportionment A term that refers to a statutorily prescribed division or assignment of funds. An apportionment is based on pre- scribed formulas in the law and consists of dividing autho- rized obligation authority for a specific program among the states. Appropriations Act Action of a legislative body that makes funds available for expenditure with specific limitations as to amount, purpose, and duration. In most cases, it permits money previously authorized to be obligated and payments to be made.Note: Items shown in boldface and italics are defined in this glossary.
Area Agency on Aging (AAA) The local entity that plans senior services and advocates for the elderly within their communities, administering provi- sions of the Older Americans Act (see OAA). Arterial A class of street serving major traffic movement that is not designated as a highway. Arterial Route A bus route that runs on major arterial streets, out along a straight line and back, often in the form of a radial network and often connecting with other routes at a transfer point. This route design is used to provide a high frequency of service in a limited geographic area (as opposed to a loop route design). Arterial routes are recommended for higher density areas. Attainment Area An area considered to have air quality that meets or exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) health standards used in the Clean Air Act. An area may be an attainment area for one pollutant and a nonattainment area for others. Nonattainment areas are areas considered not to have met these standards for designated pollutants. Authorization Act Basic substantive legislation or that which empowers an agency to implement a particular program and also estab- lishes an upper limit on the amount of funds that can be appro- priated for that program. Block Grant Categorical funds that are distributed to a recipient without specific spending requirements. Brokerage In general, an institutional organization that functions as an interface between transportation providers and users. More specific roles include â¢ Coordination of transportation services in a defined area. The transportation broker may centralize vehicle dis- patching, recordkeeping, vehicle maintenance, and other functions under contractual arrangements with agen- cies, municipalities, and other organizations. This type of brokerage may be appropriate when full consolida- tion of services is not the best option. â¢ A method of matching travelers with a variety of trans- portation providers and modes through use of central dispatching and administrative facilities. Volunteer driv- ers are often coordinated by a broker. A ridesharing broker provides assistance in forming carpools or van- pools as well as in identifying transit options. 332 Budget Authority Empowerment by Congress that allows Federal agencies to incur obligations to spend or lend money. This empowerment is generally in the form of appropriations. However, for the major highway program categories, it is in the form of âcon- tract authority.â Budget authority permits agencies to oblig- ate all or part of the funds that were previously âauthorized.â Without budget authority, Federal agencies cannot commit the government to make expenditures or loans. Capital Costs Refers to the costs of long-term assets of a public transit sys- tem such as property, buildings, and vehicles. Under TEA-21, FTA has broadened its definition of capital costs to include bus overhauls, preventive maintenance, and even a portion of ADA paratransit expenses. Carpool A carpool is a type of transportation arrangement (usually for commuter trips) in which two or more individuals share a regular trip in an automobile. The driver may be the same for every trip, or may rotate among the riders. Carpools typically provide door-to-door service, change when a riderâs travel needs change, and may be arranged on an informal basis or through a rideshare program or brokerage. Central Business District (CBD) The most intensely commercial sector of a city. Central Transfer Point A central meeting place where routes or zonal demand- responsive buses intersect so that passengers may transfer. Routes are often timed to facilitate transferring. That is, routes with the same headways are scheduled to arrive at the cen- tral transfer point at the same time and depart once passen- gers have had time to transfer. When all routes arrive and depart at the same time, the system is called a pulse system. The central transfer point simplifies transfers when there are many routes (particularly radial routes), several different modes, and/or paratransit zones. A downtown retail area is often an appropriate site for a central transfer point, as it is likely to be a popular destination, a place of traffic conges- tion and limited parking, and a place where riders are likely to feel safe waiting for the next bus. Strategic placement of the transfer point can attract riders to the system and may provide an opportunity for joint marketing promotions with local merchants. Charter Service Transportation service offered to the public on an exclusive basis (either as individuals or as groups). It is provided with a vehicle that is licensed to render charter service and engaged at a specific price for the trip or period of time, usually on a reservation or contractual basis. Typically charter service is
contracted on a one-time or limited basis and is used to pro- vide transportation on sight-seeing tours and to recreational destinations, sometimes on an overnight basis. Over-the-road coaches (intercity buses), typically equipped with baggage compartments, comfortable seats, and restrooms, are typi- cally used in charter service. Public transportation operators that receive Federal and other public subsidies may only operate charter services under limited conditions. Checkpoint Service This term is commonly used interchangeably with point devi- ation service. Riders are picked up and taken to their own destinations or to transfer points. Circulars (FTA) The Federal Transit Administration publishes and updates âCircularsâ to communicate funding program requirements. Two circulars are of particular interest to rural communities with or considering transportation services. The first is S, a formula program to enhance the use of public transportation systems in small urban and rural areas of the country. Funds are available for operating and capital expenses. The pro- gram guidelines can be found in FTA Circular 9040.1E at www.fta.dot.gov/library/policy/cir9040.1E. The second is S, a formula program to improve mobility for the elderly and persons with disabilities in rural and urban areas. Funds are used principally for the purchase of vehicles and other capital equipment. The program guidelines can be found in FTA Circular 9070.1E at www.fta.dot.gov/library/ policy/9070.1E. Circulator A bus that makes frequent trips around a small geographic area with numerous stops around the route. It is typically operated in a downtown area or area attracting tourists, where parking is limited, roads are congested, and trip generators are spread around the area. It may be operated all day or only at times of peak demand, such as rush hour or lunch time. Commercial Drivers License (CDL) The standardized driverâs license required of bus and heavy truck drivers in every state. Covers drivers of any vehicle manufactured to seat 15 or more passengers (plus driver) or more than 13 tons gross vehicle weight. The CDL was man- dated by the Federal government in the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986. Congestion Management and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ) A categorical funding program created with the ISTEA. Directs funding to projects that contribute to meeting national air quality standards. CMAQ funds generally may not be used for projects that result in the construction of new capacity available to single-occupant vehicles (SOVs). 333 Connector Service Service in which a transfer to or from another transit system or mode is the focal point. An example of this is service pro- vided under the Greyhound Rural Connector program: local transit providers operate service that brings people to and from the Greyhound station. This type of connector service is also known as feeder service. Connector service may also connect two different transit systems (such as in two adjacent cities). It is often useful in improving service efficiency and effectiveness when important destinations, such as medical centers, are located beyond the transit systemâs service area. Consolidation Restructuring transportation services to serve the same market with fewer service providers (sometimes only one provider). Contract Authority A form of budget authority that permits obligations to be made in advance of appropriations. The Federal-Aid High- way Program operates mostly under contract authority rules. Coordination Coordination is a strategy for managing resources. It is applied within community political environments to achieve greater cost-effectiveness in service delivery. Fundamentally, coordination is about shared power among organizations that are working together to achieve common goals. Typically, the necessary precursors to shared power are shared respect and shared objectives. After these preconditions are met, sharing the key components of powerâresponsibility, management, and fundingâis possible. Coordination of transportation systems is best seen as a process in which two or more organizations interact to jointly accomplish their transportation objectives. Coordination is like many other political processes in that it involves power and control over resources, and coordination can be subject to the usual kinds of political problems and pressures, such as competing personalities and changing environments. Curb-to-Curb Service A service that picks up and delivers passengers at the curb or roadside, as distinguished from door-to-door service. Pas- senger assistance is generally not rendered other than for actual boarding and alighting. The passengers are responsi- ble for getting themselves from their homes or other build- ings to the curb. Fixed route service is always provided curb- to-curb, while demand-responsive service may be provided curb-to-curb or door-to-door. Curb-to-curb is more efficient for the transit system, but door-to-door provides a higher level of service. Demand-Responsive Service Service activated based on passenger requests. Usually pas- sengers call the scheduler or dispatcher and request rides for
particular dates and times. A trip is scheduled for that passen- ger, which may be canceled by the passenger. Usually involves curb-to-curb or door-to-door service. Trips may be scheduled on an advanced reservation basis or in âreal-time.â Usually smaller vehicles are used to provide demand-responsive ser- vice. This type of service usually provides the highest level of service to the passenger but is the most expensive for the transit system to operate in terms of cost per trip. However, in rural areas with relatively high populations of elderly persons and persons with disabilities, demand-responsive service is sometimes the most appropriate type of service. Sub-options within this service type are discussed in order of least struc- tured to most structured, in terms of routing and scheduling. â¢ Pure Demand-Responsive Service â Drivers pick up and drop off passengers at any point in the service area, based on instructions from the dis- patcher. In pure demand-responsive systems, the dis- patcher combines immediate requests, advance reser- vations, and subscription service for the most efficient use of each driverâs time. â¢ Zonal Demand-Responsive Service â The service area is divided into zones. Buses pick up and drop off passengers only within the assigned zone. When the drop off is in another zone, the dispatcher chooses a meeting point at the zone boundary for pas- senger transfer, or a central transfer is used. This sys- tem ensures that a bus will always be within each zone when rides are requested. â¢ Flexible Routing and Schedules â Flexible routing and schedules have some character- istics of both fixed route and demand-responsive ser- vice. In areas where demand for travel follows certain patterns routinely, but the demand for these patterns is not high enough to warrant fixed route, service options such as checkpoint service, point deviation, route deviation, service routes, or subscription service might be the answer. These are all examples of flexible rout- ing and schedules, and each may help the transit sys- tem make its demand-responsive services more effi- cient while still maintaining much of the flexibility of demand responsiveness. Destination A place at which a passenger ultimately disembarks from a transit vehicle; the point at which a trip terminates. Dial-A-Ride Service A name that is commonly used for demand-responsive ser- vice. It is helpful in marketing the service to the community, as the meaning of âdial-a-rideâ is more self-evident than âdemand-responsiveâ to someone unfamiliar with transporta- tion terms. 334 Disabled Individual Any person who by reason of illness, injury, age, congenital malfunction, or other permanent or temporary incapacity or disability is unable, without special facilities, to use local transit facilities and services as effectively as persons who are not so affected. This definition is part of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Door-to-Door Service A service that picks up passengers at the door of their place of origin and delivers them to the door of their destination. The driver pulls the vehicle off the road if possible and escorts or physically assists the passenger if needed. Door-to-door service provides a higher level of assistance than curb-to- curb service and is typically used for passengers with severe physical disabilities. Elderly and Handicapped (E&H) Anachronistic designation for special transportation planning and services for persons with special needs; current FTA ter- minology is âelderly and persons with disabilities.â Empowerment Zones/Enterprise Communities (EZ/EC) These areas, so designated by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the Department of Agri- culture (USDA), are eligible for preferences and flexibility in many Federal grant programs. EZ/ECs are chosen competi- tively based on community poverty characteristics and local strategic planning processes. Enhancement Activities Refers to activities related to a particular transportation proj- ect that âenhanceâ or contribute to the existing or proposed project. Examples of such activities include provision of facilities for pedestrians or cyclists, landscaping or other scenic beautification projects, historic preservation, control and removal of outdoor advertising, archeological planning and research, and mitigation of water pollution due to high- way runoff. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Report that details any adverse economic, social, and envi- ronmental effects of a proposed transportation project for which Federal funding is being sought. Adverse effects could include air, water, or noise pollution; destruction or disrup- tion of natural resources; adverse employment effects; inju- rious displacement of people or businesses; or disruption of desirable community or regional growth. Expenditures (Outlays) A term signifying disbursement of funds for repayment of obligations incurred. For example, an electronic transfer of funds, or a check sent to a state highway or transportation agency for voucher payment, is an expenditure or outlay.
Expressway A controlled access, divided arterial highway for through traffic, the intersections of which are usually separated from other roadways by differing grades. Farebox Revenue The money collected as payment for rides, which can be in the form of cash, tickets, tokens, transfers, or passes. Fare Structure Fare structure is the basis for determining how fares are charged. Common types of structures are distance-based (the longer the trip is, the higher the fare will be), time-based (higher fares for trips made during peak hour service than during the âoff peakâ), quality-based (demand-responsive trips are typically charged a higher fare than fixed route trips), or flat fares (the same fare is charged for all trips). In addition to these four methods, a fare structure may differ- entiate among passengers based on age, income, or disabil- ity (often lower fares are charged for elderly persons, chil- dren, Medicaid recipients, and persons with disabilities). Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) The agency within the U.S. Department of Transportation that administers Federal-aid highway programs. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) The agency within the U.S. Department of Transportation that administers Federal-aid transit programs. Financial Capacity, Capability Refers to U.S. Department of Transportation requirement that an adequate financial plan for funding and sustaining transportation improvements be in place prior to program- ming federally funded projects. Generally refers to the sta- bility and reliability of revenue in meeting proposed costs. Fiscal Year (FY) Since FY 1977, the Federal yearly accounting period begins October 1 and ends September 30 of the subsequent calen- dar year. Prior to FY 1977, the Federal fiscal year started on July 1 and ended the following June 30. Fiscal years are denoted by the calendar year in which they end; e.g., FY 1991 began October 1, 1990, and ended September 30, 1991. States and localities often have fiscal years that are different from the Federal October through September time period. Fixed Route Bus service on a prescribed path or route that never varies. The schedule may be fixed or flexible (see jitney or shuttle service). Passengers may be required to wait at designated stops, or flag stops may be permitted. Usually larger vehicles are used to provide fixed route service. 335 Fixed Schedule Predetermined times at which a vehicle is to arrive at a cer- tain location. The actual bus route may be fixed or flexible. A flexible route combines fixed schedule stops with demand- responsive stops (see checkpoint, point deviation, and route deviation). Flexible Routing and Schedules Flexible routing and schedules have some characteristics of both fixed route and demand-responsive service. In areas where demand for travel follows certain patterns routinely, but the demand for these patterns is not high enough to war- rant fixed route, service options such as checkpoint service, point deviation, route deviation, service routes, or subscrip- tion service might be the answer. These are all examples of flexible routing and schedules, and each may help the tran- sit system make its demand-responsive services more effi- cient while still maintaining much of the flexibility of demand responsiveness. Flexible route service follows a direction of travel but allows for deviation or rerouting along the way to accommodate specific trip requests. Examples of flexible route systems are route deviation and point deviation. The schedule may be fixed or flexible. Fragmentation A situation stemming from the lack of effective and efficient integration of programs, facilities, and services. Freeway A divided arterial highway designed for the unimpeded flow of large traffic volumes. Access to a freeway is rigorously controlled and intersection grade separations are required. Grant The award of funds to an entity. Federal funds are typically awarded either as formula (or âblockâ) grants, where a pre- determined legislative process establishes the level of fund- ing available to an entity, or discretionary grants, where the funding agency is free to determine how much (if any) fund- ing an entity will be given based on the relative merits of the proposal. Private foundations also give grants based on much the same criteria. Group Service Used most often in charter or contracted service, a bus trip is provided to a group of passengers who ride between a single origin and destination. The riders have some demographic variable in common and travel together in the same vehicle. This type of service is commonly used by senior centers and other human service agencies that take their clients on field trips and shopping trips as a group.
Guaranteed Ride Home Refers to programs that encourage employees to carpool, use transit, or bike or walk to work by guaranteeing them a ride home in case they cannot take the same mode home (e.g., if they need to work late or if an emergency occurs). Head Start A program of comprehensive services for economically dis- advantaged preschool-age children. Services, including trans- portation, are provided by local Head Start agencies and are funded by the Administration for Children and Families, part of HHS. Headway The length of time at a stop between buses following the same route. If buses operating along Route A arrive at Stop 1 at 9:00, 9:30, 10:00, 10:30, and 11:00, it is operating on half-hour headways during the period between 9:00 and 11:00. Head- ways are short if the time between them is short and long if the time between them is long. When headways are short the service is said to be operating at a high frequency, whereas if headways are long, service is operating at a low frequency. In rural areas, headways tend to be very longâa week is not uncommon. High Occupancy Vehicles (HOVs) A term generally applied to vehicles carrying three or more people. Freeways, expressways, and other large volume roads may have lanes designated for HOV use. HOV lanes may be designated for use by carpoolers, vanpools, and buses. The term HOV is also sometimes used to refer to high occupancy vehicle lanes themselves. Highway Term applies to roads, streets, and parkways and also includes rights-of-way, bridges, railroad crossings, tunnels, drainage structures, signs, guard rails, and protective structures in con- nection with highways. Home-Based Work Trip A trip to or from home for the purpose of oneâs employment. Human Service Agency Transportation Transportation for clients of a specific agency that is usually limited to a specific trip purpose. Human service agency trips are often provided under contract to a human service agency and may be provided exclusively or rideshared with other human service agencies or general public service. Infrastructure A term connoting the physical underpinnings of society at large, including, but not limited to, roads, bridges, transit, waste systems, public housing, sidewalks, utility installations, parks, public buildings, and communications networks. 336 Interagency Agreement A legal document that outlines the responsibilities of two or more agencies, such as an interagency coordination agreement. Intercity Bus Service Intercity bus service provides long distance service between cities, often as part of a large network of intercity bus opera- tors. Both express and local bus service may be provided. The Greyhound and Trailways systems are national intercity bus networks. Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) Legislative initiative by the U.S. Congress that restructured funding for transportation programs. ISTEA authorized increased levels of highway and transportation funding and an enlarged role for regional planning commissions/MPOs in funding decisions. The Act also requires comprehensive regional long-range transportation plans extending to the year 2015 and places an increased emphasis on public participa- tion and transportation alternatives. Jitney Service Vehicles travel along a fixed route with no time schedule, and passengers are picked up anywhere along the route (flag stops). Because there are no schedules, headways are usually 5 to 10 minutes so passengers have only brief waiting peri- ods. Jitney service is often used in the United States to pro- vide seasonal, tourist, or park-and-ride service. Jitney ser- vice is a more common public transportation mode in other countries where private entrepreneurs are often the providers of service. Land Use Refers to the manner in which portions of land or the struc- tures on them are used (i.e., commercial, residential, retail, industrial, etc.). Limitation on Obligations Any action or inaction by an officer or employee of the United States that limits the amount of Federal assistance that may be obligated during a specified time period. A limitation on obligations does not affect the scheduled apportionment or allocation of funds; it just controls the rate at that these funds may be used. Local Bus Service Local bus service is a term used to describe a route along which many stops are made, allowing flexibility in where passengers may board and depart. It is typically used in con- trast to express bus, a bus that makes a limited number of stops and is targeted more at long distance riders. Local bus service is important in rural areas unless feeder or connector service is available to bring people to the station.
Local Street A street intended solely for access to adjacent properties. Long Range In transportation planning, refers to a time span of more than 5 years. The Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) is typically regarded as a short-range program. Management Systems Six systems required under TEA-21 to improve identification of problems and opportunities throughout the nationâs entire surface transportation network and to evaluate and prioritize alternative strategies, actions, and solutions. The six manage- ment systems include: Pavement Management System (PMS), Bridge Management System (BMS), Highway Safety Man- agement System (HSMS), Congestion Management System (CMS), Public Transit Facilities and Equipment Management System (PTMS), and Intermodal Management System (IMS). Medicaid Also known as Medical Assistance, this is a health care pro- gram for low-income and other âmedically needyâ persons. It is jointly funded by state and Federal governments. The Medicaid program pays for transportation to nonemergency medical appointments if the recipient has no other means of travel to the appointment. Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) The organizational entity designated by law with lead respon- sibility for developing transportation plans and programs for urbanized areas of 50,000 or more in population. MPOs are established by agreement of the Governor and units of gen- eral purpose local government that together represent 75 per- cent of the affected population of an urbanized area. Mobility The ability to move or be moved from place to place. Mode, Intermodal, Multimodal Mode refers to a form of transportation, such as automobile, transit, bicycle, and walking. Intermodal refers to the con- nections between modes, and multimodal refers to the avail- ability of transportation options within a system or corridor. Model A mathematical or geometric projection of activity and the interactions in the transportation system in an area. This pro- jection must be able to be evaluated according to a given set of criteria that typically include criteria pertaining to land use, economics, social values, and travel patterns. Network All component paths in a transportation system. 337 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Federal standards that set allowable concentrations and expo- sure limits for various pollutants. National Highway Systems (NHS) A Federal transportation program authorized by ISTEA that designates nationally significant Interstate Highways and roads for interstate travel, national defense, intermodal con- nections, and international commerce. Other eligible activ- ities include bikeways and park-and-ride lots. The NHS is being developed as the first component of a larger, intermodal National Transportation System. National Transit Database Reports Annual reports formerly known as Section 15 reports, based on financial and operating data, required of almost all recip- ients of transportation funds under FTAâs urban transit program. National Transit Resource Center A resource center housed at the Community Transportation Association of America (CTAA). Provides technical assis- tance, information, and support to the community transporta- tion industry. Most services and materials are available at no charge. National Transportation System (NTS) ISTEA called for the development of a âNational Intermodal Transportation System that is economically efficient and envi- ronmentally sound, provides the foundation for the Nation to compete in the global economy, and will move people and goods in an energy efficient manner.â The NTS is intended to allow for the development of transportation planning, program management, and investment strategies that will bring about a transportation system that will move people and goods more effectively and efficiently and thereby advance our economic, environmental and social goals. No-Show A passenger scheduled for a demand-responsive trip who does not appear at the designated pick-up point and time and does not cancel the trip in advance. Frequent no-shows can hurt the efficiency and effectiveness of the service, particu- larly in rural areas where passengers live in very remote areas that take time to get to and return from. Obligation Authority See âLimitation on Obligations.â Obligations Commitments made by Federal agencies to pay out money (as distinct from the actual payments, which are âoutlaysâ). Gen- erally, obligations are incurred after the enactment of budget
authority. However, because budget authority in many high- way programs is in the form of contract authority, obligations in these cases are permitted to be incurred immediately after apportionment or allocation. The obligations are for the Fed- eral share of the estimated full cost of each project at the time it is approved, regardless of when the actual payments are made or the expected time of project completion. Older Americans Act (OAA) Federal law first passed in 1965. The act established a net- work of services and programs for older people. This net- work provides supportive services, including transportation and nutrition services, and works with public and private agencies that serve the needs of older individuals. Operating Costs Noncapital costs associated with operating and maintaining a transit system, including labor, fuel, administration, and maintenance. Origin A place at which a passenger boards a transit vehicle; the point at which a trip begins. Often this term is used to refer to a pas- sengerâs home, even though the home actually becomes the destination of a return trip. Paratransit Service Paratransit is a broad term that may be used to describe any means of shared ride transportation other than fixed route mass transit services. The term paratransit usually indicates that smaller vehicles (less than 25 passengers) are being used. These services usually serve the needs of persons that stan- dard mass transit services would serve with difficulty or not at all. A paratransit service is typically advanced reserva- tion, demand-responsive service provided curb-to-curb or door-to-door. Route deviation and point deviation are also considered paratransit. Paratransit is often more appropriate than fixed route services in rural areas and in areas with large populations of elderly persons or persons with disabilities. Paratransit services that are provided to accommodate pas- sengers with disabilities who are unable to use fixed route ser- vice and that meet specific service equivalency tests are called ADA complementary paratransit services. Peak/Off-Peak The period during which the maximum amount of travel occurs. This is also the period during which the demand for transportation is usually highest. It may be specified as the morning (a.m.) or afternoon or evening (p.m.) peak, typically between 6:30 to 9:30 a.m. and 3:30 to 6:30 p.m. on weekdays when commuters are traveling to and from work and school. The actual times vary according to local employer shift times, school hours, and population density. Typically, during the peak period in urban transit systems, the maximum number of vehicles are placed in service, headways are shorter, and 338 higher fares are charged than during the off-peak period. In rural areas where the bulk of the ridership may actually be seniors going to nutrition sites, this concept may not apply. Penalty An action that does not allow a recipient to use the full amount of its apportioned funds. Applied to state recipients from fed- eral programs, the action may be a withholding of project approvals or withholding of a percentage of the stateâs appor- tionment. The action may be taken when the state does not comply with a required provision of law. Person-Trip A trip made by one person from one origin to one destination. Point Deviation Service A type of flexible route transit service in which fixed sched- uled stops (points) are established but the vehicle may follow any route needed to pick up individuals along the way if the vehicle can make it to the fixed points on schedule. This type of service usually provides access to a broader geographic area than does fixed route service but is not as flexible in scheduling options as demand-responsive service. It is appro- priate when riders change from day to day, but the same few destinations are consistently in demand. Also sometimes called checkpoint service. Privatization The supplying of traditionally government-supplied goods and services through for-profit business entities. Enhanced public cost efficiency is a primary goal of such actions. Provider of Transportation (Transportation Provider) An agency that offers or facilitates (purchases, contracts for, or otherwise obtains) transportation (as opposed to an agency whose role is limited to funding programs). Public Authority A Federal, state, county, town, township, Indian tribe, municipal, or other local government or instrumentality with authority to finance, build, operate, or maintain transporta- tion facilities. Public Participation The active and meaningful involvement of the public in the development of transportation plans and improvement pro- grams. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) and subsequent regulations require that state departments of transportation and MPOs proactively seek the involvement of all interested parties, including those tradi- tionally underserved by the current transportation system. Public Road Any road or street under the jurisdiction of and maintained by a public authority and open to public traffic.
Pulse System A type of fixed route transit system (usually involving a radial network) in which all routes arrive at and depart from the central transfer point at the same times. This timing facil- itates transferring but necessitates a transfer facility where simultaneously all buses can safely drop off passengers and wait, and passengers can easily and safely get to the bus to which they are transferring. Radial Network A public transit route service pattern in which most routes converge into and diverge from a central transfer point or hub, like the spokes of a wheel. Arterial or loop routes may be used. If the routes are timed to arrive and depart at the same time, it is called a pulse system. Real-Time Scheduling Passengers call and request demand-responsive trips a short time before the trip is needed, and the dispatcher is responsi- ble for assigning vehicles and drivers to meet passengersâ requests. This type of scheduling is most convenient for pas- sengers but most costly for a transit system to implement as a large fleet of vehicles and drivers is needed to ensure all trip requests are met. This type of scheduling is most frequently used by taxi services. Region An entire metropolitan area, including designated urban and rural subregions. Regionally Significant A term that has been defined in Federal transportation plan- ning regulations as âa project . . . that is on a facility which serves regional transportation needs . . . and would normally be included in the modeling of a metropolitan areaâs trans- portation network, including, at a minimum, all principal arte- rial highway and fixed guideway transit facilities that offer a significant alternative to regional highway travel.â Rescission A legislative action to cancel the obligation of unused budget authority previously provided by Congress before the time when the authority would have otherwise lapsed. Rescission may be proposed by the Executive Branch but requires leg- islative action in order to take effect. Reverse Commute Commuting against the main directions of traffic. Often refers to travel from the central city to suburbs during peak period commuting times. Rideshare/Ridematch Program A rideshare program facilitates the formation of carpools and vanpools, usually for work trips. A database is maintained of the ride times, origins, destinations, and driver/rider prefer- 339 ences of users and potential users. Persons requesting to join an existing pool or looking for riders are matched by program staff with other appropriate persons. In rural areas, a ride- share program is often used to coordinate Medicaid or vol- unteer transportation. Ridesharing Ridesharing is the simultaneous use of a vehicle by two or more persons. Route Deviation Service Transit buses travel along a prescribed route at scheduled times and maintain scheduled or unscheduled checkpoint stops. The vehicle may leave and return to the route to pick up persons who have requested demand-responsive trips near the route. Passengers may call in advance for route deviation or may access the system at predetermined route stops. The limited geographic area within which the vehicle may travel off the route is known as the route deviation corridor. This type of flexible routing essentially meets demand responsive service requests with a fixed route. It is often the best option for higher density rural areas where travel patterns are con- sistent but isolated riders cannot get to the route because they cannot walk the distance needed or they use a wheelchair and there are no sidewalks. Right of Way (R-O-W) Priority paths for the construction and operation of high- ways, light and heavy rail, railroads, etc. Service Route Service routes are transit routes that are tailored to meet the needs of a specific market segment (such as older persons or persons with disabilities) in a community. Service routes often evolve out of a pattern of demand-responsive travel within a community. Characteristics of a service route include stops at high-density residential complexes or group homes, shop- ping areas, medical facilities, and destinations specific to the target population such as senior centers or sheltered work sites. Stops are usually positioned near an accessible entrance of a building instead of on the street, and the ride times are typically longer than on a âconventionalâ fixed route cover- ing the same general area. Service routes may be operated instead of, or in conjunction with, a âconventionalâ route in the same area. Vehicles tend to be smaller and accessible to persons with disabilities, and drivers usually offer a rela- tively high level of personal assistance. Service routes are used widely in Europe and are gaining greater popularity in the United States since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Shared Ride Taxi A shared ride taxi service provides taxi transportation in which more than one passenger is in the vehicle at the same time, usually at a reduced rate for each of the passengers.
Shared ride taxi service is a way of using taxicabs for para- transit service. Shuttle Service Shuttle service refers to fixed route service that connects only a small number of fixed stops and operates at a high fre- quency (or short headways). The vehicle follows a repetitive back-and-forth route. This type of service is related to circu- lator service but connotes a more linear route structure. A parking shuttle is an example of use that could apply to areas that have a seasonal tourist attraction. Single-Occupant Vehicle (SOV) An SOV is a vehicle used to transport just one person to a destination. Social Equity, Justice The provision of affordable, efficient, and accessible trans- portation services to all people regardless of race, ethnicity, income, gender, or disability. A socially equitable transporta- tion system provides all people with convenient access to meaningful jobs, services, and recreational opportunities. State Highway Department The department, commission, or board of any state responsi- ble for highway construction, maintenance, and management. State Implementation Plan (SIP) Required documents prepared by states and submitted to EPA for approval. SIPs identify state actions and programs to implement designated responsibilities under the Clean Air Act. Subscription Service When a passenger or group of passengers requests a repeti- tive ride (such as on a daily or weekly service on an ongoing basis), trips are often scheduled on a subscription or âstand- ing orderâ basis. The passenger makes a single initial trip request, and the transit system automatically schedules them for their trip(s) each day or week. This type of service is fre- quently used in transporting human service agency clients to regular agency programs. Surface Transportation Program A new categorical funding program created with the ISTEA. Funds may be used for a wide variety of purposes, including roadway construction, reconstruction, resurfacing, restora- tion, and rehabilitation; roadway operational improvements; capital costs for transit projects; highway and transit safety improvements; bicycle and pedestrian facilities; scenic and historical transportation facilities; and preservation of aban- doned transportation corridors. Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) Created by the 1996 welfare reform law, TANF is a program of block grants to states to help them meet the needs of fam- 340 ilies with no income or resources. It replaces AFDC, JOBS, Emergency Assistance, and some other preceding Federal welfare programs. Because of TANF-imposed time limits, states are trying to place recipients in jobs as quickly as pos- sible, often using program funds to pay for transportation, childcare, and other barriers to workforce participation. Taxi Demand-responsive transportation vehicle offered to individ- ual members of the public on an exclusive basis, in a vehicle licensed to render that service, usually operated by a private for-profit company. Fares are usually charged on a per-mile or per-minute (or both) basis on top of a base fare charged for all trips. Passengers may call the dispatcher to request a trip (real- time scheduling) or hail a passing unoccupied taxi. TEA-21 See Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century. Telecommuting The substitution, either partially or completely, of the use of computer and telecommunications technologies (e.g., tele- phones, personal computers, modems, facsimile machines, electronic mail) for transportation to a conventional place of work. Implies either working at home or at a satellite work center that is closer to an employeeâs home than the conven- tional place of work. Title III An important Title of the Older Americans Act that autho- rizes expenditures for nutrition and transportation programs that serve older persons. Title IV An important Title of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that ensures that no person in the United States will be discriminated against on the basis of race, color, or national origin. The trans- portation planning regulations, issued in October 1993, require that metropolitan transportation planning processes be consis- tent with Title IV. Transit Generally refers to passenger service provided to the gen- eral public along established routes, with fixed or variable schedules, at published fares. Related terms include public transit, mass transit, public transportation, urban transit, and paratransit. Transit Dependent Persons who must rely on public transit or paratransit ser- vices for most of their transportation. Typically refers to indi- viduals without access to personal vehicles. Transportation Control Measures (TCMs) Local actions to adjust traffic patterns or reduce vehicle use to reduce air pollutant emissions. These may include HOV
lanes, provision of bicycle facilities, ridesharing, telecom- muting, etc. Transportation Disadvantaged A term used to describe those persons who have little or no access to meaningful jobs, services, and recreation because a transportation system does not meet their needs. Often refers to those individuals who cannot drive a private auto- mobile because of age, disability, or lack of resources. See also âSocial Equity, Justice.â Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) The 1998 Congressional legislation that reauthorized DOTâs surface transportation programs is called the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). This legislation replaces the 1991 authorizations known as ISTEA but essen- tially continues the program changes initiated under ISTEA (increased levels of highway and transportation funding, an enlarged role for regional planning commissions/MPOs in funding decisions, and requirements for comprehensive regional long-range transportation plans and for public par- ticipation and transportation alternatives). Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) This is a document prepared by states and planning commis- sions citing projects to be funded under Federal transporta- tion programs for a full-year period. Without TIP inclusion, a project is ineligible for Federal funding. Transportation Management Area (TMA) Defined by TEA-21 as all urbanized areas over 200,000 in population. Within a TMA, all transportation plans and pro- grams must be based on a continuing and comprehensive planning process carried out by the Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) in cooperation with states and transit operators. The TMA boundary affects the responsibility for the selection of transportation projects that receive Federal funds. Transportation Management Association (TMA) A voluntary association of public and private agencies and firms joined to cooperatively develop transportation-enhancing programs in a given area. TMAs are appropriate organiza- tions to better manage transportation demand in congested suburban communities. Transportation System Management (TSM) The element of a Transportation Improvement Program that proposes noncapital-intensive steps toward the improvement of a transportation system, such as refinement of system and traffic management, the use of bus priority or reserved lanes, and parking strategies. It includes actions to reduce vehicle use, facilitate traffic flow, and improve internal tran- sit management. 341 Travel Time Customarily calculated as the time it takes to travel from âdoor-to-door.â Used in transportation planning. In fore- casting the demand for transit service, measures of travel time include time spent accessing, waiting, and transferring between vehicles, as well as that time spent on board. Trip Generator A place that generates a demand for frequent travel is called a trip generator. Trip generators may be origins or destina- tions. For example, a high-density residential area generates a need for all kinds of trips outside of the residential area into commercial areas; a medical center generates trips for med- ical purposes; and a downtown area may generate trips for retail, recreational, or personal business purposes. Trust Funds Accounts established by law to hold receipts that are col- lected by the Federal Government and earmarked for specific purposes and programs. These receipts are not available for the general purposes of the Federal Government. The High- way Trust Fund is comprised of receipts from certain high- way user taxes (e.g., excise taxes on motor fuel, rubber, and heavy vehicles) and reserved for use for highway construc- tion, mass transportation, and related purposes. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) The Federal agency charged with oversight of federal agri- cultural programs. Among its many other functions, USDA is the Federal Governmentâs primary agency for rural eco- nomic and community development. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Funds a variety of human services transportation through AoA, Head Start, Medicaid, and other programs. U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) The principal direct Federal funding and regulating agency for transportation facilities and programs. Contains FHWA and FTA. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) A Federal agency whose responsibilities include development and enforcement of national air quality standards and support of anti-pollution activities by state and local governments. Urbanized Area (UZA) An area that contains a city of 50,000 or more population, plus incorporated surrounding areas, and meets set size or density criteria. User-Side Subsidy A transportation funding structure in which qualified users (usually economically disadvantaged persons) are able to pur-
chase vouchers for transportation services at a portion of their worth. The users may then use the vouchers to purchase trans- portation from any participating provider; the vouchers are redeemed by the provider at full value, and the provider is reimbursed by the funding agency for the full value. Vanpool An organized ridesharing arrangement in which a number of people travel together on a regular basis in a van. The van may be company owned, individually owned, leased, or owned by a third party. Expenses are shared, and there is usually a regu- lar volunteer driver. In terms of service design, a vanpool is basically a carpool that uses a vehicle larger than a car. In rural areas, vanpools can be an important form of employment transportation where densities are not high enough to justify commuter bus service. Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT) A standard areawide measure of travel activity. The most con- ventional VMT calculation is to multiply average trip length by the total number of trips. Volunteer Network A volunteer network matches requests for transportation with a volunteer driver who is typically reimbursed on a per-mile basis for providing the trip. Persons requesting service call the network; the network calls the driver and schedules the trip. Volunteer networks are frequently used in rural areas where resources are scarce, persons needing transportation may live in remote areas, and a sense of community is not uncommon. Workforce Development Boards Formerly known as Private Industry Councils (PICs), Work- force Development Boards are concerned with training and developing workers to meet the needs of local businesses. Workforce Development Boards are responsible for most local job training programs and related welfare-to-work efforts. Zone A defined geographic area. Zones are used in demand- responsive service for dispatching purposes and in fixed route and demand-responsive service for fare determination. In 342 zonal demand-responsive service, each vehicle travels only within a particular zone. Trips that originate in one zone and end in another involve a transfer at the zone boundary or a cen- tral transfer point. In a zonal fare structure, the service area is divided into zones, and the fare is determined according to the number of zones traveled (the higher the number of zones, the higher the fare). This is a method of charging a distance-based fare. Zones can assume a number of different forms depend- ing on the route design, including concentric circles, key stops along a route, a grid system, or a hybrid of these. SOURCES: Burkhardt, J.E., Hamby, B., and McGavock, A.T. (1995). Userâs manual for assessing service delivery systems for rural passen- ger transportation, TCRP Report 6. Prepared by Ecosometrics, Incorporated for the Transit Cooperative Research Program. Community Transportation Association of America. Public and community transportation glossary. (no date). www.ctaa.org/ntrc/ glossary.asp. COMSIS Corporation. (1990). Guidebook for planning small urban and rural transportation programs, Volume 1 (U.S. Department of Transportation Report DOT-T-91-07, pp. V.2âV.5). Prepared for the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Depart- ment, Transportation Programs Division. Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administra- tion. Statewide and metropolitan planning regulations. In: Fed- eral Register. Washington, DC: United States Department of Transportation. Federal Highway Administration. A summary of transportation pro- grams and provisions of the clean air act amendments of 1990. Washington, DC: United States Department of Transportation. Federal Highway Administration. Financing federal-aid highways. Washington, DC: United States Department of Transportation. Gray, B.H. (Ed.). (1989). Urban public transportation glossary. Pre- pared by the Transportation Research Board, National Research Council. Transportation: Environmental justice and social equity: Confer- ence proceedings. (1995). Prepared by the Surface Transporta- tion Policy Project and the Center for Neighborhood Technology for the Federal Transit Administration. http://www.fta.dot.gov/ fta/library/policy/envir-just.