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18 1. Amador County, California, Shelter-in-Place in an Emergency, 2007. Amador Countyâs outline of shelter-in-place activities at home, school, and/or offices in the event of an emergency where hazardous materials are released in the air. Available online: http://www.co. amador.ca.us/depts/oes/shelter_in_place_oes.cfm (April 27, 2007). 2. American Red Cross, Fact Sheet on Shelter-in-Place, February 2003. Defines shelter-in-place and the instances where it may be used, such as home work and/or school. Also describes the measures that should be taken for shelter-in-place. PDF format. Available online: http:// www.redcross.org/services/disaster/beprepared/shelterinplace.pdf (April 27, 2007). 3. Barclay, L., Status Of SARS In The US: An Expert Interview with Sur- geon General Richard H. Carmona, MD, MPH, FACS, April 11, 2003. Surgeon General Carmona discusses the status of SARS in the United States compared to other countries in an interview with Laurie Barclay of Medscape. He also describes the effect of public health measures and interagency collaboration (i.e., U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Centers for Disease Control, Department of Defense at the U.S. Army Disease Research Institute, and pharma- ceuticals), have had on the epidemic. Available at: http://www. medscape.com/viewarticle/452302 (April 27, 2007). 4. British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, British Columbia Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plan: Guidelines for Response and Recovery, August 2005. Local and regional roles and respon- sibilities of British Columbiaâs key players. Also provides frame- work of pre-pandemic, pandemic, and post-pandemic stages of a disease outbreak. Available online: http://www.bccdc.org/content. php?item=150 (April 27, 2007). 5. Centers for Disease Control, CDC Smallpox Response Plan and Guidelines: Guide C-Quarantine Guidelines, March 2003. Outlines a framework for quarantine measures during the event of a small- pox outbreak. Lists items required by health officials during a bioterrorist event. Also identifies the authorities (i.e., federal gov- ernment, more specifically the Secretary of Health and Human Ser- vices and Surgeon General) responsible for implementing inter- vention methods. Discusses the dynamics of state quarantine laws. Available online: www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/smallpox/response-plan/ files/guide-c-part-2.doc (April 27, 2007). 6. Centers for Disease Control, Controlling the Spread of Contagious Diseases: Quarantine and Isolation, February 2006. Describes Cen- ters for Disease Controlâs two primary strategies for containing and mitigating the spread of communicable diseases. Discusses the difference between quarantine and isolation as well as some of the logistics behind the two. Also provides definitions of terms âin- fectious,â âcommunicable,â and âcontagious.â Available online: http://www.redcross.org/preparedness/cdc_english/IsoQuar.asp (April 27, 2007). 7. Centers for Disease Control, Global Migration and Quarantine. Fact Sheet: Isolation and Quarantine, August 2006. Explains the differ- ences between Isolation and Quarantine and provides an example of effective use of isolation and quarantine during the SARS pan- demic. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dq/isolation quarantine.htm (April 27, 2007). 8. Centers for Disease Control and Red Cross, Quarantine Fact Sheet, February 2006. Explains when the use of modern quarantine is ap- propriate. Available online: http://www.redcross.org/preparedness/ cdc_english/Quarantine.asp (April 27, 2007). 9. Centers for Disease Control, Supplement E: Managing International Travel-Related Transmission Risk, January 2004. Provides two matri- ces that outline suggested activities for inbound and outbound trav- elers within the United States, including a mandate for quarantine in the event of an outbreak. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/ sars/guidance/E/pdf/e.pdf. (April 27, 2007). 10. Chambers, J., The Economic Impact of Biological Agent Release in a Multi-State, Multi-Hazard Context, December 2004. A Develop- ment of a Framework for Analyzing the Economic Impact of a Bi- ological Disaster and its Application to Operation Summer Breeze in Charlotte, North Carolina. 11. CRS Report for Congress, âFederal and State Quarantine and Iso- lation Authority.â Library of Congress, August 16, 2006. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33201.pdf (April 27, 2007). 12. Department of Defense (DOD), Office of the Under Secretary of De- fense, Interim Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on SARS Quarantine, December 2004. A series of Appendices regarding the Defense Science Board Task Force on SARS Quarantine, including a report on the status of the threat of SARS on the United States and national security. Presents findings and recommendations based on the SARS epidemic. Lists terms of references and a review of refer- ence documents by Dr. Thomas Inglesby. Available online: http:// www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/2004-12-SARS_Memo_Final.pdf (April 27, 2007). 13. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, Supplement D: Community Containment Measures, In- cluding Non-Hospital Isolation and Quarantine: Guidelines for Eval- uating Homes and Facilities for Isolation and Quarantine, January 8, 2004. Provides a framework for containment measures taken dur- ing a disease outbreak. Uses SARS as a model. Lists factors to con- sider when establishing priorities among available facilities that may be used for quarantine. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/ ncidod/sars/guidance/D/pdf/app3.pdf (April 27, 2007). Annotated Bibliography
14. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 11, No. 2. Centers for Disease Control, Quarantine for SARS, Taiwan (February 2005). Discusses the temporal effects of quarantine measures and other interven- tions on detection and isolation as well as the potential usefulness of quarantine in faster identification of persons with SARS and in improving isolation measures. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ ncidod/eid/vol11no02/pdfs/04-0190.pdf (April 27, 2007). 15. Gensini G, Yacoub M, Conti A., The Concept of Quarantine in History: From Plague to SARS. Journal of Infection, 2004, Vol. 49 Pgs 257-261. Reviews the historical use of quarantine as a means to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, particularly during in- stances where vaccines are unavailable. Determines that quarantine used during prior epidemics still serves as an effective preventive measure. Available at: http://www.birdflubook.com/links.php. 16. Homeland Security Council, National Strategy for Pandemic In- fluenza, November 2005. Discusses the national strategy to address the threat of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Includes three pillars, which include preparedness and communication, surveillance and detection, and response and containment. Available online: http:// www.whitehouse.gov/homeland/nspi.pdf (April 27, 2007). 17. Ingram, D., The Dynamics of SARS: Plotting the Risk of Epidemic Dis- asters. Discusses the SARS incident and the dynamics surrounding the epidemic. Emphasizes the importance of creating a disease model to predict the course of a disease. Mentions how quarantine measures that were used during the SARS outbreak may have been the pri- mary factor in containing SARS. Available online: http://www. millimanbelgium.com/pubs/Healthcare/content/published_articles/ Dynamics-SARS-Plotting-Risk-PA.pdf (April 27, 2007). 18. (Japan) Kansai International AirportâQuarantine/Immigration Procedures illustrates standard quarantine procedures at Kansai international airport. Available online: http://www.kansai-airport. or.jp/en/route/intarr/index.html (April 27, 2007). 19. Large-scale quarantine following biological terrorism in the United States: scientific examination, logistical and legal limits, and possible consequences. (December 5, 2001). Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 286: 2711-2717. Reviews the scientific principles that are relevant to the likely effectiveness of quarantine, the logis- tical barriers to its implementation, legal issues that a large-scale quarantine raises, and possible adverse consequences that may result from quarantine action. Imposition of large-scale quarantine com- pulsory sequestration of groups of possibly exposed persons or human confinement within certain geographic areas to prevent the spread of contagious disease; should not be considered a primary public health strategy in most imaginable circumstances. In the ma- jority of contexts, other less extreme public health actions are likely to be more effective and create fewer unintended adverse conse- quences than quarantine. Actions and areas for future research, pol- icy development, and response planning efforts are provided. 20. Minnesota Department of Health, Isolation and Quarantine Pro- cedures, March 2005. Policy position paper that advocates sustain- ing provisions formulated by the Minnesota Legislature to protect people infected with communicable diseases or exposed to them. Provisions also included expedited court hearings and health safety and protection. Available online: http://www.health.state.mn.us/ divs/opa/isolation05.pdf (April 27, 2007). 21. Montana Department of Public Health & Human Services, Pan- demic Flu Talking Points, October 31, 2005. Provides a general de- scription of an influenza pandemic and the roles of the Montana state health department. Briefly discusses whether quarantine or isolation should be implemented during an epidemic. Available online: http://www.dphhs.mt.gov/PHSD/Communicable-disease/ pdf/pandemic_flu_FAQs_10-31-05.doc (April 27, 2007). 22. National Aviation Resource Material for Quarantinable Diseases, December 2006. A national aviation resource outlining the re- sponse to and recovery from a quarantinable disease incident of major public health significance at a U.S. international airport. Provides a general guide for airport quarantinable disease planning Available online: http://isddc.dot.gov/OLPFiles/OST/013334.pdf (April 27, 2007). 23. National Incident Management System. Department of Homeland Security. Available at: http://www.nrt.org/Production/NRT/ NRTWeb.nsf/AllAttachmentsByTitle/SA-385aNIMS-90-web/$File/ NIMS-90-web.pdf?OpenElement (April 27, 2007). 24. National Institute for Chemical Studies, Shelter-in-Place at Your Office, February 2003. A general guide for planning shelter-in-place activities for the workplace. Also provides shelter-in-place checklist for janitorial staff. Available online: http://www.nicsinfo.org/SIP%20 plan%20for%20offices%20NICS%20feb2003.pdf (April 27, 2007). 25. Public Health Agency of Canada, Quarantine, Travel Medicine and Migration Health Programs, September 29, 2004. Provides a brief synopsis on the Quarantine and Migration Health Program and its role in protecting Canadians from importation of infectious dis- eases. Also discusses its function in providing information and ad- vice to other national and global stakeholders for epidemic con- tainment measures. Available online: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ cepr-cmiu/ophs-bssp/quar_e.html (April 27, 2007). 26. Public Health Service Act, United States Code 42 Chapter 64 Part G section 264. United States Food and Drug Administration. Avail- able at: http://www.fda.gov/opacom/laws/phsvcact/phsvcact.htm (April 27, 2007). 27. SARS Info Center (SIC), SARS Worldwide Airport Screening Proce- dures, May 2003. Provides information on screening procedures for 45 international airports. Available at: http://www.bikesutra.com/ sars/airport_screen.html#sgn (April 27, 2007). 28. Title 42-Public Health, Chapter 1-Public Health Service, Depart- ment of Health and Human Services, Part 71âForeign Quaran- tine. Available at: http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_03/ 42cfr71_03.html. 29. US Constitution Article IâThe Legislative Branch, Section 8â Powers of Congress. Available at: http://www.usconstitution.net/ xconst_A1Sec8.html (April 27, 2007) 30. World Health Organization, WHO pandemic influenza draft pro- tocol for rapid response and containment, January 2006. Outlines procedures to be taken in the event of a pandemic influenza out- break, including quarantine, risk assessment, signal detection and reporting, and training of response team. Taken from an interna- tional standpoint, but could be modified to accommodate national needs. Available at: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/ guidelines/RapidResponse_27%2001.pdf (April 27, 2007). 19