National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Chapter 3 - Schedule Building
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page119
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page120
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page121
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page122
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page123
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page124
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page125
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page126
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page127
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page128
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page129
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page130
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page131
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page132
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page133
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page134
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page135
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page136
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page137
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page138
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page139
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page140
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page141
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page142
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page143
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page144
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page145
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page146
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page147
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page148
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page149
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page150
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page151
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page152
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page153
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page154
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page155
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page156
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page157
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page158
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page159
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page160
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page161
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page162
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page163
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page164
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page165
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page166
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page167
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page168
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page169
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page170
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page171
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page172
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page173
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page174
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page175
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page176
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page177
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page178
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page179
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page180
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page181
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page182
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page183
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page184
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page185
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page186
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page187
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page188
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page189
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page190
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page191
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page192
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page193
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page194
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page195
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page196
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page197
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page198
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page199
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page200
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page201
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page202
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page203
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page204
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Schedule Blocking." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2009. Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14257.
×
Page205

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking Ͱ.ͭ Basic Blocking (Level ͭ) Ͱ.ͮ Intermediate Blocking (Level ͮA) Ͱ.ͯ Blocking a More Complex Schedule (Level ͮB) Ͱ.Ͱ Advanced Blocking (Level ͯ)

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-3 4.1 Basic Blocking—The Importance of Blocking In Chapter ͯ we introduced the concept of blocking—breaking down a schedule into assignments for individual buses. These assignments are called blocks and consist of a series of trips that are “hooked” together and assigned to a single vehicle. The vehicle trips that are linked together as part of the block may serve multiple routes and may be operated by multiple operators. The block refers to the work assignment for a single vehicle for a single service workday. Blocking is a main component of the scheduling process because it serves as the basis for the costs associated with operating the vehicle in revenue service and has a strong infl uence on the cost associated with work assignments for operators. All blocking uses similar strategies and considerations. In this basic section, we will review the blocking of the Route ͵ͳ schedule in greater detail. The intermediate and advanced sections consider aspects of blocking that are common in more complex schedules. LEVEL 1 blocking The process in which trips are “hooked” together to form a vehicle assignment or block. block A vehicle (or train) assignment that includes the series of trips operated by each vehicle from the time it pulls out to the time it pulls in. A complete block includes a pull-out trip from the garage followed by one or (usually) more revenue trips and concluding with a pull-in trip back to the garage. Blocking is not done in isolation—it is an intermediate step between writing a schedule and developing driver assignments, and must be done with the ultimate goal of developing effi cient and “legal” driver work pieces. Tip Level ͭ. The Basics

Level ͭ. The BasicsChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-4 Blocking a Simple Schedule The fi rst step in the blocking process is to have a completed master schedule for each route or depotͭ to be blocked. In our case, the master schedule for Route ͵ͳ is shown on page Ͱ-Ͳ. The scheduler must be thoroughly knowledgeable of all work rules and policies related to blocking before beginning. However, as stressed earlier, a good scheduler keeps all aspects of scheduling in mind throughout the process. In developing blocks, it is also very important to have a thorough knowledge of the work rules regarding runcutting (assigning work to opera- tors, see Chapter ͱ). Blocks that are “runcut friendly” optimize the effi ciency of the entire scheduling process. Later sections of this chapter will explain the diff erence between blocks that are “runcut friendly” and blocks that are not. Work rules and policies that are essential in blocking include: Layover and recovery time Layover locations Interlining policies Layover and Recovery Time The blocking process creates layovers and ensures that the bus has enough time in the round trip to stay on schedule. The terms “layover” and “recovery” refer to the time between trips, from the time a bus arrives at a terminal and the time the bus leaves the terminal to begin the next trip. While layover and recovery are often calculated as a single unit of time, in theory they are intended for two diff erent purposes. Recovery time is time allotted by management to ensure that a bus can get back on schedule if it arrives at the terminal, or designated loca- tion, slightly behind schedule. A driver could be expected to reduce or eliminate their recovery time if they arrive at the terminal behind schedule and need to leave quickly to begin the next trip. Layover time is time negotiated by union rules and by agency practice to give drivers a break at the end of a trip. Layover time is paid time for operators and is considered part of the platform time. ͭ In the advanced section the topic of interlining will be discussed. It should be noted now that block interlining can be applied not just at the route level but among routes, at the garage level, as well. • • • master schedule A document that displays all time points and trips on a route. Usually includes run numbers, and block numbers, and pull-in and pull-out times. Used interchangeably in this manual with “headway sheet.” layover time The time between the scheduled arrival and departure of a vehicle at a transit terminal. Often used interchangeably with “recovery time,” although technically layover time is rest time for the operator between trips while recovery time is time built into the schedule to ensure an on-time departure for the next trip. In this manual, layover and recovery are calculated together and the total time between trips is referred to as “layover.” platform time Platform time, a phrase derived from the early 20th century days when motormen and conductors operated from the “platform” of a streetcar, platform time includes all time when the operator is operating the vehicle. Layover time and pull-in and pull-out time are part of platform time, but report allowance and clear allowance, and travel time (unless part of a pull-in or pull-out) are not. Similarly, platform miles include all miles traveled while the operator is operating the vehicle. Also known as “vehicle hours.”

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-5 Level ͭ. The Basics While layover and recovery time are theoretically diff erent, the fact is that this is time applied at the end of a trip, paid to the operator, and added to the time required to “turn the bus” and complete the trip. Layover and recovery time are often calculated together and thought of as just one unit of time. In this manual, we will calculate layover and recovery together and will refer to the total time between trips as “layover.” Layover policy may be spelled out in the labor agreement, based on formal agency standards, or based on informal practices. Work rules vary across transit properties. Required layover typically varies from none at all to ͭͬ% to ͭͱ% of the trip running time. Ten percent has been a longtime standard within the industry. Some agencies specifi ed either ͭͬ% of running time or fi ve minutes, whichever is greater. To optimize the blocking process, the scheduler must know whether the agency’s layover policy represents a hard and fast rule that must be followed in all cases or a guideline that can be “bent” to optimize the blocking process and reduce peak bus requirements. Some agencies allow policy exceptions during peak hours only as long as the exceptions do not involve con- secutive trips. Given the potential for delays that cannot be reliably anticipated, such as traffi c incidents, wheelchair boardings and alightings (helped somewhat by the use of ramps on low fl oor buses), and bicycle rack activity, many schedulers today provide more than ͭͬ% layover. Fifteen % is not unusual, and a number of systems schedule layover time as high as ͮͬ% of running time. Layover time is added to the round-trip running time in order to plan for the number of buses in the schedule. Where wider headways (ͮͬ to ͯͬ minutes) are the norm, the amount of layover time in the schedule tends to be greater also, since there are fewer multiples of a ͮͬ- or ͯͬ- minute headway. Many systems operate a pulse schedule where everything meets at a central location or at an outlying transit center. In a pulse system, longer routes get correspondingly less layover. Linking long routes that are tight for time with shorter routes where layover is plentiful is an excellent strategy in these circumstances. Understanding your properties rules on layover and recovery are essential to blocking and schedule making. Properties with less fl exible rules for calculating layover and recovery times will inevitably have less effi cient schedules, as one minute of layover often makes the difference between adding a bus to a route or not. Tip

Level ͭ. The BasicsChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-6 Layover Location Many agencies limit the locations where layover can be taken. In a pulse system where many routes meet at a central location, layover may be scheduled at this location to facilitate trans- fers or may be scheduled at the outer ends of the route to avoid congestion. Layover time is sometimes required at the end of each one-way trip, requiring a layover location at both ends of the route, but more often is applied to each round trip. A major factor in selecting layover locations is the availability of operator facilities. Layover time must be scheduled in a safe location where a bus can be parked without imped- ing traffi c. Layover is usually taken at the end of the route where it does not inconvenience passengers. Routes with a one-way loop at one or both ends create challenges for identifying a layover location, since through ridership along the loop means that some passengers will experience a delay. Layover time may also be assigned at key mid-route transfer points (such as a rail station or major transfer point). Ideally, the layover should occur at a location that allows the operator to safely leave the bus, use the restroom, stretch his/her legs, and get away from the bus for a minute or two. Routes with a one-way loop at one or both ends create challenges for identifying a layover location, since riders will be on the bus throughout the loop and some passengers will experience a de- lay. Layover time may also be assigned at key mid-route transfer points (such as a rail station or major transfer point). Interlining and Through-routing Sometimes, trips that come into the end of the line are not simply sent back out on the same route but can be “interlined” or hooked to other routes serving that terminal or another nearby location. Interlining is most often done to optimize blocking, although it can be a con- venience to passengers. For example, if many passenger trips originating on one route are destined for locations along a second route that shares a common terminal location, interlining will allow those passengers to reach their destination without transferring to another vehicle. At some systems, such activ- ity is the precursor to merging the two routes into one. Another application of interlining is to match up school trips in the afternoon with trips at the start of evening peak trips. Such matching is invaluable for saving PM pull-outs. The process is usually not applied in the AM because of the overlap of school service with AM peak service. Bus savings are always a priority, but interlining is also highly useful for saving bus hours, which ultimately saves platform costs and even operators. Layover is rarely done in the middle of a route when passengers are on board, unless there is a timed meet at a major stop on the route. Layover is applied at the end of the route so that passengers are not required to “sit through” a layover, and so that drivers can have a layover that is free from passenger responsibili- ties. Some layover time is often added to a timed meet location to ensure that the meet will occur even if one bus is behind schedule. Layover locations are sensitive because they require a location where a bus can “sit” safely for a period of time. Tip interlining The use of the same vehicle on a block operating on more than one route with the same operator, with- out returning to the garage during route changes. school trips or school service Additional scheduled trips at school bell times to accommodate the heavy loads associated with student ridership along a route. School trips are typically inserted into the schedule for no longer than necessary to address ridership de- mand. As with other service, these trips are open to the public and are included on public timetables.

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-7 Level ͭ. The Basics In a radial transit network with timed meets at the central locations, interlining long routes that are tight for time with shorter routes where layover is plentiful is an excellent strategy. In this case, interlining guards against the domino eff ect of a long route arriving later and later each hour. It also ensures adequate layover time for each operator, an important factor in operator- friendly assignments. Vehicles may travel between one route and another only once or only occasionally throughout the day. For example, a PM pull-out may fi rst do a school-related trip on Route X and then op- erate on Route Y. Another case might involve a vehicle providing morning peak service on one route and then operating on another route in the midday period. It is also possible for a vehicle to alternate trips between two or more routes throughout the day. If only two routes are involved, this form of regular interlining is often referred to as “through-routing.” “Interlining” and “through-routing” tend to be used interchangeably, but through-routing is the process of tying together routes, especially radial routes which serve a central downtown location, to form one long route from one end of town to another via downtown. Each trip throughout the day arrives as Route A and leaves as Route B. Both routes may even carry the same route number. Through-routing can reduce the number of buses by eliminating any duplication of two unconnected routes that would otherwise terminate down- town, provide through passengers with a one-seat ride, reduce the need for layover space, and simplify routing by reducing the number of turns required. The amount of interlining at any transit property is often a matter of policy. One of the transit systems that served as a case study makes it a policy to interline as much service as possible. The agency’s interest is for drivers to work as many routes as possible during their run. It helps make the day more interesting, familiarizes the drivers with more of the system, and at the same time saves enough buses to make the more complex blocking arrangement worth the extra time it takes to set up. through-routing A form of interlining in which a vehicle switches from inbound service on one route to outbound service on another route while continuing in service throughout the day. While it might be tempt- ing to minimize layover in all cases, remember that layover serves an important purpose—it is designed to get trips to start on time and can be one of the most important factors in reliability. Tip

Level ͭ. The BasicsChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-8 Basic Blocking Exercise With an understanding of the basic concepts of blocking, we are ready to block Route ͵ͳ. The master schedule for Route ͵ͳ was developed in the basic section of the previous chapter on schedule building, and is shown below. The schedule provides service every ͯͬ minutes from the fi rst eastbound trip at Ͳ:ͬͬ AM to the last westbound trip at ͳ:ͭͱ PM. Running times are consistent (i.e., do not change) throughout the day. C D E F G H I J K 1 Master Schedule for Route 97 2 ROUTE 97 Broad Street 3 DAY Weekday 4 5 A B C D D C B A 6 6:15 6:26 6:40 6:48 7 6:00 6:08 6:22 6:33 6:45 6:56 7:10 7:18 8 6:30 6:38 6:52 7:03 7:15 7:26 7:40 7:48 9 7:00 7:08 7:22 7:33 7:45 7:56 8:10 8:18 10 7:30 7:38 7:52 8:03 8:15 8:26 8:40 8:48 11 8:00 8:08 8:22 8:33 8:45 8:56 9:10 9:18 12 8:30 8:38 8:52 9:03 9:15 9:26 9:40 9:48 13 9:00 9:08 9:22 9:33 9:45 9:56 10:10 10:18 14 9:30 9:38 9:52 10:03 10:15 10:26 10:40 10:48 15 10:00 10:08 10:22 10:33 10:45 10:56 11:10 11:18 16 10:30 10:38 10:52 11:03 11:15 11:26 11:40 11:48 17 11:00 11:08 11:22 11:33 11:45 11:56 12:10 12:18 18 11:30 11:38 11:52 12:03 12:15 12:26 12:40 12:48 19 12:00 12:08 12:22 12:33 12:45 12:56 13:10 13:18 20 12:30 12:38 12:52 13:03 13:15 13:26 13:40 13:48 21 13:00 13:08 13:22 13:33 13:45 13:56 14:10 14:18 22 13:30 13:38 13:52 14:03 14:15 14:26 14:40 14:48 23 14:00 14:08 14:22 14:33 14:45 14:56 15:10 15:18 24 14:30 14:38 14:52 15:03 15:15 15:26 15:40 15:48 25 15:00 15:08 15:22 15:33 15:45 15:56 16:10 16:18 26 15:30 15:38 15:52 16:03 16:15 16:26 16:40 16:48 27 16:00 16:08 16:22 16:33 16:45 16:56 17:10 17:18 28 16:30 16:38 16:52 17:03 17:15 17:26 17:40 17:48 29 17:00 17:08 17:22 17:33 17:45 17:56 18:10 18:18 30 17:30 17:38 17:52 18:03 18:15 18:26 18:40 18:48 31 18:00 18:08 18:22 18:33 18:45 18:56 19:10 19:18 32 18:30 18:38 18:52 19:03 19:15 19:26 19:40 19:48 33 19:00 19:08 19:22 19:33 Eastbound Westbound

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-9 Level ͭ. The Basics Applicable work rules include the following: The minimum layover time is ͭͬ% of round-trip running time. Layover time may be taken at either terminal and may be divided in any way between the two terminals as long as the total layover time for any round trip is at least ͭͬ% of round-trip running time. No interlining will take place, because only one route is being blocked in this example. No other work rules apply. A blocking sheet is often used to track blocks as they are created. A sample blocking sheet is shown below. Blocking Sheet ROUTE 97 Broad Street Special Instructions: DAY Weekday 24 minutes available for layover per round trip DATE Sep-08 OK to split between terminals Eastbound Westbound Depart Arrive Available Depart Arrive Available Western Eastern for next trip Eastern Western for next trip Block # Pull Out Trip # Terminal Terminal (arrival + Trip # Terminal Terminal (arrival + Pull In A D layover) D A layover) • • • • blocking sheet A sheet listing all blocks that also includes the trips and times for all trips within each block.

Level ͭ. The BasicsChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-10 Pull-out refers to the time that a vehicle is scheduled to leave the garage or depot and travel to the point on the route where revenue service begins. Pull-in refers to the time that the vehicle is scheduled to arrive at the garage/depot after completing revenue service. For Route ͵ͳ, pull- out times are listed in the Pull-out and Pull-in Allowance table shown below. Route ͵ͳ Pull-out and Pull-in Allowances Terminal Pull-out Pull-in A Weekday: ͬ:ͭͬ Sat/Sun: no service Weekday: ͬ:ͭͬ Sat/Sun: no service B Weekday: ͬ:ͮͬ Sat/Sun: no service Weekday: ͬ:ͮͬ Sat/Sun: no service Our work rules require a minimum layover time of ͭͬ% of the total round-trip running time. The running time is ͯͯ minutes in each direction, or ͲͲ minutes for a round trip. Thus, ͲͲ x ͭͬ% = Ͳ.Ͳ, rounded up to ͳ minutes of layover time. Recall in Chapter ͯ that we decided on a ͯͬ-minute headway, resulting in ͮͰ minutes of layover time per round trip. So, there should be no problem meeting minimum layover requirements. One fi nal note before we get down to work relates to block numbering conventions. Transit agencies use a variety of numbering conventions for blocks. One of the most common is to use a four-digit number, where the fi rst two digits are the route number and the second two digits are the block number. This guarantees that each block will have a unique block number. For Route ͵ͳ, the fi rst block number would be ͵ͳͬͭ. Diff erent systems have their own style of numbering blocks. Some like to go in strict time out order, while others prefer to keep block numbers in order during the day. The concept of the block number serves two purposes: (ͭ) to keep track of the blocks while building the schedule and constructing runs and (ͮ) to inform on-street supervision of the positive identifi cation of a particular trip (not always obvious on a route with a ͭͬ-minute or better headway). Because of the latter, many prefer numbering blocks in order, and this will be the convention we follow for Route ͵ͳ. The Blocking Process for Route 97 The fi rst trip on the master schedule sheet is eastbound at Ͳ:ͬͬ AM. The pull-in and pull-out al- lowance table indicates that the pull-out time to point A is ͭͬ minutes, so the fi rst block, ͵ͳͬͭ, pulls out from the garage at ͱ:ͱͬ AM and travels without passengers (deadheads) to the west- ern terminal at A in time to begin service at Ͳ:ͬͬ AM. Block ͵ͳͬͭ arrives at the eastern terminal (D) at Ͳ:ͯͯ. The next available westbound trip is at Ͳ:Ͱͱ, allowing ͭͮ minutes of layover time at Layover time is almost always rounded up to the nearest minute. Tip Blocks must always include a pull-out time (the time the bus is scheduled to leave the garage) and a pull-in time (the time the bus should arrive back at the garage). The amount of time required to travel from the garage to the route and to return to the garage will vary by route and terminal. Tip pull-out time The time the vehicle spends traveling from the garage to the route. Pull-out time is included in vehicle hours, but not in revenue hours. Collectively, pull-in time and pull-out time are also known as pull time and are components of deadhead miles.

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-11 Level ͭ. The Basics D. This trip reaches A at ͳ:ͭʹ and, after ͭͮ minutes of layover, can make its next eastbound trip at ͳ:ͯͬ. Note below on the master schedule worksheet that we have inserted two columns to the left of Point A for the block number and the pull-out time. We have added two columns on the right, listing the next trip time leaving Point A and the pull-in time. We have also lined up the trips arriving and departing at Point D so that the round trip for a given block is in the same row. This helps in following the progress of a block throughout the day, as does listing the next trip time on the right-hand side. We have entered all the information noted above in this spreadsheet. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 1 Master Schedule for Route 97 2 ROUTE 97 Broad Street 3 DAY Weekday 4 5 Block # Pull Out A B C D D C B A Next Trip Pull In 6 6:15 6:26 6:40 6:48 7 9701 5:50 6:00 6:08 6:22 6:33 6:45 6:56 7:10 7:18 7:30 8 6:30 6:38 6:52 7:03 7:15 7:26 7:40 7:48 9 7:00 7:08 7:22 7:33 7:45 7:56 8:10 8:18 10 7:30 7:38 7:52 8:03 8:15 8:26 8:40 8:48 11 8:00 8:08 8:22 8:33 8:45 8:56 9:10 9:18 12 8:30 8:38 8:52 9:03 9:15 9:26 9:40 9:48 Eastbound Westbound It is helpful to track the trip numbers for each block on either a copy of the master schedule or on the blocking sheet. Below are the entries on the blocking sheet for the pull-out and the fi rst trips. Blocking Sheet ROUTE 97 Broad Street Special Instructions: DAY Weekday 24 minutes available for layover per round trip DATE Sep-08 OK to split between terminals Eastbound Westbound Depart Arrive Available Depart Arrive Available Western Eastern for next trip Eastern Western for next trip Block # Pull Out Trip # Terminal Terminal (arrival + Trip # Terminal Terminal (arrival + Pull In A D layover) D A layover) 9701 5:50 01 6:00 6:33 6:45 02 6:45 7:18 7:30 pull-in time The time the vehicle spends traveling from the route to the garage. Pull-in time is included in vehicle hours, but not in revenue hours. Collectively, pull-in time and pull-out time are also known as pull time and are components of deadhead miles.

Level ͭ. The BasicsChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-12 The blocking process continues by hooking more trips on to ͵ͳͬͭ. Use of color coding on spreadsheets to follow a block through the day is extremely helpful. Since this example is in black and white, we will simply indicate the block number and next trip on the spreadsheet. We show the next two round trips for block ͵ͳͬͭ below. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 1 Master Schedule for Route 97 2 ROUTE 97 Broad Street 3 DAY Weekday 4 5 Block # Pull Out A B C D D C B A Next Trip Pull In 6 6:15 6:26 6:40 6:48 7 9701 5:50 6:00 6:08 6:22 6:33 6:45 6:56 7:10 7:18 7:30 8 6:30 6:38 6:52 7:03 7:15 7:26 7:40 7:48 9 7:00 7:08 7:22 7:33 7:45 7:56 8:10 8:18 10 9701 7:30 7:38 7:52 8:03 8:15 8:26 8:40 8:48 9:00 11 8:00 8:08 8:22 8:33 8:45 8:56 9:10 9:18 12 8:30 8:38 8:52 9:03 9:15 9:26 9:40 9:48 13 9701 9:00 9:08 9:22 9:33 9:45 9:56 10:10 10:18 10:30 Eastbound Westbound Block ͵ͳͬͭ makes the ͳ:ͯͬ eastbound trip and the ʹ:ͭͱ westbound trip. The next available trip at A when it arrives at ʹ:Ͱʹ is the ͵:ͬͬ trip. So we note that block ͵ͳͬͭ will make this trip and the return trip westbound at ͵:Ͱͱ.

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-13 Level ͭ. The Basics Now continue this process of hooking trips for the remainder of the day. Your spreadsheet will look like this: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 1 Master Schedule for Route 97 2 ROUTE 97 Broad Street 3 DAY Weekday 4 5 Block # Pull Out A B C D D C B A Next Trip Pull In 6 6:15 6:26 6:40 6:48 7 9701 5:50 6:00 6:08 6:22 6:33 6:45 6:56 7:10 7:18 7:30 8 6:30 6:38 6:52 7:03 7:15 7:26 7:40 7:48 9 7:00 7:08 7:22 7:33 7:45 7:56 8:10 8:18 10 9701 7:30 7:38 7:52 8:03 8:15 8:26 8:40 8:48 9:00 11 8:00 8:08 8:22 8:33 8:45 8:56 9:10 9:18 12 8:30 8:38 8:52 9:03 9:15 9:26 9:40 9:48 13 9701 9:00 9:08 9:22 9:33 9:45 9:56 10:10 10:18 10:30 14 9:30 9:38 9:52 10:03 10:15 10:26 10:40 10:48 15 10:00 10:08 10:22 10:33 10:45 10:56 11:10 11:18 16 9701 10:30 10:38 10:52 11:03 11:15 11:26 11:40 11:48 12:00 17 11:00 11:08 11:22 11:33 11:45 11:56 12:10 12:18 18 11:30 11:38 11:52 12:03 12:15 12:26 12:40 12:48 19 9701 12:00 12:08 12:22 12:33 12:45 12:56 13:10 13:18 13:30 20 12:30 12:38 12:52 13:03 13:15 13:26 13:40 13:48 21 13:00 13:08 13:22 13:33 13:45 13:56 14:10 14:18 22 9701 13:30 13:38 13:52 14:03 14:15 14:26 14:40 14:48 15:00 23 14:00 14:08 14:22 14:33 14:45 14:56 15:10 15:18 24 14:30 14:38 14:52 15:03 15:15 15:26 15:40 15:48 25 9701 15:00 15:08 15:22 15:33 15:45 15:56 16:10 16:18 16:30 26 15:30 15:38 15:52 16:03 16:15 16:26 16:40 16:48 27 16:00 16:08 16:22 16:33 16:45 16:56 17:10 17:18 28 9701 16:30 16:38 16:52 17:03 17:15 17:26 17:40 17:48 18:00 29 17:00 17:08 17:22 17:33 17:45 17:56 18:10 18:18 30 17:30 17:38 17:52 18:03 18:15 18:26 18:40 18:48 31 9701 18:00 18:08 18:22 18:33 18:45 18:56 19:10 19:18 19:28 32 18:30 18:38 18:52 19:03 19:15 19:26 19:40 19:48 33 19:00 19:08 19:22 19:33 Eastbound Westbound Note that when ͵ͳͬͭ completes the ͭʹ:Ͱͱ westbound trip at ͭ͵:ͭʹ, it has no trip to hook to and so it is time to return to the garage. The pull-out and pull-in allowance sheet indicates ͭͬ min- utes of travel time from point A to the garage, so the pull-in time will be ͭ͵:ͭʹ + ͬ:ͭͬ =ͭ͵:ͮʹ. travel time Paid time allowed for an operator to travel between the garage and a re- lief location. If the travel is for relief purposes only and is not part of a pull-in or pull-out, then travel time is not included in platform time.

Level ͭ. The BasicsChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-14 The blocking sheet now summarizes the information for all trips on block ͵ͳͬͭ and looks like this: Blocking Sheet ROUTE 97 Broad Street Special Instructions: DAY Weekday 24 minutes available for layover per round trip DATE Sep-08 OK to split between terminals Eastbound Westbound Depart Arrive Available Depart Arrive Available Western Eastern for next trip Eastern Western for next trip Block # Pull Out Trip # Terminal Terminal (arrival + Trip # Terminal Terminal (arrival + Pull In A D layover) D A layover) 9701 5:50 01 6:00 6:33 6:45 02 6:45 7:18 7:30 9701 03 7:30 8:03 8:15 04 8:15 8:48 9:00 9701 05 9:00 9:33 9:45 06 9:45 10:18 10:30 9701 07 10:30 11:03 11:15 08 11:15 11:48 12:00 9701 09 12:00 12:33 12:45 10 12:45 13:18 13:30 9701 11 13:30 14:03 14:15 12 14:15 14:48 15:00 9701 13 15:00 15:33 15:45 14 15:45 16:18 16:30 9701 15 16:30 17:03 17:15 16 17:15 17:48 18:00 9701 17 18:00 18:33 18:45 18 18:45 19:18 19:28 Next, we add Block ͵ͳͬͮ. As noted earlier in the discussion of block numbering, we will keep the blocks in numerical order throughout the day, so Block ͵ͳͬͮ should always follow ͵ͳͬͭ. Its fi rst trip will thus be eastbound at Ͳ:ͯͬ, requiring a pull-out time of Ͳ:ͮͬ. The example below shows the fi rst few trips of ͵ͳͬͮ fi lled in on the spreadsheet. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 1 Master Schedule for Route 97 2 ROUTE 97 Broad Street 3 DAY Weekday 4 5 Block # Pull Out A B C D D C B A Next Trip Pull In 6 6:15 6:26 6:40 6:48 7 9701 5:50 6:00 6:08 6:22 6:33 6:45 6:56 7:10 7:18 7:30 8 9702 6:20 6:30 6:38 6:52 7:03 7:15 7:26 7:40 7:48 8:00 9 7:00 7:08 7:22 7:33 7:45 7:56 8:10 8:18 10 9701 7:30 7:38 7:52 8:03 8:15 8:26 8:40 8:48 9:00 11 9702 8:00 8:08 8:22 8:33 8:45 8:56 9:10 9:18 9:30 12 8:30 8:38 8:52 9:03 9:15 9:26 9:40 9:48 13 9701 9:00 9:08 9:22 9:33 9:45 9:56 10:10 10:18 10:30 14 9702 9:30 9:38 9:52 10:03 10:15 10:26 10:40 10:48 11:00 Eastbound Westbound

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-15 Level ͭ. The Basics We continue ͵ͳͬͮ throughout the day until its pull-in time at ͭ͵:ͱʹ. Then we add block ͵ͳͬͯ. Note that this block pulls out to D, not A, so we need to check our allowance table. Instead of the ͭͬ minutes of pull-out time to point A, ͵ͳͬͯ requires ͮͬ minutes to point D, so pull-out time is ͮͬ minutes earlier than Ͳ:ͭͱ, or ͱ:ͱͱ. The pull-in is also from D, not A, and requires ͮͬ min- utes. The pull-in time for ͵ͳͬͯ is ͭ͵:ͱͯ, as shown in the completed blocked schedule below. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 1 Master Schedule for Route 97 2 ROUTE 97 Broad Street 3 DAY Weekday 4 5 Block # Pull Out A B C D D C B A Next Trip Pull In 6 9703 5:55 6:15 6:26 6:40 6:48 7:00 7 9701 5:50 6:00 6:08 6:22 6:33 6:45 6:56 7:10 7:18 7:30 8 9702 6:20 6:30 6:38 6:52 7:03 7:15 7:26 7:40 7:48 8:00 9 9703 7:00 7:08 7:22 7:33 7:45 7:56 8:10 8:18 8:30 10 9701 7:30 7:38 7:52 8:03 8:15 8:26 8:40 8:48 9:00 11 9702 8:00 8:08 8:22 8:33 8:45 8:56 9:10 9:18 9:30 12 9703 8:30 8:38 8:52 9:03 9:15 9:26 9:40 9:48 10:00 13 9701 9:00 9:08 9:22 9:33 9:45 9:56 10:10 10:18 10:30 14 9702 9:30 9:38 9:52 10:03 10:15 10:26 10:40 10:48 11:00 15 9703 10:00 10:08 10:22 10:33 10:45 10:56 11:10 11:18 11:30 16 9701 10:30 10:38 10:52 11:03 11:15 11:26 11:40 11:48 12:00 17 9702 11:00 11:08 11:22 11:33 11:45 11:56 12:10 12:18 12:30 18 9703 11:30 11:38 11:52 12:03 12:15 12:26 12:40 12:48 13:00 19 9701 12:00 12:08 12:22 12:33 12:45 12:56 13:10 13:18 13:30 20 9702 12:30 12:38 12:52 13:03 13:15 13:26 13:40 13:48 14:00 21 9703 13:00 13:08 13:22 13:33 13:45 13:56 14:10 14:18 14:30 22 9701 13:30 13:38 13:52 14:03 14:15 14:26 14:40 14:48 15:00 23 9702 14:00 14:08 14:22 14:33 14:45 14:56 15:10 15:18 15:30 24 9703 14:30 14:38 14:52 15:03 15:15 15:26 15:40 15:48 16:00 25 9701 15:00 15:08 15:22 15:33 15:45 15:56 16:10 16:18 16:30 26 9702 15:30 15:38 15:52 16:03 16:15 16:26 16:40 16:48 17:00 27 9703 16:00 16:08 16:22 16:33 16:45 16:56 17:10 17:18 17:30 28 9701 16:30 16:38 16:52 17:03 17:15 17:26 17:40 17:48 18:00 29 9702 17:00 17:08 17:22 17:33 17:45 17:56 18:10 18:18 18:30 30 9703 17:30 17:38 17:52 18:03 18:15 18:26 18:40 18:48 19:00 31 9701 18:00 18:08 18:22 18:33 18:45 18:56 19:10 19:18 19:28 32 9702 18:30 18:38 18:52 19:03 19:15 19:26 19:40 19:48 19:58 33 9703 19:00 19:08 19:22 19:33 19:53 Eastbound Westbound

Level Í­. The BasicsChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-16 The completed blocking sheet is shown below. Blocking Sheet ROUTE 97 Broad Street Special Instructions: DAY Weekday 24 minutes available for layover per round trip DATE Sep-08 OK to split between terminals Eastbound Westbound Depart Arrive Available Depart Arrive Available Western Eastern for next trip Eastern Western for next trip Block # Pull Out Trip # Terminal Terminal (arrival + Trip # Terminal Terminal (arrival + Pull In A D layover) D A layover) 9701 5:50 01 6:00 6:33 6:45 02 6:45 7:18 7:30 9701 03 7:30 8:03 8:15 04 8:15 8:48 9:00 9701 05 9:00 9:33 9:45 06 9:45 10:18 10:30 9701 07 10:30 11:03 11:15 08 11:15 11:48 12:00 9701 09 12:00 12:33 12:45 10 12:45 13:18 13:30 9701 11 13:30 14:03 14:15 12 14:15 14:48 15:00 9701 13 15:00 15:33 15:45 14 15:45 16:18 16:30 9701 15 16:30 17:03 17:15 16 17:15 17:48 18:00 9701 17 18:00 18:33 18:45 18 18:45 19:18 19:28 9702 6:20 01 6:30 7:03 7:15 02 7:15 7:48 8:00 9702 03 8:00 8:33 8:45 04 8:45 9:18 9:30 9702 05 9:30 10:03 10:15 06 10:15 10:48 11:00 9702 07 11:00 11:33 11:45 08 11:45 12:18 12:30 9702 09 12:30 13:03 13:15 10 13:15 13:48 14:00 9702 11 14:00 14:33 14:45 12 14:45 15:18 15:30 9702 13 15:30 16:03 16:15 14 16:15 16:48 17:00 9702 15 17:00 17:33 17:45 16 17:45 18:18 18:30 9702 17 18:30 19:03 19:15 18 19:15 19:48 19:58 9703 5:55 01 6:15 6:48 7:00 9703 02 7:00 7:33 7:45 03 7:45 8:18 8:30 9703 04 8:30 9:03 9:15 05 9:15 9:48 10:00 9703 06 10:00 10:33 10:45 07 10:45 11:18 11:30 9703 08 11:30 12:03 12:15 09 12:15 12:48 13:00 9703 10 13:00 13:33 13:45 11 13:45 14:18 14:30 9703 12 14:30 15:03 15:15 13 15:15 15:48 16:00 9703 14 16:00 16:33 16:45 15 16:45 17:18 17:30 9703 16 17:30 18:03 18:15 17 18:15 18:48 19:00 9703 18 19:00 19:33 19:53

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-17 Level ͭ. The Basics Now that we have been through the basic blocking process, questions such as the following may arise. How is layover time related to costs? Excessive layover time increases the number of vehicles and operators required on a given route. Recall that we calculate the number of vehicles required using the following formula: # Vehicles = Cycle time Headway where cycle time equals the round-trip running time plus layover time and headway is the time between trips. For example, if a route has a round-trip running time of ͱͰ minutes plus Ͳ minutes for layover and a headway of ͭͬ minutes, then the formula shows a need for Ͳ vehicles: # Vehicles = (ͱͰ+Ͳ)=Ͳͬ = Ͳ ͭͬ However, if the layover time is increased to ͭͲ minutes, then the number of vehicles needed also increases: # Vehicles = (ͱͰ+ͭͲ)=ͳͬ = ͳ ͭͬ Obviously, a layover of Ͳ minutes versus ͭͲ minutes is more economical in terms of fewer ve- hicles and, most likely, fewer operators. Is there any benefi t to having slightly excessive layover time? As noted in Chapter ͯ (Schedule Building), extra layover time may be assigned when clockface headways are desired, as in the Route ͵ͳ example. Also, timed transfers sometimes result in the need for extra layover time to ensure that passengers on trips arriving a few minutes be- hind schedule can still make their connections. Schedule building and blocking often involve a balancing of cost-eff ectiveness and customer service needs. In cases where excessive layover time does exist after a trip, it may be possible to hook this trip with another trip. These are opportunities that schedulers continually evaluate.

Level ͭ. The BasicsChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-18 Do many schedules maintain a consistent headway throughout the day? Busy routes on major travel corridors typically have shorter headways (i.e., more frequent ser- vice) in the peak hours. Routes serving less busy areas are more likely to maintain a consistent headway throughout the day. Even on these routes, however, the last trip or two of the day is often inconsistent for a variety of reasons. One important reason to delay the start time of the last trips on a route is to allow the maximum number of passengers to catch the fi nal trip(s). The last trip of the day often functions as a safety net for passengers working late, staying after at school, or delayed for some other reason. In the example of Route 97, two blocks begin at the western terminal (A) and one begins at the eastern terminal (D). Why don’t they all begin at the same place, especially since A is only 10 min- utes from the garage while D is 20 minutes away? Once the decision regarding the time to begin service in both directions is made, the blocking process is intended to place the vehicles where they need to be. In the previous chapter, the decision was made to begin eastbound service at Ͳ:ͬͬ AM and westbound service at Ͳ:ͭͱ AM. In this simple example, the only way to do this is to pull out Block ͵ͳͬͯ to D. In the intermedi- ate and advanced sections below, we will discuss other blocking strategies regarding pull-out, such as beginning a trip mid-route and minimizing deadhead time by pulling out a block into revenue service as soon as possible. Do the same principles regarding blocking apply in more complex cases where more than one route is involved? The short answer is yes, as you will see in the intermediate and advanced sections. An expand- ed blocking exercise would include all trips operated from the same garage. Obviously, as the task gets more complex, the ability to perform blocking by hand becomes more diffi cult and the use of computer software grows more advisable. “Tedious” scheduling tasks used to be a bane of schedulers. Computers have relieved us of most of these. Chief among them are by-hand blocking (the writing the numbers in part, not the strategizing) and calculating mileage. Calculating hours is not the most interesting task, but at least you do not have to keep track of every minor deadhead and service pattern and the number of times they are used. This is truly a routine that computers were built for. But when you are starting out, these tasks give you a “feel” for all the elements that go into a schedule. Doing them also gives you a sense of accomplishment and the knowledge that everything on the schedule is accounted for. That said, we encourage you to travel all of these “long paths.” What you learn along the way will be invaluable as you progress as a seasoned scheduler. The specifi c process or commands for blocking our trips in a computerized system vary be- tween systems. But almost certainly you will have the option to have the system automatically pull-in miles The distance the vehicle travels from the route to the garage. Pull- out miles are included in vehicle miles, but not in revenue miles. Collectively, pull-in miles and pull-out miles are also known as pull miles and are components of deadhead miles. pull-out miles The distance the vehicle travels from the garage to the route. Pull-in miles are included in vehicle miles, but not in revenue miles. Collectively, pull-in miles and pull-out miles are also known as pull miles and are components of deadhead miles.

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-19 Level ͭ. The Basics block your trips and provide the result, or allow you to work through and manually hook the trips. In the Route ͵ͳ example, the result is guaranteed to be the same as we meet any pre- scribed layover requirements, and the schedule is simple (presenting the system with few or no alternative hooking options). Calculating Vehicle Statistics Now that our spreadsheet has been populated with trips and block information we have all the components we need to build summaries of hours, vehicles, and mileage. Typically the key ele- ments needed in a summary table will include: Vehicle Hours: Comprised of revenue hours (including layover time) plus pull-in and pull-out time Vehicle Miles: Comprised of revenue miles plus pull-in and pull-out miles Depending on the spreadsheet’s level of sophistication, these can be calculated automatically, or as fi xed formulas. Either way the spreadsheet tools can be used to calculate these numbers. The method of calculating can be as automated as you require or are capable of developing. The method used in our spreadsheet is to have a set of “fi xed” parameters: running times and distances eastbound and westbound, pull out times, and mileage to “A” and “D.” A simple method of estimating mileage would then be to multiply (using a count function) the number of trips by mileage for that direction. The same can be done for hours, or alternatively could be a sum of subtracting the trip arrivals from trip departures. A typical vehicle statistics summary called a block summary table may look like the following: T U V W X Y 1 2 3 4 Hours Summary 5 Block Garage Depart Garage Arrive Platform Hours 6 1 5:50 19:28 13:38 7 2 6:20 19:58 13:38 8 3 5:55 19:53 13:58 9 Total 41:14 10 11 12 Mileage Summary 13 Block Eastbound Trips Westbound Trips Pull Trips - "A" Pull Trips - "D" Mileage 14 1 9 9 2 0 124.0 15 2 9 9 2 124.0 16 3 9 9 0 2 130.6 17 Total 27 27 4 2 378.6 • • vehicle hours Total hours of travel by a vehicle, including hours in revenue service (including layover time) and deadhead travel. revenue hours The number of hours of service available to passengers for trans- port on the routes. Excludes deadhead hours, but includes layover time. Calculated for each route and for the system as a whole. vehicle miles Total miles of travel by a vehicle, including hours in revenue service and deadhead travel. revenue miles The number of miles of service available to passengers for trans- port on the routes. Excludes deadhead miles. Calculated for each route and for the system as a whole. block summary table Summary of vehicle statistics, including platform hours and mileage, by block.

Level ͭ. The BasicsChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-20 For computerized scheduling packages once the blocks have been created, and pulls com- pleted, the costing function will be able to provide the necessary information automatically, according to your agency’s requirements. At this point you are able to roughly estimate the number of additional bus operators you will need for this schedule simply by dividing the total platform hours by the average platform time in your runs. This example yields Ͱͭ:ͭͰ hours, which would produce fi ve runs of slightly over ʹ:ͭͱ in duration each. That is a good fi gure to use for estimates, even though the actual runcut will probably produce somewhat diff erent individual results. The most practical aspect of this fi nished schedule is that you now have detailed statistics with which to develop costs for implementing this service. Your fi nance group should have fi gures on system costs on a per-hour and per-mile basis which can be applied against the fi gures in your Hours and Miles table. If your schedule has met the budget goal, you know it positively at this point. If not, you can take steps to reduce the service by cutting back trips, taking a bus out of the cycle, or shortening the route—all actions discussed in the intermediate and advanced sections of Chapter ͯ (Schedule Building). These costs are still an estimate at this point; until you cut the runs (see Chapter ͱ), you will not have pay hours for operators. Graphing the Blocks Blocks are often displayed graphically to illustrate the time spans that the blocks are in service. Time spans (in this case, platform time) can be obtained from the vehicle statistics. An example of a graphic display of Route ͵ͳ is shown below. This type of graphic display is es- pecially valuable as a tool for runcutting in the absence of a computerized scheduling software package. Computerized packages can generate these graphs automatically. Block 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A 10A 11A 12P 1P 2P 3P 4P 5P 6P 7P 8P 550 1928 9701 620 1958 9702 555 1953 9703 Tip Use your blocks to estimate your operator needs. This is only a rough estimate, but it will be a useful check on the runcut. Total platform time Average platform time = # operators needed block graph A graphical representation of all blocks assigned to a garage that must be considered in the runcut solution. The graph includes, at a minimum, the start and end times of each block, and may also include terminal times and all eligible relief times. Understanding the number and duration of all blocks is an important requisite in reaching an optimal runcut solution.

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-21 Level ͭ. The Basics LEVEL 1 End of Basic Blocking. The Intermediate Section of Blocking continues on the next page. To jump to Runcutting, go to page ͱ-ͭ.

Level ͮ. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-22 4.2 Intermediate Blocking—Blocking a Slightly More Intricate Route 97 Schedule The previous section of the Schedule Building chapter introduced the fi rst intricacy in the simple Route ͵ͳ schedule: providing more frequent service (every ͭͱ min- utes) during peak morning and afternoon periods. With a round-trip running time of ͲͲ minutes, we concluded that a cycle time of ͳͱ minutes would be optimal. As the new schedule was developed, trips were moved and layover time changed at terminals to make departure times consistent throughout the day. The fi nal Route ͵ͳ schedule is shown below. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O 1 Example Headway Sheet #2 2 ROUTE 97 Broad Street 3 DAY Weekday 4 5 Block # Pull Out A B C D D C B A Next Trip Block Pull In 6 6:06 6:17 6:31 6:39 6:45 7 6:21 6:32 6:46 6:54 7:00 8 6:00 6:08 6:22 6:33 6:36 6:47 7:01 7:09 7:15 9 6:15 6:23 6:37 6:48 6:51 7:02 7:16 7:24 7:30 10 6:30 6:38 6:52 7:03 7:06 7:17 7:31 7:39 7:45 11 6:45 6:53 7:07 7:18 7:21 7:32 7:46 7:54 8:00 12 7:00 7:08 7:22 7:33 7:36 7:47 8:01 8:09 8:15 13 7:15 7:23 7:37 7:48 7:51 8:02 8:16 8:24 8:30 14 7:30 7:38 7:52 8:03 8:06 8:17 8:31 8:39 8:45 15 7:45 7:53 8:07 8:18 8:21 8:32 8:46 8:54 9:00 16 8:00 8:08 8:22 8:33 8:36 8:47 9:01 9:09 17 8:15 8:23 8:37 8:48 8:51 9:02 9:16 9:24 9:30 18 8:30 8:38 8:52 9:03 9:06 9:17 9:31 9:39 10:00 19 8:45 8:53 9:07 9:18 20 9:00 9:08 9:22 9:33 9:36 9:47 10:01 10:09 10:30 21 9:30 9:38 9:52 10:03 10:06 10:17 10:31 10:39 11:00 22 10:00 10:08 10:22 10:33 10:36 10:47 11:01 11:09 11:30 23 10:30 10:38 10:52 11:03 11:06 11:17 11:31 11:39 12:00 24 11:00 11:08 11:22 11:33 11:36 11:47 12:01 12:09 12:30 25 11:30 11:38 11:52 12:03 12:06 12:17 12:31 12:39 13:00 26 12:00 12:08 12:22 12:33 12:36 12:47 13:01 13:09 13:30 27 12:30 12:38 12:52 13:03 13:06 13:17 13:31 13:39 14:00 28 13:00 13:08 13:22 13:33 13:36 13:47 14:01 14:09 14:30 29 13:30 13:38 13:52 14:03 14:06 14:17 14:31 14:39 15:00 30 14:00 14:08 14:22 14:33 14:36 14:47 15:01 15:09 15:15 31 14:30 14:38 14:52 15:03 15:06 15:17 15:31 15:39 15:45 32 15:21 15:32 15:46 15:54 16:00 33 15:00 15:08 15:22 15:33 15:36 15:47 16:01 16:09 16:15 34 15:15 15:23 15:37 15:48 15:51 16:02 16:16 16:24 16:30 35 15:30 15:38 15:52 16:03 16:06 16:17 16:31 16:39 16:45 36 15:45 15:53 16:07 16:18 16:21 16:32 16:46 16:54 17:00 37 16:00 16:08 16:22 16:33 16:36 16:47 17:01 17:09 17:15 38 16:15 16:23 16:37 16:48 16:51 17:02 17:16 17:24 17:30 39 16:30 16:38 16:52 17:03 17:06 17:17 17:31 17:39 17:45 40 16:45 16:53 17:07 17:18 17:21 17:32 17:46 17:54 18:00 41 17:00 17:08 17:22 17:33 17:36 17:47 18:01 18:09 42 17:15 17:23 17:37 17:48 17:51 18:02 18:16 18:24 18:30 43 17:30 17:38 17:52 18:03 18:06 18:17 18:31 18:39 19:00 44 17:45 17:53 18:07 18:18 45 18:00 18:08 18:22 18:33 18:36 18:47 19:01 19:09 46 18:30 18:38 18:52 19:03 19:06 19:17 19:31 19:39 47 19:00 19:08 19:22 19:33 Eastbound Westbound LEVEL 2A

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-23 Level ͮ. Intermediate Blocking In numbering the blocks, we will follow the convention noted in the basic section of keeping the block numbers in order. So, the fi rst trip (westbound at Ͳ:ͬͲ) will be assigned to block ͵ͳͬͭ. Enter the block number for this trip, and for all subsequent trips hooked to this trip. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O 1 Example Headway Sheet #2 2 ROUTE 97 Broad Street 3 DAY Weekday 4 5 Block # Pull Out A B C D D C B A Next Trip Block Pull In 6 9701 5:46 6:06 6:17 6:31 6:39 6:45 9701 7 6:21 6:32 6:46 6:54 7:00 8 6:00 6:08 6:22 6:33 6:36 6:47 7:01 7:09 7:15 9 6:15 6:23 6:37 6:48 6:51 7:02 7:16 7:24 7:30 10 6:30 6:38 6:52 7:03 7:06 7:17 7:31 7:39 7:45 11 9701 6:45 6:53 7:07 7:18 7:21 7:32 7:46 7:54 8:00 9701 12 7:00 7:08 7:22 7:33 7:36 7:47 8:01 8:09 8:15 13 7:15 7:23 7:37 7:48 7:51 8:02 8:16 8:24 8:30 14 7:30 7:38 7:52 8:03 8:06 8:17 8:31 8:39 8:45 15 7:45 7:53 8:07 8:18 8:21 8:32 8:46 8:54 9:00 16 9701 8:00 8:08 8:22 8:33 8:36 8:47 9:01 9:09 9701 9:19 17 8:15 8:23 8:37 8:48 8:51 9:02 9:16 9:24 9:30 18 8:30 8:38 8:52 9:03 9:06 9:17 9:31 9:39 10:00 19 8:45 8:53 9:07 9:18 20 9:00 9:08 9:22 9:33 9:36 9:47 10:01 10:09 10:30 21 9:30 9:38 9:52 10:03 10:06 10:17 10:31 10:39 11:00 Eastbound Westbound When the Block ͵ͳͬͭ trip arrives at A at ͵:ͬ͵, the fi rst decision arises: should we pull the block in or should we assign it to make the ͵:ͯͬ trip? For now, we will go with the least expensive alternative, which is to minimize layover time (within limits, of course) by hooking the ͵:ͮͰ arrival to the ͵:ͯͬ trip and pulling in the ͵:ͬ͵ trip. We might change our minds later if the swap would result in a block that would provide a better runcut. Note that this is a decision that never had to be made in the simple schedule, where headways and running times remained consistent throughout the day. The revised schedule also needs a new blocking sheet. Entries for block ͵ͳͬͭ are shown below. Blocking Sheet ROUTE 97 Broad Street Special Instructions: DAY Weekday 9 minutes peak, 24 minutes midday DATE Sep-08 available for layover per round trip OK to split between terminals Eastbound Westbound Depart Arrive Available Depart Arrive Available Western Eastern for next trip Eastern Western for next trip Block # Pull Out Trip # Terminal Terminal (arrival + Trip # Terminal Terminal (arrival + Pull In A D layover) D A layover) 9701 5:46 01 6:06 6:39 6:45 9701 02 6:45 7:18 7:21 03 7:21 7:54 8:00 9701 04 8:00 8:33 8:36 05 8:36 9:09 9:19 When blocking a schedule where headways change throughout the day, there will be cases in which two blocks are available to make the next trip. The scheduler should choose the block with the least amount of layover time, assuming that minimum layover requirements are met. Exceptions to this rule are discussed in Chapter 5: Runcutting. Tip

Level ͮ. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-24 Continue the blocking process in the morning. As seen below, three blocks (͵ͳͬͮ, ͵ͳͬͯ, and ͵ͳͬͱ) are base blocks that operate throughout the day, while the two other blocks pull in near ͵:ͬͬ AM, the end of the morning peak period. As expected, the schedule has two extra buses in the morning peak period that were not there in the original schedule. The same thought process should be used for hooking the PM peak blocks. When the layover increases to a considerable amount and there is a later trip that can hook, pull in the earlier trip. This is the case with the trip arriving at A at ͭʹ:ͬ͵. Pull in this block and hook the trip arriv- ing at ͭʹ:ͮͰ with the next trip at ͭʹ:ͯͬ. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O 1 Example Headway Sheet #2 2 ROUTE 97 Broad Street 3 DAY Weekday 4 5 Block # Pull Out A B C D D C B A Next Trip Block Pull In 6 9701 5:46 6:06 6:17 6:31 6:39 6:45 9701 7 9702 6:01 6:21 6:32 6:46 6:54 7:00 9702 8 9703 5:50 6:00 6:08 6:22 6:33 6:36 6:47 7:01 7:09 7:15 9703 9 9704 6:05 6:15 6:23 6:37 6:48 6:51 7:02 7:16 7:24 7:30 9704 10 9705 6:20 6:30 6:38 6:52 7:03 7:06 7:17 7:31 7:39 7:45 9705 11 9701 6:45 6:53 7:07 7:18 7:21 7:32 7:46 7:54 8:00 9701 12 9702 7:00 7:08 7:22 7:33 7:36 7:47 8:01 8:09 8:15 9702 13 9703 7:15 7:23 7:37 7:48 7:51 8:02 8:16 8:24 8:30 9703 14 9704 7:30 7:38 7:52 8:03 8:06 8:17 8:31 8:39 8:45 9704 15 9705 7:45 7:53 8:07 8:18 8:21 8:32 8:46 8:54 9:00 9705 16 9701 8:00 8:08 8:22 8:33 8:36 8:47 9:01 9:09 9701 9:19 17 9702 8:15 8:23 8:37 8:48 8:51 9:02 9:16 9:24 9:30 9702 18 9703 8:30 8:38 8:52 9:03 9:06 9:17 9:31 9:39 10:00 9703 19 9704 8:45 8:53 9:07 9:18 9704 9:38 20 9705 9:00 9:08 9:22 9:33 9:36 9:47 10:01 10:09 10:30 9705 21 9702 9:30 9:38 9:52 10:03 10:06 10:17 10:31 10:39 11:00 9702 22 9703 10:00 10:08 10:22 10:33 10:36 10:47 11:01 11:09 11:30 9703 23 9705 10:30 10:38 10:52 11:03 11:06 11:17 11:31 11:39 12:00 9705 24 9702 11:00 11:08 11:22 11:33 11:36 11:47 12:01 12:09 12:30 9702 25 9703 11:30 11:38 11:52 12:03 12:06 12:17 12:31 12:39 13:00 9703 26 9705 12:00 12:08 12:22 12:33 12:36 12:47 13:01 13:09 13:30 9705 27 9702 12:30 12:38 12:52 13:03 13:06 13:17 13:31 13:39 14:00 9702 28 9703 13:00 13:08 13:22 13:33 13:36 13:47 14:01 14:09 14:30 9703 29 9705 13:30 13:38 13:52 14:03 14:06 14:17 14:31 14:39 15:00 9705 30 9702 14:00 14:08 14:22 14:33 14:36 14:47 15:01 15:09 15:15 9702 31 9703 14:30 14:38 14:52 15:03 15:06 15:17 15:31 15:39 15:45 9703 32 15:21 15:32 15:46 15:54 16:00 0 33 9705 15:00 15:08 15:22 15:33 15:36 15:47 16:01 16:09 16:15 9705 34 9702 15:15 15:23 15:37 15:48 15:51 16:02 16:16 16:24 16:30 9702 35 15:30 15:38 15:52 16:03 16:06 16:17 16:31 16:39 16:45 0 36 9703 15:45 15:53 16:07 16:18 16:21 16:32 16:46 16:54 17:00 9703 37 16:00 16:08 16:22 16:33 16:36 16:47 17:01 17:09 17:15 0 38 9705 16:15 16:23 16:37 16:48 16:51 17:02 17:16 17:24 17:30 9705 39 9702 16:30 16:38 16:52 17:03 17:06 17:17 17:31 17:39 17:45 9702 40 16:45 16:53 17:07 17:18 17:21 17:32 17:46 17:54 18:00 0 41 9703 17:00 17:08 17:22 17:33 17:36 17:47 18:01 18:09 9703 18:19 42 17:15 17:23 17:37 17:48 17:51 18:02 18:16 18:24 18:30 0 43 9705 17:30 17:38 17:52 18:03 18:06 18:17 18:31 18:39 19:00 9705 44 9702 17:45 17:53 18:07 18:18 9702 18:38 45 18:00 18:08 18:22 18:33 18:36 18:47 19:01 19:09 0 46 18:30 18:38 18:52 19:03 19:06 19:17 19:31 19:39 0 47 9705 19:00 19:08 19:22 19:33 9705 19:53 Eastbound Westbound base block A block that is in service during the AM peak, midday, the PM peak and possibly the evening. AM Block A block that is in service only during the AM peak period. PM block A block that is in service only during the PM peak period.

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-25 Level ͮ. Intermediate Blocking The blocking exercise is not quite complete: as you can see, several afternoon peak trips do not have a block assigned. As the headway changes from ͯͬ to ͭͱ minutes, the two added blocks used in the morning are needed again. These two peak blocks can be numbered as the same (Ͱ and ͱ), or in the PM may have new numbers (Ͳ and ͳ). That will often depend on agency naming requirements and data system needs. In this example, a diff erent block number is used for each pull-out. There are lots of block num- bering schemes in use at diff erent transit properties around the country, but this one is used here to keep this example as straightforward as possible. Add in these two new blocks, ͵ͳͬͲ and ͵ͳͬͳ. The fi nal headway sheet with the blocks entered is shown below. 1 Example Headway Sheet #2 2 ROUTE 97 Broad Street 3 DAY Weekday 4 5 Block # Pull Out A B C D D C B A Next Trip Block Pull In 6 9701 5:46 6:06 6:17 6:31 6:39 6:45 9701 7 9702 6:01 6:21 6:32 6:46 6:54 7:00 9702 8 9703 5:50 6:00 6:08 6:22 6:33 6:36 6:47 7:01 7:09 7:15 9703 9 9704 6:05 6:15 6:23 6:37 6:48 6:51 7:02 7:16 7:24 7:30 9704 10 9705 6:20 6:30 6:38 6:52 7:03 7:06 7:17 7:31 7:39 7:45 9705 11 9701 6:45 6:53 7:07 7:18 7:21 7:32 7:46 7:54 8:00 9701 12 9702 7:00 7:08 7:22 7:33 7:36 7:47 8:01 8:09 8:15 9702 13 9703 7:15 7:23 7:37 7:48 7:51 8:02 8:16 8:24 8:30 9703 14 9704 7:30 7:38 7:52 8:03 8:06 8:17 8:31 8:39 8:45 9704 15 9705 7:45 7:53 8:07 8:18 8:21 8:32 8:46 8:54 9:00 9705 16 9701 8:00 8:08 8:22 8:33 8:36 8:47 9:01 9:09 9701 9:19 17 9702 8:15 8:23 8:37 8:48 8:51 9:02 9:16 9:24 9:30 9702 18 9703 8:30 8:38 8:52 9:03 9:06 9:17 9:31 9:39 10:00 9703 19 9704 8:45 8:53 9:07 9:18 9704 9:38 20 9705 9:00 9:08 9:22 9:33 9:36 9:47 10:01 10:09 10:30 9705 21 9702 9:30 9:38 9:52 10:03 10:06 10:17 10:31 10:39 11:00 9702 22 9703 10:00 10:08 10:22 10:33 10:36 10:47 11:01 11:09 11:30 9703 23 9705 10:30 10:38 10:52 11:03 11:06 11:17 11:31 11:39 12:00 9705 24 9702 11:00 11:08 11:22 11:33 11:36 11:47 12:01 12:09 12:30 9702 25 9703 11:30 11:38 11:52 12:03 12:06 12:17 12:31 12:39 13:00 9703 26 9705 12:00 12:08 12:22 12:33 12:36 12:47 13:01 13:09 13:30 9705 27 9702 12:30 12:38 12:52 13:03 13:06 13:17 13:31 13:39 14:00 9702 28 9703 13:00 13:08 13:22 13:33 13:36 13:47 14:01 14:09 14:30 9703 29 9705 13:30 13:38 13:52 14:03 14:06 14:17 14:31 14:39 15:00 9705 30 9702 14:00 14:08 14:22 14:33 14:36 14:47 15:01 15:09 15:15 9702 31 9703 14:30 14:38 14:52 15:03 15:06 15:17 15:31 15:39 15:45 9703 32 9706 15:01 15:21 15:32 15:46 15:54 16:00 9706 33 9705 15:00 15:08 15:22 15:33 15:36 15:47 16:01 16:09 16:15 9705 34 9702 15:15 15:23 15:37 15:48 15:51 16:02 16:16 16:24 16:30 9702 35 9707 15:20 15:30 15:38 15:52 16:03 16:06 16:17 16:31 16:39 16:45 9707 36 9703 15:45 15:53 16:07 16:18 16:21 16:32 16:46 16:54 17:00 9703 37 9706 16:00 16:08 16:22 16:33 16:36 16:47 17:01 17:09 17:15 9706 38 9705 16:15 16:23 16:37 16:48 16:51 17:02 17:16 17:24 17:30 9705 39 9702 16:30 16:38 16:52 17:03 17:06 17:17 17:31 17:39 17:45 9702 40 9707 16:45 16:53 17:07 17:18 17:21 17:32 17:46 17:54 18:00 9707 41 9703 17:00 17:08 17:22 17:33 17:36 17:47 18:01 18:09 9703 18:19 42 9706 17:15 17:23 17:37 17:48 17:51 18:02 18:16 18:24 18:30 9706 43 9705 17:30 17:38 17:52 18:03 18:06 18:17 18:31 18:39 9705 44 9702 17:45 17:53 18:07 18:18 9702 18:38 45 9707 18:00 18:08 18:22 18:33 18:36 18:47 19:01 19:09 9707 19:19 46 9706 18:30 18:38 18:52 19:03 19:06 19:17 19:31 19:39 9706 19:49 47 9705 19:00 19:08 19:22 19:33 9705 19:53 Eastbound Westbound

Level ͮ. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-26 The fi nal blocking sheet for Route ͵ͳ is shown below. Blocking Sheet ROUTE 97 Broad Street Special Instructions: DAY Weekday 9 minutes peak, 24 minutes midday DATE Sep-08 available for layover per round trip OK to split between terminals Eastbound Westbound Depart Arrive Available Depart Arrive Available Western Eastern for next trip Eastern Western for next trip Block # Pull Out Trip # Terminal Terminal (arrival + Trip # Terminal Terminal (arrival + Pull In A D layover) D A layover) 9701 5:46 01 6:06 6:39 6:45 9701 02 6:45 7:18 7:21 03 7:21 7:54 8:00 9701 04 8:00 8:33 8:36 05 8:36 9:09 9:19 9702 6:01 01 6:21 6:54 7:00 9702 02 7:00 7:33 7:36 03 7:36 8:09 8:15 9702 04 8:15 8:48 8:51 05 8:51 9:24 9:30 9702 06 9:30 10:03 10:06 07 10:06 10:39 11:00 9702 08 11:00 11:33 11:36 09 11:36 12:09 12:30 9702 10 12:30 13:03 13:06 11 13:06 13:39 14:00 9702 12 14:00 14:33 14:36 13 14:36 15:09 15:15 9702 14 15:15 15:48 15:51 15 15:51 16:24 16:30 9702 16 16:30 17:03 17:06 17 17:06 17:39 17:45 9702 18 17:45 18:18 18:38 9703 5:50 01 6:00 6:33 6:36 02 6:36 7:09 7:15 9703 03 7:15 7:48 7:51 04 7:51 8:24 8:30 9703 05 8:30 9:03 9:06 06 9:06 9:39 10:00 9703 07 10:00 10:33 10:36 08 10:36 11:09 11:30 9703 09 11:30 12:03 12:06 10 12:06 12:39 13:00 9703 11 13:00 13:33 13:36 12 13:36 14:09 14:30 9703 13 14:30 15:03 15:06 14 15:06 15:39 15:45 9703 15 15:45 16:18 16:21 16 16:21 16:54 17:00 9703 17 17:00 17:33 17:36 18 17:36 18:09 18:19 9704 6:05 01 6:15 6:48 6:51 02 6:51 7:24 7:30 9704 03 7:30 8:03 8:06 04 8:06 8:39 8:45 9704 05 8:45 9:18 9:38 9705 6:20 01 6:30 7:03 7:06 02 7:06 7:39 7:45 9705 03 7:45 8:18 8:21 04 8:21 8:54 9:00 9705 05 9:00 9:33 9:36 06 9:36 10:09 10:30 9705 07 10:30 11:03 11:06 08 11:06 11:39 12:00 9705 09 12:00 12:33 12:36 10 12:36 13:09 13:30 9705 11 13:30 14:03 14:06 12 14:06 14:39 15:00 9705 13 15:00 15:33 15:36 14 15:36 16:09 16:15 9705 15 16:15 16:48 16:51 16 16:51 17:24 17:30 9705 17 17:30 18:03 18:06 18 18:06 18:39 19:00 9705 19 19:00 19:33 19:53 9706 15:01 01 15:21 15:54 16:00 9706 02 16:00 16:33 16:36 03 16:36 17:09 17:15 9706 04 17:15 17:48 17:51 05 17:51 18:24 18:30 9706 06 18:30 19:03 19:06 07 19:06 19:39 19:49 9707 15:20 01 15:30 16:03 16:06 02 16:06 16:39 16:45 9707 03 16:45 17:18 17:21 04 17:21 17:54 18:00 9707 05 18:00 18:33 18:36 06 18:36 19:09 19:19

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-27 Level ͮ. Intermediate Blocking With a computerized scheduling software package, the blocking could be undertaken auto- matically or hooked trip by trip. As with our simple blocking exercise, the use of a computer- ized scheduling package will make the blocking process easy and less prone to error. If we decided to allow some additional layover after the AM Peak, for example, by assigning the ͵:ͬ͵ arrival at A on Block ͵ͳͬͭ to the ͵:ͯͬ departure, this would almost certainly require hand inter- vention. The package will look to minimize hours in all cases (unless rules are created to force it to do otherwise), and thus the ͵:ͬ͵ trip will pull in and the ͵:ͮͰ will make the ͵:ͯͬ departure. The scheduling software package will have saved ͭͱ minutes and therefore have done what has been asked of it. Now that your blocking strategy is more complicated, you should proof your sheet by count- ing the respective pull-outs and pull-ins to make sure that all are accounted for—every bus that goes out needs to come back! In this example, there are seven pull-outs and seven pull-ins, and each trip has an associated block number. With seven pull-outs, the novice scheduler might conclude that this schedule requires seven buses. Not true! The number of pull-outs does not always equal the number of buses required. In this example, the same vehicle can be used for block ͵ͳͬͭ and ͵ͳͬͲ and the same vehicle can be used for block ͵ͳͬͰ and ͵ͳͬͳ. The potential for confusion is one reason why some agencies choose to keep the same block number for peak-only blocks in the AM and PM. As a rule, how- ever, computerized scheduling packages will not repeat a block number during the operating day unless programmed to do so. Is there a sure way of confi rming how many buses you need? Add the number of all-day blocks plus the number of AM only blocks to calculate the number of buses needed in the AM peak. Then add the number of all-day blocks plus the number of PM only blocks for the number of buses needed in the PM peak. Route ͵ͳ has three all-day blocks, two AM blocks, and two PM blocks, so you need fi ve buses for the AM peak and fi ve buses for the PM peak. Some routes may need more buses in the AM peak, because demand can be more highly con- centrated in the morning—everyone needs to get to work at the same time, but not everyone goes straight home from work in the afternoon, and school bell times in the morning coincide with the AM peak. Other routes may need more buses in the PM peak because running times are longer due to afternoon traffi c congestion. It is always a good idea to calculate the vehicles needed in both peak periods. Once the blocking is complete, you will need to revisit the Vehicle Hours & Mileage Summary table and the mileage calculation—here we assume this table needs manual input for some cells. Add the new blocks to the table along with their out and in times. Also replace the out and in times for the original blocks ͵ͳͬͭ through ͵ͳͬͯ, as they have changed. Following the

Level ͮ. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-28 convention noted above, we numbered the two new AM peak blocks ͵ͳͬͰ and ͵ͳͬͱ and con- tinued this series for the PM blocks, creating blocks ͵ͳͬͲ and ͵ͳͬͳ. The revised summary table is shown on page Ͱ-ͮͰ. Make sure you revise the totals for the schedule. Comparing this with the ͯͬ-minute service schedule, we have added ͭͯ:ͭͳ (Ͱͭ:ͭͰ versus ͱͰ:ͯͭ). Our estimate was for an additional ͭͰ hours, so we have fi nished very close to that estimate. The approximate result is one additional operator run and ¾ of a run, which probably will get combined with other work to become another operator requirement. The mileage matrix needs to be updated as the number of trips in each direction for each block has changed almost completely. So have most of the pull-out and pull-in directions. Depending on how your formulas are set up, this may simply be a matter of updating the “total trips” cell (which should then be automatically multiplied by the distance). Alternatively, if your sheet has a “count” function to count trips in each direction the mileage will have updated automatically. The revised mileage totals ͱͳͱ.ʹ, an increase of ͭ͵ͳ.ͮ over the ͯͳʹ.Ͳ of the original schedule. That is a somewhat over ͱͬ% increase in mileage for a doubling of peak hour service—pretty typical of what you would expect for this type of change. U V W X Y Z 1 2 3 4 Hours Summary 5 Block Garage Depart Garage Arrive Hours 6 1 5:46 9:19 3:33 7 2 6:01 18:38 12:37 8 3 5:50 18:19 12:29 9 4 6:05 9:38 3:33 10 5 6:20 19:53 13:33 11 6 15:01 19:49 4:48 12 7 15:20 19:19 3:59 13 Total 54:31 14 15 16 Mileage Summary 17 Block Eastbound Trips Westbound Trips Pull Trips - "A" Pull Trips - "D" Mileage 18 1 2 3 1 1 42.8 19 2 9 9 2 130.6 20 3 9 9 2 124.0 21 4 3 2 1 1 42.8 22 5 10 9 1 1 133.8 23 6 3 4 1 1 55.8 24 7 3 3 2 46.0 25 Total 39 39 8 6 575.8 26 27

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-29 Level ͮ. Intermediate Blocking Computerized packages will have automatically regenerated the statistics and reassigned block numbers (assuming you choose to) as soon as the schedule had been revised. Computer- ized packages can also generate the block graph shown below. Block 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A 10A 11A 12P 1P 2P 3P 4P 5P 6P 7P 8P 9701 9702 9703 9704 9705 9706 9707 620 546 601 550 605 1953 1949 1919 1501 1520 1838 1819 919 938 LEVEL 2A End of Intermediate Blocking, Part A Intermediate Blocking, Part B continues on the next page. To jump to Runcutting, go to page ͱ-ͭ.

Level ͮ. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-30 4.3 Blocking a More Complex Schedule In many transit systems, routes are not designed to operate with the same head- way and running times throughout the day. Most urban routes are designed with complexities that include multiple terminals for route branches, variable running times, headway variations, added trips related to school bell times, mid-route layover at a timed transfer location, and route interlining. Route ͵Ͳ-Pasco Avenue will be blocked in this section. The skills involved in blocking a more complex route are the same as the basic skills that have already been discussed for a simple route. Trips are hooked or linked together into vehicle as- signments based on the requirements for layover time and the goal of minimizing hours and vehicles. This is a good point to summarize some basic rules for blocking a complex route. It is not necessary to provide equal layover time at both ends of the route. The tar- get layover time is usually based on the round-trip running time. Generally it is a good idea to provide some layover time at each end of the route, since delays can occur in either direction. It is not necessary, however, especially in cases where there is mid- route layover time at a timed transfer location. In the previous Route ͵ͳ example, we provided layover time at both ends of the route, but during the midday the layover was three minutes at one end and ͮͭ minutes at the other. So, a corollary to this rule is that layover time does not have to be evenly distributed at both ends of the route. Some blocks are likely to operate only during peak periods, while other blocks will operate throughout the day. The Route ͵ͳ example above featured three all-day blocks, two AM blocks, and two PM blocks. When initially linking trips into blocks, trips are hooked until there is either too little layover time to comply with labor contract re- quirements or too much layover time compared to another hooking possibility. Some peak blocks may make only a single trip to augment peak-of-the-peak service or to add service during school peaks. Although such blocks may serve an important need, single-trip blocks are costly, especially when they require a dedicated peak vehicle. Interlining with another block is almost always desirable. Tracking trip assignments to blocks on the master schedule, as we did with Route ͵ͳ, reduces the chance of error. One of the more common mistakes involves the scheduler inadvertently missing single trips in the blocking thread. If not caught in time, this requires extensive reworking. Computerized scheduling software packages track trips and blocks automatically. • • • LEVEL 2B

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-31 Level ͮ. Intermediate Blocking Route variations are generally interlined only at common terminals. For example, departing Route ͵Ͳ trips in this section’s example from the common terminal at Rugby Circle may serve either branch. Trips that arrive at either of the “outer” or south termi- nals (Sand Point or Libby & Wishram) would leave from that terminal in revenue service, rather than deadheading from one terminal to the other. All trips do not have to start and end at one end of the route. Pull-out trips may start at a midpoint of the route close to the garage, and pull-in trips may end at a midpoint of the route. For a route with multiple terminals, it is advisable to make space for more than one terminal on the blocking sheet. It is very easy to introduce errors by cross blocking trips from one outer terminal to the other, especially when arrival or leave times at both terminals are similar. A recommended format designed to guard against this kind of mistake is shown later in this example. The easiest way to block interlined trips is to set up a sheet showing arrive and leave times of all routes at a particular terminal. From that sheet, trips are matched and the blocking process progresses to other terminals and other blocking opportuni- ties using another match-up sheet. An example of a “match-up” sheet is shown later in this section. The following pages include the Route ͵Ͳ map, the master schedule (headway sheet) for Route ͵Ͳ, and a sample blocking sheet form that displays multiple terminals. The fi rst step is to de- velop an initial set of blocks from the master schedule and record these on the blocking sheet form. • • • • match-up sheet A listing of all arrival and leave times of all routes at a particular terminal. This sheet simplifi es the process of interlining trips.

Level Í®. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-32 Min ot Libby Sand Point Wi sh ram Shelby Es sex Pasco Pasco Pasco Br oa dw ay Rugby Circle Wi llis ton Ha vre 96A 96 Route 96A- Pasco Ave. Time point Garage

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-33 Level Í®. Intermediate Blocking HE A D W A Y S HE E T Ro u te 96 IN EF F : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O NDAY T HRU F RIDAY P art 1 NO RTHB O UND S O UTHB O UND OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 4:10 4:20 4:28 4:35 4:43 4:53 5:05 0 3:45 4:05 4:18 4:26 4:33 4:41 4:50 4:58 5:05 5:13 5:23 5:35 0 4:55 5:05 5:13 5:20 5:28 5:37 5:49 0 4:15 4:35 4:48 4:56 5:03 5:11 5:20 5:29 5:37 5:47 5:57 6:05 0 4:39 4:59 5:08 5:16 5:23 5:31 5:35 5:44 5:52 6:02 6:12 6:19 0 5:05 5:19 5:29 5:37 5:46 5:50 5:59 6:07 6:17 6:27 6:45 0 4:59 5:19 5:29 5:39 5:47 5:56 6:05 6:14 6:22 6:32 6:42 6:57 0 5:35 5:49 5:59 6:07 6:16 6:20 6:29 6:37 6:47 6:57 7:05 0 5:49 5:59 6:09 6:17 6:26 6:35 6:44 6:52 7:02 7:12 7:17 0 6:05 6:19 6:29 6:37 6:46 6:50 7:01 7:10 7:21 7:32 7:45 0 6:19 6:29 6:39 6:47 6:56 7:05 7:16 7:25 7:36 7:46 7:57 0 6:05 6:25 6:39 6:50 6:59 7:10 7:15 7:26 7:35 7:46 7:57 8:05 0 6:17 6:37 6:49 7:00 7:09 7:20 7:25 7:36 7:45 7:56 8:06 8:23 0 6:45 6:59 7:10 7:19 7:30 7:35 7:46 7:55 8:06 8:17 8:35 0 6:57 7:09 7:20 7:29 7:40 7:45 7:56 8:05 8:16 8:26 0 8:46 7:05 7:19 7:30 7:39 7:50 7:55 8:06 8:15 8:26 8:37 9:05 0 7:17 7:29 7:40 7:49 8:00 8:05 8:16 8:25 8:36 8:46 8:53 0 7:05 7:25 7:39 7:50 7:59 8:10 8:15 8:26 8:35 8:46 8:57 0 9:17 7:17 7:37 7:49 8:00 8:09 8:20 8:25 8:36 8:45 8:56 9:06 9:23 0 7:45 7:59 8:10 8:19 8:30 8:35 8:46 8:55 9:06 9:17 9:35 0 7:57 8:09 8:20 8:29 8:40 8:45 8:56 9:05 9:16 9:26 0 9:46 8:05 8:19 8:30 8:39 8:50 8:55 9:06 9:15 9:26 9:37 0 9:57 8:23 8:34 8:44 8:52 9:02 9:07 9:18 9:27 9:38 9:48 9:53 0 8:35 8:48 8:58 9:06 9:16 9:22 9:31 9:38 9:48 9:59 10:05 0 8:53 9:04 9:14 9:21 9:31 9:37 9:46 9:53 10:03 10:13 10:23 0 9:05 9:18 9:28 9:35 9:44 9:52 10:01 10:08 10:18 10:29 10:35 0 9:23 9:33 9:43 9:50 9:59 10:07 10:16 10:23 10:33 10:43 10:53 0 9:35 9:48 9:58 10:05 10:14 10:22 10:31 10:38 10:48 10:59 11:05 0 9:53 10:03 10:13 10:20 10:29 10:37 10:46 10:53 11:03 11:13 11:23 0 10:05 10:18 10:28 10:35 10:44 10:52 11:01 11:08 11:18 11:29 11:35 0 10:23 10:33 10:43 10:50 10:59 11:07 11:16 11:23 11:33 11:43 11:53 0 10:35 10:48 10:58 11:05 11:14 11:22 11:31 11:38 11:48 11:59 12:05 0 10:53 11:03 11:13 11:20 11:29 11:37 11:46 11:53 12:03 12:13 12:23 0 11:05 11:18 11:28 11:35 11:44 11:52 12:01 12:08 12:18 12:29 12:35 0 11:23 11:33 11:43 11:50 11:59 12:07 12:16 12:23 12:33 12:43 12:53 0 11:35 11:48 11:58 12:05 12:14 12:22 12:31 12:38 12:48 12:59 13:05 0 11:53 12:03 12:13 12:20 12:29 12:37 12:46 12:53 13:03 13:13 13:23 0 12:05 12:18 12:28 12:35 12:44 12:52 13:01 13:08 13:18 13:29 13:35 0 12:23 12:33 12:43 12:50 12:59 13:07 13:16 13:23 13:33 13:43 13:53 0 12:35 12:48 12:58 13:05 13:14 13:22 13:31 13:38 13:48 13:59 14:05 0 12:53 13:03 13:13 13:20 13:29 13:35 13:45 13:52 14:03 14:13 14:23 0 13:05 13:18 13:28 13:35 13:44 13:50 14:00 14:07 14:18 14:29 14:35 0 13:23 13:33 13:43 13:50 13:59 14:05 14:15 14:22 14:33 14:43 14:53 0

Level Í®. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-34 HE A D W A Y S HE E T Ro u te 96 IN EF F : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O NDAY T HRU F RIDAY P art 1 NO RTHB O UND S O UTHB O UND OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 13:35 13:48 13:59 14:06 14:16 14:20 14:30 14:37 14:48 14:59 15:05 0 13:53 14:03 14:14 14:21 14:31 14:35 14:45 14:52 15:03 15:13 15:23 0 14:05 14:18 14:29 14:36 14:46 14:50 15:00 15:07 15:18 15:29 15:35 0 14:23 14:33 14:44 14:51 15:01 15:05 15:15 15:22 15:33 15:43 15:48 0 14:35 14:48 14:59 15:06 15:16 15:20 15:30 15:37 15:48 15:59 16:05 0 15:23 15:33 15:43 15:50 16:01 16:11 16:15 0 14:53 15:03 15:14 15:21 15:31 15:45 15:55 16:02 16:13 16:24 16:32 0 15:05 15:18 15:29 15:36 15:46 15:57 16:07 16:14 16:25 16:35 16:45 0 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:51 16:01 16:09 16:19 16:26 16:37 16:48 16:52 0 15:35 15:48 15:59 16:06 16:16 16:20 16:31 16:39 16:50 17:01 17:05 0 15:48 15:58 16:09 16:16 16:26 16:30 16:41 16:49 17:00 17:12 17:15 0 15:53 16:08 16:19 16:26 16:36 16:40 16:51 16:59 17:10 17:21 17:28 0 16:05 16:18 16:29 16:36 16:46 16:50 17:01 17:09 17:20 17:32 17:36 0 16:15 16:25 16:36 16:44 16:55 17:00 17:11 17:19 17:30 17:41 17:53 0 16:20 16:35 16:46 16:54 17:05 17:10 17:21 17:29 17:40 17:52 18:05 0 16:32 16:45 16:56 17:04 17:15 17:20 17:31 17:39 17:50 18:01 0 18:21 16:45 16:55 17:06 17:14 17:25 17:30 17:40 17:48 17:58 18:10 18:35 0 16:52 17:05 17:16 17:24 17:35 17:40 17:50 17:58 18:08 18:19 18:23 0 17:05 17:15 17:26 17:34 17:45 17:52 18:02 18:10 18:20 18:32 0 18:52 17:15 17:28 17:39 17:47 17:58 18:05 18:15 18:23 18:33 18:44 18:53 0 17:28 17:38 17:49 17:57 18:08 0 18:18 17:36 17:49 17:59 18:06 18:15 18:20 18:30 18:38 18:48 19:00 19:05 0 17:53 18:03 18:13 18:20 18:29 18:35 18:45 18:53 19:03 19:14 19:23 0 18:05 18:18 18:28 18:35 18:44 18:50 18:59 19:06 19:15 19:26 19:35 0 18:23 18:33 18:43 18:50 18:59 19:05 19:14 19:21 19:30 19:40 19:53 0 18:35 18:48 18:58 19:05 19:14 19:25 19:34 19:41 19:50 20:01 20:06 0 18:53 19:03 19:13 19:20 19:29 19:45 19:54 20:01 20:10 20:20 20:28 0 19:05 19:18 19:28 19:35 19:44 0 19:54 19:23 19:33 19:43 19:50 19:59 20:05 20:14 20:21 20:30 20:41 20:46 0 19:35 19:48 19:58 20:05 20:14 20:25 20:34 20:41 20:50 21:00 21:08 0 19:53 20:03 20:12 20:19 20:26 0 20:36 20:06 20:18 20:26 20:32 20:39 20:45 20:54 21:01 21:10 21:21 21:26 0 20:28 20:38 20:46 20:52 20:59 21:05 21:12 21:18 21:26 21:35 21:48 0 20:46 20:58 21:06 21:12 21:19 21:25 21:32 21:38 21:46 21:56 22:06 0 21:08 21:18 21:26 21:32 21:39 21:45 21:52 21:58 22:06 22:15 22:28 0 21:26 21:38 21:46 21:52 21:59 22:05 22:12 22:18 22:26 22:36 22:46 0 21:48 21:58 22:06 22:12 22:19 22:25 22:32 22:38 22:46 22:55 23:08 0 22:06 22:18 22:26 22:32 22:39 22:45 22:52 22:58 23:06 23:16 23:26 0 22:28 22:38 22:46 22:52 22:59 23:05 23:12 23:18 23:26 23:35 23:48 0 22:46 22:58 23:06 23:12 23:19 23:25 23:32 23:38 23:46 23:56 0:06 0 23:08 23:18 23:26 23:32 23:39 0 23:49 23:26 23:38 23:46 23:52 23:59 0:05 0:12 0:18 0:26 0:36 0 0:56 23:48 23:58 0:06 0:12 0:19 0 0:29 0:06 0:18 0:26 0:32 0:39 0 0:49

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-35 Level Í®. Intermediate Blocking Blocking Sheet - Multiple Terminals ROUTE Special Instructions: DAY DATE Eastbound Westbound Depart Depart Arrive Arrive Depart Depart Arrive Arrive Western Western Eastern Eastern Eastern Eastern Western Western Block # Pull Out Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Pull In 1 2 1 2 D D A A

Level ͮ. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-36 In blocking Route ͵Ͳ, we will use the convention of numbering the blocks in the order of pull-out from the garage. The headway sheet shows the fi rst pull-out at ͯ:Ͱͱ AM for a Ͱ:ͬͱ northbound trip from Libby/Wishram. Number this as block ͵Ͳͬͭ and assign this block to all subsequent hooked trips. The headway sheet below shows the fi rst few ͵Ͳͬͭ trips. Your fi lled- in headway sheet will show that the block will operate all day, with a fi nal trip northbound at ͬ:ͬͲ, returning to the garage at ͬ:Ͱ͵. HE AD W A Y S HE ET Rou te 96 IN EFF : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O NDAY THRU FRIDAY NO RTHB O UND S O UTHB O UND OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 4:10 4:20 4:28 4:35 4:43 4:53 5:05 0 9601 3:45 4:05 4:18 4:26 4:33 4:41 4:50 4:58 5:05 5:13 5:23 5:35 9601 4:55 5:05 5:13 5:20 5:28 5:37 5:49 0 4:15 4:35 4:48 4:56 5:03 5:11 5:20 5:29 5:37 5:47 5:57 6:05 0 4:39 4:59 5:08 5:16 5:23 5:31 5:35 5:44 5:52 6:02 6:12 6:19 0 5:05 5:19 5:29 5:37 5:46 5:50 5:59 6:07 6:17 6:27 6:45 0 4:59 5:19 5:29 5:39 5:47 5:56 6:05 6:14 6:22 6:32 6:42 6:57 0 9601 5:35 5:49 5:59 6:07 6:16 6:20 6:29 6:37 6:47 6:57 7:05 9601 5:49 5:59 6:09 6:17 6:26 6:35 6:44 6:52 7:02 7:12 7:17 0 6:05 6:19 6:29 6:37 6:46 6:50 7:01 7:10 7:21 7:32 7:45 0 6:19 6:29 6:39 6:47 6:56 7:05 7:16 7:25 7:36 7:46 7:57 0 6:05 6:25 6:39 6:50 6:59 7:10 7:15 7:26 7:35 7:46 7:57 8:05 0 6:17 6:37 6:49 7:00 7:09 7:20 7:25 7:36 7:45 7:56 8:06 8:23 0 6:45 6:59 7:10 7:19 7:30 7:35 7:46 7:55 8:06 8:17 8:35 0 6:57 7:09 7:20 7:29 7:40 7:45 7:56 8:05 8:16 8:26 0 8:46 9601 7:05 7:19 7:30 7:39 7:50 7:55 8:06 8:15 8:26 8:37 9:05 9601 The sample blocking sheet has been customized for Route ͵Ͳ, and the ͵Ͳͬͭ entries are shown below, including all the trips assigned to this block. If you use formulas (as recommended) in constructing the blocking sheet, you have already found that this sheet is diff erent from the blocking sheet in the Route ͵ͳ examples—the formulas change! This is because running time and layover time change throughout the day. You can also see that most but not all ͵Ͳͬͭ trips serve the Libby/Wishram terminal instead of the Sand Point terminal. Other blocks could have a more even distribution of trips between the

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-37 Level ͮ. Intermediate Blocking two terminals, or may have a pattern similar to ͵Ͳͬͭ. The paddle usually includes a reminder regarding the appropriate headsign to use for each trip. Finally, you will note that there are some long layovers in the schedule, particularly at times when headways are in transition. The trip arriving at Libby/Wishram at ʹ:ͯͳ has a ͮʹ-minute layover, while the trip arriving at ͭʹ:ͭͬ has a ͮͱ-minute layover. In cases where meal breaks are required, long layovers are often scheduled to accommodate these breaks. After we are done with blocking, we should review the blocks to see if there are better hooks. In terms of minimum layover, the ͭͯ:ͯͱ northbound trip has four minutes at one end and six minutes at the other end, meeting the minimum required layover of nine minutes per round trip. Blocking Sheet - Multiple Terminals ROUTE 96 Special Instructions: DAY Weekday Goal: 7-9 minutes minimum layover time per round trip DATE 7 minutes OK before 5:00/after 19:45 Northbound Southbound Depart Depart Arrive Depart Arrive Arrive Available Libby Sand Rugby Rugby Sand Libby for next trip Block # Pull Out Wishram Point Circle Circle Point Wishram (arrival + Pull In NB1 NB2 SB2 SB1 layover) 9601 3:45 4:05 4:41 4:50 5:23 5:35 5:35 6:16 6:20 6:57 7:05 7:05 7:50 7:55 8:37 9:05 9:05 9:44 9:52 10:29 10:35 10:35 11:14 11:22 11:59 12:05 12:05 12:44 12:52 13:29 13:35 13:35 14:16 14:20 14:59 15:05 15:05 15:46 15:57 16:35 16:45 16:45 17:25 17:30 18:10 18:35 18:35 19:14 19:25 20:01 20:06 20:06 20:39 20:45 21:21 21:26 21:26 21:59 22:05 22:36 22:46 22:46 23:19 23:25 23:56 0:06 0:06 0:39 0:49 15-Sep-07 paddle The drivers schedule for the day including all scheduled time points and notes or reminders to the operator.

Level ͮ. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-38 Next, add the second block. The next pull-out is at Ͱ:ͭͬ to Rugby Circle, so this will become Block ͵Ͳͬͮ. Block ͵Ͳͬͮ also provides all-day service, with a fi nal trip northbound at ͭ͵:ͬͱ, pull- ing in at ͭ͵:ͰͰ. The third block (͵Ͳͬͯ) pulls out at Ͱ:ͭͱ and is also an all-day block. Block ͵ͲͬͰ pulls out at Ͱ:ͯ͵. After adding these blocks, the headway sheet (showing early trips only) and blocking sheet appear as follows: HE AD W A Y S HE ET Rou te 96 IN EFF : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O NDAY THRU FRIDAY NO RTHB O UND S O UTHB O UND OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9602 4:10 4:20 4:28 4:35 4:43 4:53 5:05 9602 9601 3:45 4:05 4:18 4:26 4:33 4:41 4:50 4:58 5:05 5:13 5:23 5:35 9601 4:55 5:05 5:13 5:20 5:28 5:37 5:49 0 9603 4:15 4:35 4:48 4:56 5:03 5:11 5:20 5:29 5:37 5:47 5:57 6:05 9603 9604 4:39 4:59 5:08 5:16 5:23 5:31 5:35 5:44 5:52 6:02 6:12 6:19 9604 9602 5:05 5:19 5:29 5:37 5:46 5:50 5:59 6:07 6:17 6:27 6:45 9602 4:59 5:19 5:29 5:39 5:47 5:56 6:05 6:14 6:22 6:32 6:42 6:57 0 9601 5:35 5:49 5:59 6:07 6:16 6:20 6:29 6:37 6:47 6:57 7:05 9601 5:49 5:59 6:09 6:17 6:26 6:35 6:44 6:52 7:02 7:12 7:17 0 9603 6:05 6:19 6:29 6:37 6:46 6:50 7:01 7:10 7:21 7:32 7:45 9603 9604 6:19 6:29 6:39 6:47 6:56 7:05 7:16 7:25 7:36 7:46 7:57 9604 6:05 6:25 6:39 6:50 6:59 7:10 7:15 7:26 7:35 7:46 7:57 8:05 0 6:17 6:37 6:49 7:00 7:09 7:20 7:25 7:36 7:45 7:56 8:06 8:23 0 9602 6:45 6:59 7:10 7:19 7:30 7:35 7:46 7:55 8:06 8:17 8:35 9602 6:57 7:09 7:20 7:29 7:40 7:45 7:56 8:05 8:16 8:26 0 8:46 9601 7:05 7:19 7:30 7:39 7:50 7:55 8:06 8:15 8:26 8:37 9:05 9601 7:17 7:29 7:40 7:49 8:00 8:05 8:16 8:25 8:36 8:46 8:53 0 7:05 7:25 7:39 7:50 7:59 8:10 8:15 8:26 8:35 8:46 8:57 0 9:17 7:17 7:37 7:49 8:00 8:09 8:20 8:25 8:36 8:45 8:56 9:06 9:23 0 9603 7:45 7:59 8:10 8:19 8:30 8:35 8:46 8:55 9:06 9:17 9:35 9603 9604 7:57 8:09 8:20 8:29 8:40 8:45 8:56 9:05 9:16 9:26 9604 9:46 8:05 8:19 8:30 8:39 8:50 8:55 9:06 9:15 9:26 9:37 0 9:57 8:23 8:34 8:44 8:52 9:02 9:07 9:18 9:27 9:38 9:48 9:53 0 9602 8:35 8:48 8:58 9:06 9:16 9:22 9:31 9:38 9:48 9:59 10:05 9602

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-39 Level Í®. Intermediate Blocking Blocking Sheet - Multiple Terminals ROUTE 96 Special Instructions: DAY Weekday Goal: 7-9 minutes minimum layover time per round trip DATE 7 minutes OK before 5:00/after 19:45 Northbound Southbound Depart Depart Arrive Depart Arrive Arrive Available Libby Sand Rugby Rugby Sand Libby for next trip Block # Pull Out Wishram Point Circle Circle Point Wishram (arrival + Pull In NB1 NB2 SB2 SB1 layover) 9601 3:45 4:05 4:41 4:50 5:23 5:35 5:35 6:16 6:20 6:57 7:05 7:05 7:50 7:55 8:37 9:05 9:05 9:44 9:52 10:29 10:35 10:35 11:14 11:22 11:59 12:05 12:05 12:44 12:52 13:29 13:35 13:35 14:16 14:20 14:59 15:05 15:05 15:46 15:57 16:35 16:45 16:45 17:25 17:30 18:10 18:35 18:35 19:14 19:25 20:01 20:06 20:06 20:39 20:45 21:21 21:26 21:26 21:59 22:05 22:36 22:46 22:46 23:19 23:25 23:56 0:06 0:06 0:39 0:49 9602 4:10 4:20 4:53 5:05 5:05 5:46 5:50 6:27 6:45 6:45 7:30 7:35 8:17 8:35 8:35 9:16 9:22 9:59 10:05 10:05 10:44 10:52 11:29 11:35 11:35 12:14 12:22 12:59 13:05 13:05 13:44 13:50 14:29 14:35 14:35 15:16 15:20 15:59 16:05 16:05 16:46 16:50 17:32 17:36 17:36 18:15 18:20 19:00 19:05 19:05 19:44 19:54 9603 4:15 4:35 5:11 5:20 5:57 6:05 6:05 6:46 6:50 7:32 7:45 7:45 8:30 8:35 9:17 9:35 9:35 10:14 10:22 10:59 11:05 11:05 11:44 11:52 12:29 12:35 12:35 13:14 13:22 13:59 14:05 14:05 14:46 14:50 15:29 15:35 15:35 16:16 16:20 17:01 17:05 17:05 17:45 17:52 18:32 18:52 9604 4:39 4:59 5:31 5:35 6:12 6:19 6:19 6:56 7:05 7:46 7:57 7:57 8:40 8:45 9:26 9:46 15-Sep-07

Level ͮ. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-40 As the blocking process continues, you may notice the following: Blocks pull out to multiple locations. This was true even in our simple example in the basic blocking section. With two branches, the fi rst four blocks pull out to three diff er- ent locations to begin revenue service. As the process continues into the afternoon, some PM blocks will pull out to a mid-route location. Some blocks operate all day, while others operate in only one peak period. In the peak periods, layover time can approach or even drop below the minimum ͭͬ% level. The ͭͲ:ͬͱ round-trip on block ͵Ͳͬͮ and the ͭͱ:ͯͱ round trip on block ͵Ͳͬͯ have only eight minutes of layover time (four at each terminal). With a round-trip running time of ʹͮ minutes, the layover time rounds up to ͭͬ% and so may be acceptable. As noted previously, several agencies have work rules that allow slight “cheating” on lay- over times during peak periods. Note that in both cases, layover times before and after the round-trips in question are at least fi ve minutes. The fi nal blocking sheet and headway sheet for Route ͵Ͳ are shown below. All blocks are fi lled in on the blocking sheet, and each trip on the headway sheet is assigned to a block. • • •

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-41 Level Í®. Intermediate Blocking Blocking Sheet - Multiple Terminals ROUTE 96 Special Instructions: DAY Weekday Goal: 7-9 minutes minimum layover time per round trip DATE 7 minutes OK before 5:00/after 19:45 Northbound Southbound Depart Depart Arrive Depart Arrive Arrive Available Libby Sand Rugby Rugby Sand Libby for next trip Block # Pull Out Wishram Point Circle Circle Point Wishram (arrival + Pull In NB1 NB2 SB2 SB1 layover) 9601 3:45 4:05 4:41 4:50 5:23 5:35 5:35 6:16 6:20 6:57 7:05 7:05 7:50 7:55 8:37 9:05 9:05 9:44 9:52 10:29 10:35 10:35 11:14 11:22 11:59 12:05 12:05 12:44 12:52 13:29 13:35 13:35 14:16 14:20 14:59 15:05 15:05 15:46 15:57 16:35 16:45 16:45 17:25 17:30 18:10 18:35 18:35 19:14 19:25 20:01 20:06 20:06 20:39 20:45 21:21 21:26 21:26 21:59 22:05 22:36 22:46 22:46 23:19 23:25 23:56 0:06 0:06 0:39 0:49 9602 4:10 4:20 4:53 5:05 5:05 5:46 5:50 6:27 6:45 6:45 7:30 7:35 8:17 8:35 8:35 9:16 9:22 9:59 10:05 10:05 10:44 10:52 11:29 11:35 11:35 12:14 12:22 12:59 13:05 13:05 13:44 13:50 14:29 14:35 14:35 15:16 15:20 15:59 16:05 16:05 16:46 16:50 17:32 17:36 17:36 18:15 18:20 19:00 19:05 19:05 19:44 19:54 9603 4:15 4:35 5:11 5:20 5:57 6:05 6:05 6:46 6:50 7:32 7:45 7:45 8:30 8:35 9:17 9:35 9:35 10:14 10:22 10:59 11:05 11:05 11:44 11:52 12:29 12:35 12:35 13:14 13:22 13:59 14:05 14:05 14:46 14:50 15:29 15:35 15:35 16:16 16:20 17:01 17:05 17:05 17:45 17:52 18:32 18:52 9604 4:39 4:59 5:31 5:35 6:12 6:19 6:19 6:56 7:05 7:46 7:57 7:57 8:40 8:45 9:26 9:46 15-Sep-07

Level Í®. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-42 Blocking Sheet - Multiple Terminals ROUTE 96 Special Instructions: DAY Weekday Goal: 7-9 minutes minimum layover time per round trip DATE 7 minutes OK before 5:00/after 19:45 Northbound Southbound Depart Depart Depart Arrive Depart Arrive Arrive Available Libby Sand Pasco Rugby Rugby Sand Libby for next trip Block # Pull Out Wishram Point Essex Circle Circle Point Wishram (arrival + Pull In NB1 NB2 midroute SB2 SB1 layover) 9605 4:55 5:05 5:37 5:49 5:49 6:26 6:35 7:12 7:17 7:17 8:00 8:05 8:46 8:53 8:53 9:31 9:37 10:13 10:23 10:23 10:59 11:07 11:43 11:53 11:53 12:29 12:37 13:13 13:23 13:23 13:59 14:07 14:43 14:53 14:53 15:31 15:45 16:24 16:32 16:32 17:15 17:20 18:01 18:21 9606 4:59 5:19 5:56 6:05 6:42 6:57 6:57 7:40 7:45 8:26 8:46 9607 6:05 6:25 7:10 7:15 7:57 8:05 8:05 8:50 8:55 9:37 9:57 9608 6:17 6:37 7:20 7:25 8:06 8:23 8:23 9:02 9:07 9:48 9:53 9:53 10:29 10:37 11:13 11:23 11:23 11:59 12:07 12:43 12:53 12:53 13:29 13:35 14:13 14:23 14:23 15:01 15:05 15:43 15:48 15:48 16:26 16:30 17:12 17:15 17:15 17:58 18:05 18:44 18:53 18:53 19:29 19:45 20:20 20:28 20:28 20:59 21:05 21:35 21:48 21:48 22:19 22:25 22:55 23:08 23:08 23:39 23:49 9609 7:05 7:25 8:10 8:15 8:57 9:17 9610 7:17 7:37 8:20 8:25 9:06 9:23 9:23 9:59 10:07 10:43 10:53 10:53 11:29 11:37 12:13 12:23 12:23 12:59 13:07 13:43 13:53 13:53 14:31 14:35 15:13 15:23 15:23 16:01 16:09 16:48 16:52 16:52 17:35 17:40 18:19 18:23 18:23 18:59 19:05 19:40 19:53 19:53 20:26 20:36 15-Sep-07

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-43 Level Í®. Intermediate Blocking Blocking Sheet - Multiple Terminals ROUTE 96 Special Instructions: DAY Weekday Goal: 7-9 minutes minimum layover time per round trip DATE 7 minutes OK before 5:00/after 19:45 Northbound Southbound Depart Depart Depart Arrive Depart Arrive Arrive Available Libby Sand Pasco Rugby Rugby Sand Libby for next trip Block # Pull Out Wishram Point Essex Circle Circle Point Wishram (arrival + Pull In NB1 NB2 midroute SB2 SB1 layover) 9611 15:23 15:33 16:11 16:15 16:15 16:55 16:59 17:41 17:53 17:53 18:29 18:35 19:14 19:23 19:23 19:59 20:05 20:41 20:46 20:46 21:19 21:25 21:56 22:06 22:06 22:39 22:45 23:16 23:26 23:26 23:59 0:05 0:36 0:56 9612 15:53 16:08 16:36 16:40 17:21 17:28 17:28 18:08 18:18 9613 16:20 16:35 17:05 17:10 17:52 18:05 18:05 18:44 18:50 19:26 19:35 19:35 20:14 20:25 21:01 21:08 21:08 21:39 21:45 22:15 22:28 22:28 22:59 23:05 23:35 23:48 23:48 0:19 0:29 15-Sep-07

Level Í®. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-44 HE A D W A Y S HE E T Ro u te 96 IN EF F : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O NDAY T HRU F RIDAY NO RTHB O UND S O UTHB O UND OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9602 4:10 4:20 4:28 4:35 4:43 4:53 5:05 9602 9601 3:45 4:05 4:18 4:26 4:33 4:41 4:50 4:58 5:05 5:13 5:23 5:35 9601 9605 4:55 5:05 5:13 5:20 5:28 5:37 5:49 9605 9603 4:15 4:35 4:48 4:56 5:03 5:11 5:20 5:29 5:37 5:47 5:57 6:05 9603 9604 4:39 4:59 5:08 5:16 5:23 5:31 5:35 5:44 5:52 6:02 6:12 6:19 9604 9602 5:05 5:19 5:29 5:37 5:46 5:50 5:59 6:07 6:17 6:27 6:45 9602 9606 4:59 5:19 5:29 5:39 5:47 5:56 6:05 6:14 6:22 6:32 6:42 6:57 9606 9601 5:35 5:49 5:59 6:07 6:16 6:20 6:29 6:37 6:47 6:57 7:05 9601 9605 5:49 5:59 6:09 6:17 6:26 6:35 6:44 6:52 7:02 7:12 7:17 9605 9603 6:05 6:19 6:29 6:37 6:46 6:50 7:01 7:10 7:21 7:32 7:45 9603 9604 6:19 6:29 6:39 6:47 6:56 7:05 7:16 7:25 7:36 7:46 7:57 9604 9607 6:05 6:25 6:39 6:50 6:59 7:10 7:15 7:26 7:35 7:46 7:57 8:05 9607 9608 6:17 6:37 6:49 7:00 7:09 7:20 7:25 7:36 7:45 7:56 8:06 8:23 9608 9602 6:45 6:59 7:10 7:19 7:30 7:35 7:46 7:55 8:06 8:17 8:35 9602 9606 6:57 7:09 7:20 7:29 7:40 7:45 7:56 8:05 8:16 8:26 9606 8:46 9601 7:05 7:19 7:30 7:39 7:50 7:55 8:06 8:15 8:26 8:37 9:05 9601 9605 7:17 7:29 7:40 7:49 8:00 8:05 8:16 8:25 8:36 8:46 8:53 9605 9609 7:05 7:25 7:39 7:50 7:59 8:10 8:15 8:26 8:35 8:46 8:57 9609 9:17 9610 7:17 7:37 7:49 8:00 8:09 8:20 8:25 8:36 8:45 8:56 9:06 9:23 9610 9603 7:45 7:59 8:10 8:19 8:30 8:35 8:46 8:55 9:06 9:17 9:35 9603 9604 7:57 8:09 8:20 8:29 8:40 8:45 8:56 9:05 9:16 9:26 9604 9:46 9607 8:05 8:19 8:30 8:39 8:50 8:55 9:06 9:15 9:26 9:37 9607 9:57 9608 8:23 8:34 8:44 8:52 9:02 9:07 9:18 9:27 9:38 9:48 9:53 9608 9602 8:35 8:48 8:58 9:06 9:16 9:22 9:31 9:38 9:48 9:59 10:05 9602 9605 8:53 9:04 9:14 9:21 9:31 9:37 9:46 9:53 10:03 10:13 10:23 9605 9601 9:05 9:18 9:28 9:35 9:44 9:52 10:01 10:08 10:18 10:29 10:35 9601 9610 9:23 9:33 9:43 9:50 9:59 10:07 10:16 10:23 10:33 10:43 10:53 9610 9603 9:35 9:48 9:58 10:05 10:14 10:22 10:31 10:38 10:48 10:59 11:05 9603 9608 9:53 10:03 10:13 10:20 10:29 10:37 10:46 10:53 11:03 11:13 11:23 9608 9602 10:05 10:18 10:28 10:35 10:44 10:52 11:01 11:08 11:18 11:29 11:35 9602 9605 10:23 10:33 10:43 10:50 10:59 11:07 11:16 11:23 11:33 11:43 11:53 9605 9601 10:35 10:48 10:58 11:05 11:14 11:22 11:31 11:38 11:48 11:59 12:05 9601 9610 10:53 11:03 11:13 11:20 11:29 11:37 11:46 11:53 12:03 12:13 12:23 9610 9603 11:05 11:18 11:28 11:35 11:44 11:52 12:01 12:08 12:18 12:29 12:35 9603 9608 11:23 11:33 11:43 11:50 11:59 12:07 12:16 12:23 12:33 12:43 12:53 9608 9602 11:35 11:48 11:58 12:05 12:14 12:22 12:31 12:38 12:48 12:59 13:05 9602 9605 11:53 12:03 12:13 12:20 12:29 12:37 12:46 12:53 13:03 13:13 13:23 9605 9601 12:05 12:18 12:28 12:35 12:44 12:52 13:01 13:08 13:18 13:29 13:35 9601 9610 12:23 12:33 12:43 12:50 12:59 13:07 13:16 13:23 13:33 13:43 13:53 9610 9603 12:35 12:48 12:58 13:05 13:14 13:22 13:31 13:38 13:48 13:59 14:05 9603 9608 12:53 13:03 13:13 13:20 13:29 13:35 13:45 13:52 14:03 14:13 14:23 9608 9602 13:05 13:18 13:28 13:35 13:44 13:50 14:00 14:07 14:18 14:29 14:35 9602 9605 13:23 13:33 13:43 13:50 13:59 14:05 14:15 14:22 14:33 14:43 14:53 9605

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-45 Level Í®. Intermediate Blocking HE A D W A Y S HE E T Ro u te 96 IN EF F : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O NDAY T HRU F RIDAY NO RTHB O UND S O UTHB O UND OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9601 13:35 13:48 13:59 14:06 14:16 14:20 14:30 14:37 14:48 14:59 15:05 9601 9610 13:53 14:03 14:14 14:21 14:31 14:35 14:45 14:52 15:03 15:13 15:23 9610 9603 14:05 14:18 14:29 14:36 14:46 14:50 15:00 15:07 15:18 15:29 15:35 9603 9608 14:23 14:33 14:44 14:51 15:01 15:05 15:15 15:22 15:33 15:43 15:48 9608 9602 14:35 14:48 14:59 15:06 15:16 15:20 15:30 15:37 15:48 15:59 16:05 9602 9611 15:23 15:33 15:43 15:50 16:01 16:11 16:15 9611 9605 14:53 15:03 15:14 15:21 15:31 15:45 15:55 16:02 16:13 16:24 16:32 9605 9601 15:05 15:18 15:29 15:36 15:46 15:57 16:07 16:14 16:25 16:35 16:45 9601 9610 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:51 16:01 16:09 16:19 16:26 16:37 16:48 16:52 9610 9603 15:35 15:48 15:59 16:06 16:16 16:20 16:31 16:39 16:50 17:01 17:05 9603 9608 15:48 15:58 16:09 16:16 16:26 16:30 16:41 16:49 17:00 17:12 17:15 9608 9612 15:53 16:08 16:19 16:26 16:36 16:40 16:51 16:59 17:10 17:21 17:28 9612 9602 16:05 16:18 16:29 16:36 16:46 16:50 17:01 17:09 17:20 17:32 17:36 9602 9611 16:15 16:25 16:36 16:44 16:55 17:00 17:11 17:19 17:30 17:41 17:53 9611 9613 16:20 16:35 16:46 16:54 17:05 17:10 17:21 17:29 17:40 17:52 18:05 9613 9605 16:32 16:45 16:56 17:04 17:15 17:20 17:31 17:39 17:50 18:01 9605 18:21 9601 16:45 16:55 17:06 17:14 17:25 17:30 17:40 17:48 17:58 18:10 18:35 9601 9610 16:52 17:05 17:16 17:24 17:35 17:40 17:50 17:58 18:08 18:19 18:23 9610 9603 17:05 17:15 17:26 17:34 17:45 17:52 18:02 18:10 18:20 18:32 9603 18:52 9608 17:15 17:28 17:39 17:47 17:58 18:05 18:15 18:23 18:33 18:44 18:53 9608 9612 17:28 17:38 17:49 17:57 18:08 9612 18:18 9602 17:36 17:49 17:59 18:06 18:15 18:20 18:30 18:38 18:48 19:00 19:05 9602 9611 17:53 18:03 18:13 18:20 18:29 18:35 18:45 18:53 19:03 19:14 19:23 9611 9613 18:05 18:18 18:28 18:35 18:44 18:50 18:59 19:06 19:15 19:26 19:35 9613 9610 18:23 18:33 18:43 18:50 18:59 19:05 19:14 19:21 19:30 19:40 19:53 9610 9601 18:35 18:48 18:58 19:05 19:14 19:25 19:34 19:41 19:50 20:01 20:06 9601 9608 18:53 19:03 19:13 19:20 19:29 19:45 19:54 20:01 20:10 20:20 20:28 9608 9602 19:05 19:18 19:28 19:35 19:44 9602 19:54 9611 19:23 19:33 19:43 19:50 19:59 20:05 20:14 20:21 20:30 20:41 20:46 9611 9613 19:35 19:48 19:58 20:05 20:14 20:25 20:34 20:41 20:50 21:00 21:08 9613 9610 19:53 20:03 20:12 20:19 20:26 9610 20:36 9601 20:06 20:18 20:26 20:32 20:39 20:45 20:54 21:01 21:10 21:21 21:26 9601 9608 20:28 20:38 20:46 20:52 20:59 21:05 21:12 21:18 21:26 21:35 21:48 9608 9611 20:46 20:58 21:06 21:12 21:19 21:25 21:32 21:38 21:46 21:56 22:06 9611 9613 21:08 21:18 21:26 21:32 21:39 21:45 21:52 21:58 22:06 22:15 22:28 9613 9601 21:26 21:38 21:46 21:52 21:59 22:05 22:12 22:18 22:26 22:36 22:46 9601 9608 21:48 21:58 22:06 22:12 22:19 22:25 22:32 22:38 22:46 22:55 23:08 9608 9611 22:06 22:18 22:26 22:32 22:39 22:45 22:52 22:58 23:06 23:16 23:26 9611 9613 22:28 22:38 22:46 22:52 22:59 23:05 23:12 23:18 23:26 23:35 23:48 9613 9601 22:46 22:58 23:06 23:12 23:19 23:25 23:32 23:38 23:46 23:56 0:06 9601 9608 23:08 23:18 23:26 23:32 23:39 9608 23:49 9611 23:26 23:38 23:46 23:52 23:59 0:05 0:12 0:18 0:26 0:36 9611 0:56 9613 23:48 23:58 0:06 0:12 0:19 9613 0:29 9601 0:06 0:18 0:26 0:32 0:39 9601 0:49

Level ͮ. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-46 The vehicle hours and mileage summary tables for Route ͵Ͳ are presented below. The mileage summary table is more complex because of the multiple trip patterns and multiple locations where pull-outs begin service and pull-ins end service. Hours Summary B loc k G arage Depart G arage A rrive P lat form Hours 9601 3:45 24:49 21:04 9602 4:10 19:54 15:44 9603 4:15 18:52 14:37 9604 4:39 9:46 5:07 9605 4:55 18:21 13:26 9606 4:59 8:46 3:47 9607 6:05 9:57 3:52 9608 6:17 23:49 17:32 9609 7:05 9:17 2:12 9610 7:17 20:36 13:19 9611 15:23 0:56 9:33 9612 15:53 18:18 2:25 9613 16:20 0:29 8:09 Total 130:47 Mileage Summary B loc k 96 NB Trips 96A NB Trips 96 NB Trips from E s s ex 96 S B Trips 96A S B Trips P ull Trips Libby /W is hram P ull Trips S and P oint P ull Trips P as c o E s s ex P ull Trips Rugby C irc le M ileage 9601 13 1 12 1 1 1 215.8 9602 10 10 2 160.0 9603 8 1 8 1 2 149.2 9604 3 3 2 54.0 9605 1 7 1 8 1 1 131.7 9606 2 2 2 39.6 9607 2 2 2 41.8 9608 1 11 1 10 1 1 175.0 9609 1 1 2 26.3 9610 1 8 1 7 1 1 131.7 9611 3 3 4 3 1 1 105.7 9612 1 1 1 1 1 25.6 9613 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 85.4 Total 42 40 2 42 39 8 7 2 9 1341.7 full-time operator An operator available to work full-time runs and eligible to receive full benefi ts. A full-time operator is usually guaranteed 40 hours of work per week. Typically, full-time operators can select either a full-time run or a split run, or can choose to work on the extraboard. part-time operator An operator who works less than 40 hours a week. The maximum number of hours that a part-time operator can work per week is often specifi ed in the contract. A part- time operator may not receive the full benefi ts of a full-time operator, and may be paid at a lower wage rate. work hours The total hours worked by an operator, not including fringe benefi t hours such as sick leave, holiday, etc. Work hours include only labor hours associated with the require- ments of putting the runs in service and operating the service. make-up time Time added to an operator’s work hours to bring the total up to the guaranteed minimum (usually eight hours per day or 40 hours per week). Full-time operators often have an eight-hour guarantee, even if their runs are short of eight hours.

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-47 Level ͮ. Intermediate Blocking Evaluating the Block There is no single answer to how to “block” a schedule. One thing is always true—how well the blocks are cut will have a direct impact on how effi ciently the driver schedules, or runs, can be built—and that translates directly to how much your service will cost. Some things you should look for in a well-designed blocking scheme: Blocks between fi ve and six hours are generally less desirable because they are not long enough to make a single work piece without signifi cant “make-up time” and do not work well in split runs without resulting in considerable overtime. Look for blocks that are four hours or less or seven plus hours. For longer blocks, look at options that break the longer block into reasonable pieces. Avoid odd-sized blocks (ͭͯ to ͭͱ hours). Avoid short PM blocks that fi nish at ͮͬ:ͬͬ to ͮͮ:ͬͬ. These are diffi cult to combine with anything else. Evaluating the blocks for effi cient runcutting is an example of how all elements of scheduling are interconnected. To facilitate this evaluation, block graphs are extremely useful. Block Graphs A graph of the initial Route ͵Ͳ blocks is shown below. This block graph displays platform hours for each block. A number of observations can be made about this block graph: There is one block (͵ͲͬͰ at ͱ:ͬͳ) in the fi ve-hour to six-hour range. This is on the low side of the range, so it may or may not be a problem. Blocks ͵Ͳͬ͵ and ͵Ͳͭͮ are very small pieces of work. It may be possible to combine these blocks with longer blocks to create a reasonable work assignment, but reblocking to lengthen these blocks would be preferable, if possible. There are no short PM blocks that fi nish after ͮͬ:ͬͬ. The longer blocks appear to lend themselves to various cutting options, given various possible on-street relief locations. The next step is to evaluate ways to “straighten” the blocks, i.e., reblock some of the trips to ensure eff ective utilization of resources. • • • • • • block straightening This is the procedure of looking at blocks once the blocking process is fi nished and rehooking block beginnings or ends to yield blocks that will be more effi cient in the runcut process. For instance, a block that is 14 hours long might be extended by swapping next trips with another block to extend to 16 hours, which would offer a better runcutting potential. on-street relief The process where, at a specifi c time during a specifi c trip on a block, one operator’s run ends and another operator’s run begins. The relief may occur at a terminal or at a designated point along the route (possibly close to the garage). On-street relief is used to minimize pull-out and pull-in miles and hours. Operators are usually paid travel time for travel between the garage and the relief point. Reliefs may also occur at the garage; these are known as “garage reliefs.” relief location A designated point on a route where operators or crews may be scheduled to begin or end their run or a piece of their run. This can include the garage/base station itself.

Level Í®. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-48 P latform B loc k 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A 10A 11A 12P 1P 2P 3P 4P 5P 6P 7P 8P 9P 10P 11P 12A Hours 345 2449 9601 21:04 410 1954 9602 15:44 415 1852 9603 14:37 439 946 9604 5:07 455 1821 9605 13:26 459 846 9606 3:47 605 957 9607 3:52 617 2349 9608 17:32 705 917 9609 2:12 717 2036 9610 13:19 1523 2456 9611 9:33 1553 1818 9612 2:25 1620 2429 9613 8:09

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-49 Level ͮ. Intermediate Blocking Reblocking Blocks 9601 and 9609 Block ͵Ͳͬ͵ is very short, and reblocking to lengthen this block would be preferable. To identify opportunities to do so, take a very close look at trips around the time that Block ͵Ͳͬ͵ pulls in. Are there any reblocking possibilities? What if the southbound ʹ:ͭͱ AM trip, the last trip in Block ͵Ͳͬ͵, were hooked with the ͵:ͬͱ AM trip departing from Libby/Wishram? Currently this trip is hooked with an earlier trip on Block ͵Ͳͬͭ. There is no problem with layover—there would be eight minutes of layover on Block ͵Ͳͬ͵, which meets the minimum requirement and is ͮͬ minutes less than currently scheduled on Block ͵Ͳͬͭ. This change is shown on the headway sheet below. HE A D W A Y S HE E T Rou te 96 IN EFF : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O NDAY THRU FRIDAY NO RTHB O UND S O UTHB O UND OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9601 7:05 7:19 7:30 7:39 7:50 7:55 8:06 8:15 8:26 8:37 9601 8:57 9605 7:17 7:29 7:40 7:49 8:00 8:05 8:16 8:25 8:36 8:46 8:53 9605 9609 7:05 7:25 7:39 7:50 7:59 8:10 8:15 8:26 8:35 8:46 8:57 9:05 9609 The following changes result: An eight-minute layover is now scheduled on revised Block ͵Ͳͬ͵, compared to a ͮʹ- minute layover on Block ͵Ͳͬͭ before this change. Block ͵Ͳͬͭ now pulls in at ʹ:ͱͳ AM. This could be a problem if the union contract calls for all early pull-outs to be an early straight run, but for now the block will pull in at ʹ:ͱͳ AM. Replacing all Block ͵Ͳͬͭ trips with revised Block ͵Ͳͬ͵ at ͵:ͬͱ AM and afterward pro- vides a new pull-in time for Block ͵Ͳͬ͵ at ͭͮ:Ͱ͵ AM. Revised Block ͵Ͳͬͭ is now an AM block with Ͱ:ͯͮ platform hours. Revised Block ͵Ͳͬ͵ is now an all-day block with ͭͳ:ͭͰ platform hours. Total platform hours are decreased by ͮͬ minutes from ͭͯͬ:Ͱͳ to ͭͯͬ:ͮͳ. This adjustment appears to be appropriate and is refl ected in the revised block graph. There is a savings of ͮͬ minutes as a result of this change. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Level Í®. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-50 P latform B loc k 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A 10A 11A 12P 1P 2P 3P 4P 5P 6P 7P 8P 9P 10P 11P 12A Hours 9601 old 345 857 2449 21:04 9601 new 5:12 410 1954 9602 15:44 415 1852 9603 14:37 439 946 9604 5:07 455 1821 9605 13:26 459 846 9606 3:47 605 957 9607 3:52 617 2349 9608 17:32 9609 old 705 917 2449 2:12 9609 new 17:44 717 2036 9610 13:19 1523 2456 9611 9:33 1553 1818 9612 2:25 1620 2429 9613 8:09

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-51 Level ͮ. Intermediate Blocking swing time The elapsed time (usually unpaid) between the pieces of a split run. If swing time is paid, it is sometimes called “inside time.” Block ͵Ͳͭͮ is still troubling because it is only ͮ:ͬͬ in length. This could be an afternoon piece of a split run, but it could involve excessive swing time. Is there anything that could be changed? Study the afternoon portion of the headway sheet on the next page. Block ͵Ͳͭͮ pulls out at ͭͱ:ͱͯ to a mid-route location at Pasco & Essex. In the previous reblocking example, we found a diff erent way to hook trips together that actually reduced platform hours. The trips around the fi rst trip on ͵Ͳͭͮ do not off er a similar opportunity. HE A D W A Y S HE E T Ro u te 96 IN EF F : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O NDAY T HRU F RIDAY NO RTHB O UND S O UTHB O UND OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9601 13:35 13:48 13:59 14:06 14:16 14:20 14:30 14:37 14:48 14:59 15:05 9601 9610 13:53 14:03 14:14 14:21 14:31 14:35 14:45 14:52 15:03 15:13 15:23 9610 9603 14:05 14:18 14:29 14:36 14:46 14:50 15:00 15:07 15:18 15:29 15:35 9603 9608 14:23 14:33 14:44 14:51 15:01 15:05 15:15 15:22 15:33 15:43 15:48 9608 9602 14:35 14:48 14:59 15:06 15:16 15:20 15:30 15:37 15:48 15:59 16:05 9602 9611 15:23 15:33 15:43 15:50 16:01 16:11 16:15 9611 9605 14:53 15:03 15:14 15:21 15:31 15:45 15:55 16:02 16:13 16:24 16:32 9605 9601 15:05 15:18 15:29 15:36 15:46 15:57 16:07 16:14 16:25 16:35 16:45 9601 9610 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:51 16:01 16:09 16:19 16:26 16:37 16:48 16:52 9610 9603 15:35 15:48 15:59 16:06 16:16 16:20 16:31 16:39 16:50 17:01 17:05 9603 9608 15:48 15:58 16:09 16:16 16:26 16:30 16:41 16:49 17:00 17:12 17:15 9608 9612 15:53 16:08 16:19 16:26 16:36 16:40 16:51 16:59 17:10 17:21 17:28 9612 9602 16:05 16:18 16:29 16:36 16:46 16:50 17:01 17:09 17:20 17:32 17:36 9602 9611 16:15 16:25 16:36 16:44 16:55 17:00 17:11 17:19 17:30 17:41 17:53 9611 9613 16:20 16:35 16:46 16:54 17:05 17:10 17:21 17:29 17:40 17:52 18:05 9613 9605 16:32 16:45 16:56 17:04 17:15 17:20 17:31 17:39 17:50 18:01 9605 18:21 9601 16:45 16:55 17:06 17:14 17:25 17:30 17:40 17:48 17:58 18:10 18:35 9601 9610 16:52 17:05 17:16 17:24 17:35 17:40 17:50 17:58 18:08 18:19 18:23 9610 9603 17:05 17:15 17:26 17:34 17:45 17:52 18:02 18:10 18:20 18:32 9603 18:52 9608 17:15 17:28 17:39 17:47 17:58 18:05 18:15 18:23 18:33 18:44 18:53 9608 9612 17:28 17:38 17:49 17:57 18:08 9612 18:18 9602 17:36 17:49 17:59 18:06 18:15 18:20 18:30 18:38 18:48 19:00 19:05 9602 9611 17:53 18:03 18:13 18:20 18:29 18:35 18:45 18:53 19:03 19:14 19:23 9611 9613 18:05 18:18 18:28 18:35 18:44 18:50 18:59 19:06 19:15 19:26 19:35 9613 9610 18:23 18:33 18:43 18:50 18:59 19:05 19:14 19:21 19:30 19:40 19:53 9610 9601 18:35 18:48 18:58 19:05 19:14 19:25 19:34 19:41 19:50 20:01 20:06 9601 9608 18:53 19:03 19:13 19:20 19:29 19:45 19:54 20:01 20:10 20:20 20:28 9608 9602 19:05 19:18 19:28 19:35 19:44 9602 19:54 9611 19:23 19:33 19:43 19:50 19:59 20:05 20:14 20:21 20:30 20:41 20:46 9611 9613 19:35 19:48 19:58 20:05 20:14 20:25 20:34 20:41 20:50 21:00 21:08 9613 9610 19:53 20:03 20:12 20:19 20:26 9610 20:36 9601 20:06 20:18 20:26 20:32 20:39 20:45 20:54 21:01 21:10 21:21 21:26 9601 9608 20:28 20:38 20:46 20:52 20:59 21:05 21:12 21:18 21:26 21:35 21:48 9608 9611 20:46 20:58 21:06 21:12 21:19 21:25 21:32 21:38 21:46 21:56 22:06 9611 9613 21:08 21:18 21:26 21:32 21:39 21:45 21:52 21:58 22:06 22:15 22:28 9613 9601 21:26 21:38 21:46 21:52 21:59 22:05 22:12 22:18 22:26 22:36 22:46 9601 9608 21:48 21:58 22:06 22:12 22:19 22:25 22:32 22:38 22:46 22:55 23:08 9608 9611 22:06 22:18 22:26 22:32 22:39 22:45 22:52 22:58 23:06 23:16 23:26 9611 9613 22:28 22:38 22:46 22:52 22:59 23:05 23:12 23:18 23:26 23:35 23:48 9613 9601 22:46 22:58 23:06 23:12 23:19 23:25 23:32 23:38 23:46 23:56 0:06 9601 9608 23:08 23:18 23:26 23:32 23:39 9608 23:49 9611 23:26 23:38 23:46 23:52 23:59 0:05 0:12 0:18 0:26 0:36 9611 0:56 9613 23:48 23:58 0:06 0:12 0:19 9613 0:29 9601 0:06 0:18 0:26 0:32 0:39 9601 0:49

Level ͮ. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-52 What if block ͵Ͳͭͮ pulled out ͭͬ minutes earlier and covered the preceding trip now served by block ͵Ͳͬʹ? Block ͵Ͳͬʹ would then have an additional ͭͬ minutes layover time for the trip ending at Sand Point at ͭͱ:Ͱͯ, and would begin its next northbound trip at ͭͱ:ͱʹ, covering the trip now served by block ͵Ͳͭͮ. This change is highlighted below. HE A D W A Y S HE E T Rou te 96 IN EFF : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O NDAY THRU FRIDAY NO RTHB O UND S O UTHB O UND OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9608 14:23 14:33 14:44 14:51 15:01 15:05 15:15 15:22 15:33 15:43 15:58 9608 9602 14:35 14:48 14:59 15:06 15:16 15:20 15:30 15:37 15:48 15:59 16:05 9602 9611 15:23 15:33 15:43 15:50 16:01 16:11 16:15 9611 9605 14:53 15:03 15:14 15:21 15:31 15:45 15:55 16:02 16:13 16:24 16:32 9605 9609 15:05 15:18 15:29 15:36 15:46 15:57 16:07 16:14 16:25 16:35 16:45 9609 9610 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:51 16:01 16:09 16:19 16:26 16:37 16:48 16:52 9610 9603 15:35 15:48 15:59 16:06 16:16 16:20 16:31 16:39 16:50 17:01 17:05 9603 9612 15:43 15:58 16:09 16:16 16:26 16:30 16:41 16:49 17:00 17:12 17:15 9612 9608 15:58 16:08 16:19 16:26 16:36 16:40 16:51 16:59 17:10 17:21 17:28 9608 The following changes result: A ͭͱ-minute layover is now scheduled on revised Block ͵Ͳͬʹ, compared to a fi ve-min- ute layover before this change. Block ͵Ͳͭͮ now pulls out at ͭͱ:Ͱͯ instead of ͭͱ:ͱͯ. The pattern of trip departures at Sand Point is altered, with a ͭͱ:ͱʹ departure replacing the former ͭͱ:Ͱʹ departure. The next departure (not shown above) is at ͭͲ:ͭͱ, resulting in an uneven headway. Replacing all Block ͵Ͳͬʹ trips after ͭͱ:Ͱͯ with revised Block ͵Ͳͭͮ provides a new pull-in time for Block ͵Ͳͬʹ at ͭʹ:ͭʹ. Revised Block ͵Ͳͭͮ is now a PM block with ͳ:Ͱͭ platform hours, as shown on the block graph below. Revised Block ͵Ͳͬʹ is now an all-day block with ͭͭ:ͯͭ platform hours, as shown below. Total platform hours are increased by ͭͬ minutes from ͭͯͬ:ͮͳ to ͭͯͬ:ͯͳ. The block graph on the next page shows both the ͵Ͳͬͭ and ͵Ͳͬ͵ swap and the ͵Ͳͬʹ and ͵Ͳͭͮ swap. These changes appear to be reasonable, and are included in the fi nal headway and blocking sheets. There are still a few blocks of less than optimal length (i.e., between fi ve 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Blocks that are close to eight hours or 16 hours are most effi cient for runcutting. Very short blocks, less than 6 hours long are candidates for reblocking. Tip

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-53 Level ͮ. Intermediate Blocking and six hours and between ͭͯ and ͭͱ hours). Attempts to re-size these blocks have resulted in unwarranted increases in platform hours, so for now we will leave these for further evaluation during the runcutting phase. The fi nal vehicle hours and mileage summary tables are also shown. P la t fo rm B loc k 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A 10 A 11 A 12 P 1P 2P 3P 4P 5P 6P 7P 8P 9P 10 P 11 P 12 A H ou rs 9601 o ld 34 5 85 7 244 9 21 :04 9601 ne w 5 :12 41 0 195 4 960 2 15 :44 41 5 185 2 960 3 14 :37 43 9 94 6 960 4 5 :07 45 5 182 1 960 5 13 :26 45 9 84 6 960 6 3 :47 60 5 95 7 960 7 3 :52 9608 o ld 61 7 181 8 234 9 17 :02 9608 ne w 12 :01 9609 o ld 70 5 91 7 244 9 2 :12 9609 ne w 17 :44 71 7 203 6 961 0 13 :19 152 3 245 6 961 1 9 :33 9612 o ld 155 3 181 8 1139 P 2 :25 9612 ne w 154 3 8 :06 162 0 242 9 961 3 8 :09

Level Í®. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-54 Blocking Sheet - Multiple Terminals ROUTE 96 Special Instructions: DAY Weekday Goal: 7-9 minutes minimum layover time per round trip DATE 7 minutes OK before 5:00/after 19:45 Northbound Southbound Depart Depart Depart Arrive Depart Arrive Arrive Available Libby Sand Pasco Rugby Rugby Sand Libby for next trip Block # Pull Out Wishram Point Essex Circle Circle Point Wishram (arrival + Pull In NB1 NB2 midroute SB2 SB1 layover) 9601 3:45 4:05 4:41 4:50 5:23 5:35 5:35 6:16 6:20 6:57 7:05 7:05 7:50 7:55 8:37 8:57 9602 4:10 4:20 4:53 5:05 5:05 5:46 5:50 6:27 6:45 6:45 7:30 7:35 8:17 8:35 8:35 9:16 9:22 9:59 10:05 10:05 10:44 10:52 11:29 11:35 11:35 12:14 12:22 12:59 13:05 13:05 13:44 13:50 14:29 14:35 14:35 15:16 15:20 15:59 16:05 16:05 16:46 16:50 17:32 17:36 17:36 18:15 18:20 19:00 19:05 19:05 19:44 19:54 9603 4:15 4:35 5:11 5:20 5:57 6:05 6:05 6:46 6:50 7:32 7:45 7:45 8:30 8:35 9:17 9:35 9:35 10:14 10:22 10:59 11:05 11:05 11:44 11:52 12:29 12:35 12:35 13:14 13:22 13:59 14:05 14:05 14:46 14:50 15:29 15:35 15:35 16:16 16:20 17:01 17:05 17:05 17:45 17:52 18:32 18:52 9604 4:39 4:59 5:31 5:35 6:12 6:19 6:19 6:56 7:05 7:46 7:57 7:57 8:40 8:45 9:26 9:46 15-Sep-07

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-55 Level Í®. Intermediate Blocking Blocking Sheet - Multiple Terminals ROUTE 96 Special Instructions: DAY Weekday Goal: 7-9 minutes minimum layover time per round trip DATE 7 minutes OK before 5:00/after 19:45 Northbound Southbound Depart Depart Depart Arrive Depart Arrive Arrive Available Libby Sand Pasco Rugby Rugby Sand Libby for next trip Block # Pull Out Wishram Point Essex Circle Circle Point Wishram (arrival + Pull In NB1 NB2 midroute SB2 SB1 layover) 9605 4:55 5:05 5:37 5:49 5:49 6:26 6:35 7:12 7:17 7:17 8:00 8:05 8:46 8:53 8:53 9:31 9:37 10:13 10:23 10:23 10:59 11:07 11:43 11:53 11:53 12:29 12:37 13:13 13:23 13:23 13:59 14:07 14:43 14:53 14:53 15:31 15:45 16:24 16:32 16:32 17:15 17:20 18:01 18:21 9606 4:59 5:19 5:56 6:05 6:42 6:57 6:57 7:40 7:45 8:26 8:46 9607 6:05 6:25 7:10 7:15 7:57 8:05 8:05 8:50 8:55 9:37 9:57 9608 6:17 6:37 7:20 7:25 8:06 8:23 8:23 9:02 9:07 9:48 9:53 9:53 10:29 10:37 11:13 11:23 11:23 11:59 12:07 12:43 12:53 12:53 13:29 13:35 14:13 14:23 14:23 15:01 15:05 15:43 15:58 15:58 16:36 16:40 17:21 17:28 17:28 18:08 18:18 9609 7:05 7:25 8:10 8:15 8:57 9:05 9:05 9:44 9:52 10:29 10:35 10:35 11:14 11:22 11:59 12:05 12:05 12:44 12:52 13:29 13:35 13:35 14:16 14:20 14:59 15:05 15:05 15:46 15:57 16:35 16:45 16:45 17:25 17:30 18:10 18:35 18:35 19:14 19:25 20:01 20:06 20:06 20:39 20:45 21:21 21:26 21:26 21:59 22:05 22:36 22:46 22:46 23:19 23:25 23:56 0:06 0:06 0:39 0:49 15-Sep-07

Level Í®. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-56 Blocking Sheet - Multiple Terminals ROUTE 96 Special Instructions: DAY Weekday Goal: 7-9 minutes minimum layover time per round trip DATE 7 minutes OK before 5:00/after 19:45 Northbound Southbound Depart Depart Depart Arrive Depart Arrive Arrive Available Libby Sand Pasco Rugby Rugby Sand Libby for next trip Block # Pull Out Wishram Point Essex Circle Circle Point Wishram (arrival + Pull In NB1 NB2 midroute SB2 SB1 layover) 9610 7:17 7:37 8:20 8:25 9:06 9:23 9:23 9:59 10:07 10:43 10:53 10:53 11:29 11:37 12:13 12:23 12:23 12:59 13:07 13:43 13:53 13:53 14:31 14:35 15:13 15:23 15:23 16:01 16:09 16:48 16:52 16:52 17:35 17:40 18:19 18:23 18:23 18:59 19:05 19:40 19:53 19:53 20:26 20:36 9611 15:23 15:33 16:11 16:15 16:15 16:55 16:59 17:41 17:53 17:53 18:29 18:35 19:14 19:23 19:23 19:59 20:05 20:41 20:46 20:46 21:19 21:25 21:56 22:06 22:06 22:39 22:45 23:16 23:26 23:26 23:59 0:05 0:36 0:56 9612 15:43 15:58 16:26 16:30 17:12 17:15 17:15 17:58 18:05 18:44 18:53 18:53 19:29 19:45 20:20 20:28 20:28 20:59 21:05 21:35 21:48 21:48 22:19 22:25 22:55 23:08 23:08 23:39 23:49 9613 16:20 16:35 17:05 17:10 17:52 18:05 18:05 18:44 18:50 19:26 19:35 19:35 20:14 20:25 21:01 21:08 21:08 21:39 21:45 22:15 22:28 22:28 22:59 23:05 23:35 23:48 23:48 0:19 0:29 15-Sep-07

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-57 Level Í®. Intermediate Blocking HE A D W A Y S HE E T Ro u te 96 IN EF F : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O NDAY T HRU F RIDAY NO RTHB O UND S O UTHB O UND OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9602 4:10 4:20 4:28 4:35 4:43 4:53 5:05 9602 9601 3:45 4:05 4:18 4:26 4:33 4:41 4:50 4:58 5:05 5:13 5:23 5:35 9601 9605 4:55 5:05 5:13 5:20 5:28 5:37 5:49 9605 9603 4:15 4:35 4:48 4:56 5:03 5:11 5:20 5:29 5:37 5:47 5:57 6:05 9603 9604 4:39 4:59 5:08 5:16 5:23 5:31 5:35 5:44 5:52 6:02 6:12 6:19 9604 9602 5:05 5:19 5:29 5:37 5:46 5:50 5:59 6:07 6:17 6:27 6:45 9602 9606 4:59 5:19 5:29 5:39 5:47 5:56 6:05 6:14 6:22 6:32 6:42 6:57 9606 9601 5:35 5:49 5:59 6:07 6:16 6:20 6:29 6:37 6:47 6:57 7:05 9601 9605 5:49 5:59 6:09 6:17 6:26 6:35 6:44 6:52 7:02 7:12 7:17 9605 9603 6:05 6:19 6:29 6:37 6:46 6:50 7:01 7:10 7:21 7:32 7:45 9603 9604 6:19 6:29 6:39 6:47 6:56 7:05 7:16 7:25 7:36 7:46 7:57 9604 9607 6:05 6:25 6:39 6:50 6:59 7:10 7:15 7:26 7:35 7:46 7:57 8:05 9607 9608 6:17 6:37 6:49 7:00 7:09 7:20 7:25 7:36 7:45 7:56 8:06 8:23 9608 9602 6:45 6:59 7:10 7:19 7:30 7:35 7:46 7:55 8:06 8:17 8:35 9602 9606 6:57 7:09 7:20 7:29 7:40 7:45 7:56 8:05 8:16 8:26 9606 8:46 9601 7:05 7:19 7:30 7:39 7:50 7:55 8:06 8:15 8:26 8:37 9601 8:57 9605 7:17 7:29 7:40 7:49 8:00 8:05 8:16 8:25 8:36 8:46 8:53 9605 9609 7:05 7:25 7:39 7:50 7:59 8:10 8:15 8:26 8:35 8:46 8:57 9:05 9609 9610 7:17 7:37 7:49 8:00 8:09 8:20 8:25 8:36 8:45 8:56 9:06 9:23 9610 9603 7:45 7:59 8:10 8:19 8:30 8:35 8:46 8:55 9:06 9:17 9:35 9603 9604 7:57 8:09 8:20 8:29 8:40 8:45 8:56 9:05 9:16 9:26 9604 9:46 9607 8:05 8:19 8:30 8:39 8:50 8:55 9:06 9:15 9:26 9:37 9607 9:57 9608 8:23 8:34 8:44 8:52 9:02 9:07 9:18 9:27 9:38 9:48 9:53 9608 9602 8:35 8:48 8:58 9:06 9:16 9:22 9:31 9:38 9:48 9:59 10:05 9602 9605 8:53 9:04 9:14 9:21 9:31 9:37 9:46 9:53 10:03 10:13 10:23 9605 9609 9:05 9:18 9:28 9:35 9:44 9:52 10:01 10:08 10:18 10:29 10:35 9609 9610 9:23 9:33 9:43 9:50 9:59 10:07 10:16 10:23 10:33 10:43 10:53 9610 9603 9:35 9:48 9:58 10:05 10:14 10:22 10:31 10:38 10:48 10:59 11:05 9603 9608 9:53 10:03 10:13 10:20 10:29 10:37 10:46 10:53 11:03 11:13 11:23 9608 9602 10:05 10:18 10:28 10:35 10:44 10:52 11:01 11:08 11:18 11:29 11:35 9602 9605 10:23 10:33 10:43 10:50 10:59 11:07 11:16 11:23 11:33 11:43 11:53 9605 9609 10:35 10:48 10:58 11:05 11:14 11:22 11:31 11:38 11:48 11:59 12:05 9609 9610 10:53 11:03 11:13 11:20 11:29 11:37 11:46 11:53 12:03 12:13 12:23 9610 9603 11:05 11:18 11:28 11:35 11:44 11:52 12:01 12:08 12:18 12:29 12:35 9603 9608 11:23 11:33 11:43 11:50 11:59 12:07 12:16 12:23 12:33 12:43 12:53 9608 9602 11:35 11:48 11:58 12:05 12:14 12:22 12:31 12:38 12:48 12:59 13:05 9602 9605 11:53 12:03 12:13 12:20 12:29 12:37 12:46 12:53 13:03 13:13 13:23 9605 9609 12:05 12:18 12:28 12:35 12:44 12:52 13:01 13:08 13:18 13:29 13:35 9609 9610 12:23 12:33 12:43 12:50 12:59 13:07 13:16 13:23 13:33 13:43 13:53 9610 9603 12:35 12:48 12:58 13:05 13:14 13:22 13:31 13:38 13:48 13:59 14:05 9603 9608 12:53 13:03 13:13 13:20 13:29 13:35 13:45 13:52 14:03 14:13 14:23 9608 9602 13:05 13:18 13:28 13:35 13:44 13:50 14:00 14:07 14:18 14:29 14:35 9602 9605 13:23 13:33 13:43 13:50 13:59 14:05 14:15 14:22 14:33 14:43 14:53 9605

Level Í®. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-58 HE A D W A Y S HE E T Ro u te 96 IN EF F : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O NDAY T HRU F RIDAY NO RTHB O UND S O UTHB O UND OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9609 13:35 13:48 13:59 14:06 14:16 14:20 14:30 14:37 14:48 14:59 15:05 9609 9610 13:53 14:03 14:14 14:21 14:31 14:35 14:45 14:52 15:03 15:13 15:23 9610 9603 14:05 14:18 14:29 14:36 14:46 14:50 15:00 15:07 15:18 15:29 15:35 9603 9608 14:23 14:33 14:44 14:51 15:01 15:05 15:15 15:22 15:33 15:43 15:58 9608 9602 14:35 14:48 14:59 15:06 15:16 15:20 15:30 15:37 15:48 15:59 16:05 9602 9611 15:23 15:33 15:43 15:50 16:01 16:11 16:15 9611 9605 14:53 15:03 15:14 15:21 15:31 15:45 15:55 16:02 16:13 16:24 16:32 9605 9609 15:05 15:18 15:29 15:36 15:46 15:57 16:07 16:14 16:25 16:35 16:45 9609 9610 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:51 16:01 16:09 16:19 16:26 16:37 16:48 16:52 9610 9603 15:35 15:48 15:59 16:06 16:16 16:20 16:31 16:39 16:50 17:01 17:05 9603 9612 15:43 15:58 16:09 16:16 16:26 16:30 16:41 16:49 17:00 17:12 17:15 9612 9608 15:58 16:08 16:19 16:26 16:36 16:40 16:51 16:59 17:10 17:21 17:28 9608 9602 16:05 16:18 16:29 16:36 16:46 16:50 17:01 17:09 17:20 17:32 17:36 9602 9611 16:15 16:25 16:36 16:44 16:55 17:00 17:11 17:19 17:30 17:41 17:53 9611 9613 16:20 16:35 16:46 16:54 17:05 17:10 17:21 17:29 17:40 17:52 18:05 9613 9605 16:32 16:45 16:56 17:04 17:15 17:20 17:31 17:39 17:50 18:01 9605 18:21 9609 16:45 16:55 17:06 17:14 17:25 17:30 17:40 17:48 17:58 18:10 18:35 9609 9610 16:52 17:05 17:16 17:24 17:35 17:40 17:50 17:58 18:08 18:19 18:23 9610 9603 17:05 17:15 17:26 17:34 17:45 17:52 18:02 18:10 18:20 18:32 9603 18:52 9612 17:15 17:28 17:39 17:47 17:58 18:05 18:15 18:23 18:33 18:44 18:53 9612 9608 17:28 17:38 17:49 17:57 18:08 9608 18:18 9602 17:36 17:49 17:59 18:06 18:15 18:20 18:30 18:38 18:48 19:00 19:05 9602 9611 17:53 18:03 18:13 18:20 18:29 18:35 18:45 18:53 19:03 19:14 19:23 9611 9613 18:05 18:18 18:28 18:35 18:44 18:50 18:59 19:06 19:15 19:26 19:35 9613 9610 18:23 18:33 18:43 18:50 18:59 19:05 19:14 19:21 19:30 19:40 19:53 9610 9609 18:35 18:48 18:58 19:05 19:14 19:25 19:34 19:41 19:50 20:01 20:06 9609 9612 18:53 19:03 19:13 19:20 19:29 19:45 19:54 20:01 20:10 20:20 20:28 9612 9602 19:05 19:18 19:28 19:35 19:44 9602 19:54 9611 19:23 19:33 19:43 19:50 19:59 20:05 20:14 20:21 20:30 20:41 20:46 9611 9613 19:35 19:48 19:58 20:05 20:14 20:25 20:34 20:41 20:50 21:00 21:08 9613 9610 19:53 20:03 20:12 20:19 20:26 9610 20:36 9609 20:06 20:18 20:26 20:32 20:39 20:45 20:54 21:01 21:10 21:21 21:26 9609 9612 20:28 20:38 20:46 20:52 20:59 21:05 21:12 21:18 21:26 21:35 21:48 9612 9611 20:46 20:58 21:06 21:12 21:19 21:25 21:32 21:38 21:46 21:56 22:06 9611 9613 21:08 21:18 21:26 21:32 21:39 21:45 21:52 21:58 22:06 22:15 22:28 9613 9609 21:26 21:38 21:46 21:52 21:59 22:05 22:12 22:18 22:26 22:36 22:46 9609 9612 21:48 21:58 22:06 22:12 22:19 22:25 22:32 22:38 22:46 22:55 23:08 9612 9611 22:06 22:18 22:26 22:32 22:39 22:45 22:52 22:58 23:06 23:16 23:26 9611 9613 22:28 22:38 22:46 22:52 22:59 23:05 23:12 23:18 23:26 23:35 23:48 9613 9609 22:46 22:58 23:06 23:12 23:19 23:25 23:32 23:38 23:46 23:56 0:06 9609 9612 23:08 23:18 23:26 23:32 23:39 9612 23:49 9611 23:26 23:38 23:46 23:52 23:59 0:05 0:12 0:18 0:26 0:36 9611 0:56 9613 23:48 23:58 0:06 0:12 0:19 9613 0:29 9609 0:06 0:18 0:26 0:32 0:39 9609 0:49

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-59 Level Í®. Intermediate Blocking Hours Summary B loc k G arage Depart G arage A rrive P lat form Hours 9601 3:45 8:57 5:12 9602 4:10 19:54 15:44 9603 4:15 18:52 14:37 9604 4:39 9:46 5:07 9605 4:55 18:21 13:26 9606 4:59 8:46 3:47 9607 6:05 9:57 3:52 9608 6:17 18:18 12:01 9609 7:05 0:49 17:44 9610 7:17 20:36 13:19 9611 15:23 0:56 9:33 9612 15:43 23:49 8:06 9613 16:20 0:29 8:09 Total 130:37 Mileage Summary B loc k 96 NB Trips 96A NB Trips 96 NB Trips from E s s ex 96 S B Trips 96A S B Trips P ull Trips Libby /W is hram P ull Trips S and P oint P ull Trips P as c o E s s ex P ull Trips Rugby C irc le M ileage 9601 3 3 2 57.3 9602 10 10 2 160.0 9603 8 1 8 1 2 149.2 9604 3 3 2 54.0 9605 1 7 1 8 1 1 131.7 9606 2 2 2 39.6 9607 2 2 2 41.8 9608 8 7 1 1 116.2 9609 11 1 10 1 1 1 184.8 9610 1 8 1 7 1 1 131.7 9611 3 3 4 3 1 1 105.7 9612 1 4 1 1 4 1 1 84.4 9613 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 85.4 Total 42 40 2 42 39 8 7 2 9 1341.7

Level ͮ. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-60 Deadheading vs. Running in Service The Route ͵Ͳ example has introduced complexities typical of those facing schedulers, includ- ing multiple terminals, running times that change throughout the day, and considerations re- garding other elements of the scheduling process, especially runcutting. An interesting aspect that deserves additional discussion is pull-out and pull-in locations. The revised blocks resulted in two pull-outs (at ͭͱ:Ͱͯ and ͭͲ:ͮͬ) to Pasco & Essex, which is not a terminal but rather a loca- tion along the route. Are there benefi ts in doing so? And why did we do this instead of starting these trips at one of the terminals? The simplest answer is that these pull-outs occur early in the PM peak, when more frequent service is needed along the core of the route but not yet along the branches. The mid-route pull-out puts service in the place where it is needed, when it is needed. By focusing service where it is needed and by avoiding over-serving the branches, the mid-route pull-out minimiz- es platform hours. The pull-out could have gone into service at Rugby Circle at the northern end of the route, as the ͭͱ:ͮͯ pull-out did, but then the northbound headways could not have been reduced to ͭͬ minutes at ͭͱ:ͯͬ. Use of mid-route pull-outs allows the scheduler to pro- vide required service while minimizing the cost to do so. The “complexity” introduced by this is typically the defi nition of an additional deadhead path between the garage and the route. More broadly, are there advantages to deadheading versus running in service? Depending on the route and garage location, there is not always a choice, but are there times when one is preferable to the other? Advantages of deadheading include: Simplicity. The bus travels directly to the location where service is needed. Invariably, this is the least expensive option. Consistency. At the end of revenue service, deadheading from terminals back to the garage for pull-ins ensures that the revenue trip is completed to the terminal. Pulling in from mid-route locations may force a same-route transfer. Advantages of running in service instead of deadheading include: Maximizing service available to riders. If a pull-out or pull-in can operate in revenue service partway to or from the garage, this provides added service for riders. Put an- other way, this increases the ratio of revenue hours to platform hours. Flexibility. As seen in the Route ͵Ͳ example, running in service can allow the scheduler to provide the required service while minimizing costs. Funding considerations. Some agencies routinely maximize revenue miles or revenue hours because one (or both) of these measures is a component in a funding formula. • • • • •

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-61 Level ͮ. Intermediate Blocking Interlining Earlier in this chapter, we mentioned that the easiest way to block interlined routes is to set up a sheet showing arrive and leave times of all routes at a particular terminal. The Route ͵Ͳ example was only a single route, so you did not have a chance to consider interlining opportu- nities. Interlining opportunities are greatest at terminals served by a number of routes. In this ex- ample, Rugby Circle is a transit center served by Routes ͭ, ͭͬ, and ͮͬ in addition to Route ͵Ͳ. Route ͭ operates every half-hour during peak periods and every hour during the midday, with a round-trip running time of ͱͱ minutes. Routes ͭͬ and ͮͬ operate every hour, with a round- trip running time of roughly ʹͬ minutes. Both routes have school trips. No trips are currently interlined. The example of a “match-up” sheet is shown below. This is the PM peak portion of the sheet, showing every arrival and departure scheduled at Rugby Circle between ͯ and Ͳ PM.

Level Í®. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-62 M A T C H-UP S HE E T L o ca tio n : Rugby Circ le IN EF F : S eptem ber 15, 2007 M O NDAY T HRU F RIDAY ARRIV AL S DEP ART URES Ro u te Blo ck Arr T im e Ro u te Blo ck De p T im e 20 2002 14:24 20 2002 15:05 10 1001 14:54 10 1001 15:35 1 101 15:00 1 101 15:05 96 608 15:01 96 9608 15:05 20S 2004 15:10 96 9602 15:16 96 9605 15:20 10S 1004 15:20 96 9611 15:33 1 104 15:35 20 2001 15:24 20 2001 16:05 96 9605 15:31 96 9605 15:45 96 9609 15:46 96 9609 15:57 10 1002 15:56 10 1002 16:35 1 101 16:00 1 101 16:05 96 9610 16:01 96 9610 16:09 96 9603 16:16 96 9603 16:20 96 9612 16:26 96 9612 16:30 20 2002 16:26 20 2002 17:05 1 104 16:30 1 104 16:35 96 9608 16:36 96 9608 16:40 96 9602 16:46 96 9602 16:50 96 9611 16:55 96 9611 17:00 10 1001 16:56 10 1001 17:35 1 101 17:00 1 101 17:05 96 9613 17:05 96 9613 17:10 96 9605 17:15 96 9605 17:20 96 9609 17:25 96 9609 17:30 20 2001 17:26 20 2001 18:05 1 104 17:30 1 104 17:35 96 9610 17:35 96 9610 17:40 96 9603 17:45 96 9603 17:52 10 1002 17:56 10 1002 18:35 96 9612 17:58 96 9612 18:05 1 101 18:00 1 101 18:05

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-63 Level ͮ. Intermediate Blocking The match-up sheet is designed to list arrivals in order and to keep blocks on the same line of text. Any departure without an arrival is a pull-out, and any arrival without a departure is a pull-in. On the sheet, the school trips (ͭͬS and ͮͬS) pull in after making the school trip, and Route ͵Ͳ and Route ͭ each has a pull-out beginning service at Rugby Circle. From a scheduler’s perspective, the chief advantage of interlining is the ability to minimize the resources needed to operate a given schedule. Both school trips are using a bus to make a single trip, while two other buses are pulling out to this location to provide more frequent peak-period service. If you can interline a school trip with a trip on another block, you will save a bus. Looking at the blocking diagram, you can interline both school trips with other trips. Interline the ͮͬS trip arriving at ͭͱ:ͭͬ with the Route ͵Ͳ trip leaving at ͭͱ:ͯͯ. The ͮͬS trip will now be part of block ͵Ͳͭͭ. Interline the ͭͬS trip arriving at ͭͱ:ͮͬ with the Route ͭ trip leaving at ͭͱ:ͯͱ. The ͭͬS trip will now be part of block ͭͬͰ. This interlining saves two PM pullouts: blocks ͭͬͬͰ and ͮͬͬͰ are no longer needed. Another use for the match-up sheet is to spot long layovers and explore interlining possibilities to minimize layover. Can you identify any long layovers on the match-up sheet? The fi rst two lines of the match-up sheet show that Route ͭͬ and Route ͮͬ both have Ͱͬ-min- ute layovers (you might have guessed this already, given the ʹͬ-minute round-trip running time and the Ͳͬ-minute headway on both routes). This may be an opportunity to interline all trips on the two routes (known as through-routing, as noted earlier). Route ͮͬ arrives at ap- proximately :ͮͱ and leaves at :ͬͱ every hour, while Route ͭͬ arrives at approximately :ͱͱ and leaves at :ͯͱ every hour. Would through-routing work on these two routes? Even when running time is greatest (Route ͭͬ arrivals at ͭͱ:ͱͲ and ͭͲ:ͱͲ and Route ͮͬ arrivals at ͭͲ:ͮͲ and ͭͳ:ͮͲ), layover time would be nine minutes, or ͭͭ% of the ʹͭ-minute running time. The changes to the school trips and Routes ͭͬ and ͮͬ are highlighted on the revised match-up sheet. The school trips have been assigned to their new blocks, and blocks ͭͬͬͰ and ͮͬͬͰ are no longer on the schedule. There are three blocks (ͭͬͬͭ, ͭͬͬͮ, and ͭͬͬͯ) on the through-rout- ed Routes ͭͬ and ͮͬ. Block ͭͬͬͯ has been added, but blocks ͮͬͬͭ and ͮͬͬͮ are no longer on the schedule. Thus, the through-routing has saved a bus on the combined Routes ͭͬ and ͮͬ. Notice that no arrival or departure times have changed on any trip. Without aff ecting the schedule at all, you have saved two PM pull-outs and one all-day pull-out. This is an example of the powerful impact of interlining. Interlining is a great tool for reducing costs and vehicle requirements, but should be used sparingly—avoiding complexity unless it adds value. . Tip

Level ͮ. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-64 Interlining may not be able to produce savings in a small transit system where, for example, all routes leave the downtown terminal at the same time every ͯͬ minutes. In this situation, however, interlining can play a role by evening out the work load. If one route is tight for time on several trips while another route has plenty of time in its schedule, interlining the two routes (all day or in peak periods only) can help to ensure that no operator faces a situation of consis- tently minimal layovers. MA T C H-UP S HE ET - R E VIS ED L o ca tio n : R ugb y C irc le IN EF F : S ep tem be r 15 , 200 7 M O NDA Y T HRU F R IDA Y ARR IV A L S D EP AR T UR ES R o u te B lo ck A rr T im e R o u te B lo ck D e p T im e 20 100 2 14 :24 10 100 2 14 :35 10 100 1 14 :54 20 100 1 15 :05 1 10 1 15 :00 1 10 1 15 :05 96 60 8 15 :01 96 960 8 15 :05 20 S 961 1 15 :10 96 961 1 15 :33 96 960 2 15 :16 96 960 5 15 :20 10 S 10 4 15 :20 1 10 4 15 :35 20 100 3 15 :24 10 100 3 15 :35 96 960 5 15 :31 96 960 5 15 :45 96 960 9 15 :46 96 960 9 15 :57 10 100 2 15 :56 20 100 2 16 :05 1 10 1 16 :00 1 10 1 16 :05 96 961 0 16 :01 96 961 0 16 :09 96 960 3 16 :16 96 960 3 16 :20 96 961 2 16 :26 96 961 2 16 :30 20 100 1 16 :26 10 100 1 16 :35 1 10 4 16 :30 1 10 4 16 :35 96 960 8 16 :36 96 960 8 16 :40 96 960 2 16 :46 96 960 2 16 :50 96 961 1 16 :55 96 961 1 17 :00 10 100 3 16 :56 20 100 3 17 :05 1 10 1 17 :00 1 10 1 17 :05 96 961 3 17 :05 96 961 3 17 :10 96 960 5 17 :15 96 960 5 17 :20 96 960 9 17 :25 96 960 9 17 :30 20 100 2 17 :26 10 100 2 17 :35 1 10 4 17 :30 1 10 4 17 :35 96 961 0 17 :35 96 961 0 17 :40 96 960 3 17 :45 96 960 3 17 :52 10 100 1 17 :55 20 100 1 18 :05 96 961 2 17 :58 96 961 2 18 :05 1 10 1 18 :00 1 10 1 18 :05

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-65 Level ͮ. Intermediate Blocking Assume in this example that Route ͭ experiences delays during the peak period due to con- struction along the route, while Routes ͭͬ and ͮͬ frequently arrive at Rugby Circle a few min- utes early. One solution would be to interline Route ͭ trips with either Route ͭͬ or Route ͮͬ trips during the peak period. No operator would consistently experience less layover time than scheduled—it would happen at the end of a Route ͭ trip, but more layover time than scheduled would be available at the end of the Route ͭͬ or Route ͮͬ trip. Change the match-up sheet so that Route ͭ trips are interlined with Routes ͭͬ and ͮͬ. The “Revised ͮ” match-up sheet shows the interlined blocks. This example becomes somewhat trickier to follow throughout the PM peak. Interlining op- tions are not always apparent to the naked eye of a novice scheduler. Computerized schedul- ing software packages will sometimes identify interlining opportunities that even an experi- enced scheduler might miss. As noted earlier, the extent of interlining is a matter of agency policy. Some transit agencies prefer that their operators drive as many diff erent routes as possible, to familiarize themselves with a larger portion of the route network. Others like to keep operators on a given route, so that operators become more knowledgeable of the surrounding neighborhoods. The examples in this section have shown the blocking process at the route level and at a trans- fer center where several routes meet, creating interlining options. Blocking can also be done at the garage level. A garage-level exercise would take up pages in this manual; suffi ce to say that computerized scheduling packages simplify this process considerably.

Level Í®. Intermediate BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-66 MA T C H-UP S HE ET - R E VIS ED 2 L o ca tio n : R ugb y C irc le IN EF F : S ep tem be r 15 , 200 7 M O NDA Y T HRU F R IDA Y ARR IV A L S D EP AR T UR ES R o u te B lo ck A rr T im e R o u te B lo ck D e p T im e 20 100 2 14 :24 10 100 2 14 :35 10 100 1 14 :54 1 100 1 15 :05 1 10 1 15 :00 20 10 1 15 :05 96 60 8 15 :01 96 960 8 15 :05 20 S 961 1 15 :10 96 961 1 15 :33 96 960 2 15 :16 96 960 5 15 :20 10 S 10 4 15 :20 1 10 4 15 :35 20 100 3 15 :24 10 100 3 15 :35 96 960 5 15 :31 96 960 5 15 :45 96 960 9 15 :46 96 960 9 15 :57 10 100 2 15 :56 1 100 2 16 :05 1 100 1 16 :00 20 100 1 16 :05 96 961 0 16 :01 96 961 0 16 :09 96 960 3 16 :16 96 960 3 16 :20 96 961 2 16 :26 96 961 2 16 :30 20 10 1 16 :26 1 10 1 16 :35 1 10 4 16 :30 10 10 4 16 :35 96 960 8 16 :36 96 960 8 16 :40 96 960 2 16 :46 96 960 2 16 :50 96 961 1 16 :55 96 961 1 17 :00 10 100 3 16 :56 1 100 3 17 :05 1 100 2 17 :00 20 100 2 17 :05 96 961 3 17 :05 96 961 3 17 :10 96 960 5 17 :15 96 960 5 17 :20 96 960 9 17 :25 96 960 9 17 :30 20 100 1 17 :26 1 100 1 17 :35 1 10 1 17 :30 10 10 1 17 :35 96 961 0 17 :35 96 961 0 17 :40 96 960 3 17 :45 96 960 3 17 :52 10 10 4 17 :55 1 10 4 18 :05 96 961 2 17 :58 96 961 2 18 :05 1 100 3 18 :00 20 100 3 18 :05

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-67 Level ͮ. Intermediate Blocking LEVEL 2B End of Intermediate Blocking. The Advanced Section of Blocking continues on the next page. To jump to Runcutting, go to page ͱ-ͭ.

Level ͯ. Advanced BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-68 4.4 Advanced Blocking The advanced section of the Schedule Building chapter made running time chang- es and added a trip to Route ͵Ͳ to reduce overcrowding. Both changes occurred in the PM peak. The fi rst steps in this section are to make sure that every trip hooks properly and then begin the process of reblocking, starting at the beginning of the PM pull-outs. It is a good practice to carry each block through to the end of the schedule as it is easy to get confused between the old blocks and the new. In this example, there is enough of a change where no block fi nishes its day the same as it did in the original schedule. The fi nal schedule is shown below, with the existing blocks from the intermediate section for all trips through the beginning of the PM peak. The blocking for Part ͭ of the schedule is un- changed, because running time and headway remain the same in the AM peak and the midday period. The remainder of this section focuses on Part ͮ of the Route ͵Ͳ schedule. Recall from the advanced section of Chapter ͯ: Schedule Building that you can expect two new PM-only blocks as a result of these changes. So you expect to end up with Block ͵Ͳͭͱ, as op- posed to Block ͵Ͳͭͯ at the end of the blocking exercise in the intermediate section. LEVEL 3

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-69 Level ͯ. Advanced Blocking S C HE D UL E S HE E T with ad jus te d running tim e and he ad ways Ro u te 96 IN EF F : M O NDAY T HRU F RIDAY P art 1 NO RTHB O UND S O UTHB O UND OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9602 4:10 4:20 4:28 4:35 4:43 4:53 5:05 9602 9601 3:45 4:05 4:18 4:26 4:33 4:41 4:50 4:58 5:05 5:13 5:23 5:35 9601 9605 4:55 5:05 5:13 5:20 5:28 5:37 5:49 9605 9603 4:15 4:35 4:48 4:56 5:03 5:11 5:20 5:29 5:37 5:47 5:57 6:05 9603 9604 4:39 4:59 5:08 5:16 5:23 5:31 5:35 5:44 5:52 6:02 6:12 6:19 9604 9602 5:05 5:19 5:29 5:37 5:46 5:50 5:59 6:07 6:17 6:27 6:45 9602 9605 4:59 5:19 5:29 5:39 5:47 5:56 6:05 6:14 6:22 6:32 6:42 6:57 9605 9601 5:35 5:49 5:59 6:07 6:16 6:20 6:29 6:37 6:47 6:57 7:05 9601 9605 5:49 5:59 6:09 6:17 6:26 6:35 6:44 6:52 7:02 7:12 7:17 9605 9603 6:05 6:19 6:29 6:37 6:46 6:50 7:01 7:10 7:21 7:32 7:45 9603 9604 6:19 6:29 6:39 6:47 6:56 7:05 7:16 7:25 7:36 7:46 7:57 9604 9607 6:05 6:25 6:39 6:50 6:59 7:10 7:15 7:26 7:35 7:46 7:57 8:05 9607 9608 6:17 6:37 6:49 7:00 7:09 7:20 7:25 7:36 7:45 7:56 8:06 8:23 9608 9602 6:45 6:59 7:10 7:19 7:30 7:35 7:46 7:55 8:06 8:17 8:35 9602 9606 6:57 7:09 7:20 7:29 7:40 7:45 7:56 8:05 8:16 8:26 9606 8:46 9601 7:05 7:19 7:30 7:39 7:50 7:55 8:06 8:15 8:26 8:37 9601 8:57 9605 7:17 7:29 7:40 7:49 8:00 8:05 8:16 8:25 8:36 8:46 8:53 9605 9609 7:05 7:25 7:39 7:50 7:59 8:10 8:15 8:26 8:35 8:46 8:57 9:05 9609 9610 7:17 7:37 7:49 8:00 8:09 8:20 8:25 8:36 8:45 8:56 9:06 9:23 9610 9603 7:45 7:59 8:10 8:19 8:30 8:35 8:46 8:55 9:06 9:17 9:35 9603 9604 7:57 8:09 8:20 8:29 8:40 8:45 8:56 9:05 9:16 9:26 9604 9:46 9607 8:05 8:19 8:30 8:39 8:50 8:55 9:06 9:15 9:26 9:37 9607 9:57 9608 8:23 8:34 8:44 8:52 9:02 9:07 9:18 9:27 9:38 9:48 9:53 9608 9602 8:35 8:48 8:58 9:06 9:16 9:22 9:32 9:40 9:50 10:01 10:05 9602 9605 8:53 9:04 9:14 9:21 9:31 9:37 9:46 9:53 10:03 10:13 10:23 9605 9609 9:05 9:18 9:28 9:35 9:44 9:52 10:01 10:08 10:18 10:29 10:35 9609 9610 9:23 9:33 9:43 9:50 9:59 10:07 10:16 10:23 10:33 10:43 10:53 9610 9603 9:35 9:48 9:58 10:05 10:14 10:22 10:31 10:38 10:48 10:59 11:05 9603 9608 9:53 10:03 10:13 10:20 10:29 10:37 10:46 10:53 11:03 11:13 11:23 9608 9602 10:05 10:18 10:28 10:35 10:44 10:52 11:01 11:08 11:18 11:29 11:35 9602 9605 10:23 10:33 10:43 10:50 10:59 11:07 11:16 11:23 11:33 11:43 11:53 9605 9609 10:35 10:48 10:58 11:05 11:14 11:22 11:31 11:38 11:48 11:59 12:05 9609 9610 10:53 11:03 11:13 11:20 11:29 11:37 11:46 11:53 12:03 12:13 12:23 9610 9603 11:05 11:18 11:28 11:35 11:44 11:52 12:01 12:08 12:18 12:29 12:35 9603 9608 11:23 11:33 11:43 11:50 11:59 12:07 12:16 12:23 12:33 12:43 12:53 9608 9602 11:35 11:48 11:58 12:05 12:14 12:22 12:31 12:38 12:48 12:59 13:05 9602 9605 11:53 12:03 12:13 12:20 12:29 12:37 12:46 12:53 13:03 13:13 13:23 9605 9609 12:05 12:18 12:28 12:35 12:44 12:52 13:01 13:08 13:18 13:29 13:35 9609 9610 12:23 12:33 12:43 12:50 12:59 13:07 13:16 13:23 13:33 13:43 13:53 9610 9603 12:35 12:48 12:58 13:05 13:14 13:22 13:31 13:38 13:48 13:59 14:05 9603 9608 12:53 13:03 13:13 13:20 13:29 13:35 13:45 13:52 14:03 14:14 14:23 9608 9602 13:05 13:18 13:28 13:35 13:44 13:50 14:00 14:07 14:18 14:30 14:35 9602 9605 13:23 13:33 13:43 13:50 13:59 14:05 14:15 14:22 14:33 14:44 14:53 9605 9609 13:35 13:48 13:59 14:06 14:16 14:20 14:30 14:37 14:48 15:00 15:05 9609

Level ͯ. Advanced BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-70 S C HE D UL E S HE E T with ad jus te d running tim e and he ad ways Ro u te 96 IN EF F : M O NDAY T HRU F RIDAY P art 2 NO RTHB O UND S O UTHB O UND OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9610 13:53 14:03 14:14 14:21 14:31 14:35 14:45 14:52 15:03 15:14 15:23 9610 9603 14:05 14:18 14:29 14:36 14:46 14:50 15:00 15:07 15:18 15:30 15:35 9603 9608 14:23 14:33 14:44 14:51 15:01 15:05 15:15 15:22 15:33 15:44 15:58 9608 9602 14:35 14:48 14:59 15:06 15:16 15:20 15:30 15:37 15:48 16:00 16:05 9602 9611 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:52 16:03 16:15 16:23 9611 9605 14:53 15:03 15:14 15:21 15:31 15:45 15:56 16:04 16:15 16:28 16:30 9605 9609 15:05 15:18 15:29 15:36 15:46 15:57 16:08 16:16 16:27 16:39 16:41 9609 9610 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:51 16:01 16:09 16:20 16:28 16:39 16:52 16:55 9610 9603 15:35 15:48 15:59 16:06 16:16 16:20 16:32 16:41 16:53 17:05 17:08 9603 16:19 16:29 16:41 16:50 17:02 17:15 17:17 9612 15:43 15:58 16:09 16:16 16:26 16:37 16:49 16:58 17:10 17:22 17:17 9612 9608 15:58 16:08 16:19 16:26 16:36 16:45 16:57 17:06 17:18 17:31 17:40 9608 9602 16:05 16:18 16:29 16:36 16:46 16:53 17:05 17:14 17:26 17:38 17:53 9602 16:11 16:26 16:38 16:46 16:57 17:01 17:13 17:22 17:34 17:47 18:07 16:23 16:34 16:46 16:54 17:05 17:09 17:21 17:30 17:42 17:54 18:14 16:30 16:44 16:56 17:04 17:15 17:17 17:29 17:38 17:50 18:03 18:05 16:41 16:52 17:04 17:12 17:23 17:25 17:37 17:46 17:58 18:10 18:23 16:45 17:00 17:12 17:20 17:31 17:35 17:46 17:54 18:05 18:17 18:35 16:55 17:09 17:21 17:29 17:40 17:45 17:56 18:04 18:15 18:26 18:46 17:08 17:19 17:31 17:39 17:50 17:55 18:06 18:14 18:25 18:37 18:57 17:17 17:31 17:43 17:51 18:02 18:07 18:18 18:26 18:37 18:48 18:53 17:28 17:39 17:51 17:59 18:10 18:20 18:31 18:39 18:50 19:02 19:05 17:40 17:53 18:03 18:10 18:19 18:29 17:53 18:03 18:13 18:20 18:29 18:35 18:46 18:54 19:05 19:16 19:23 18:05 18:18 18:28 18:35 18:44 18:50 18:59 19:06 19:16 19:27 19:35 18:23 18:33 18:43 18:50 18:59 19:05 19:14 19:21 19:31 19:41 19:53 18:35 18:48 18:58 19:05 19:14 19:25 19:34 19:41 19:51 20:02 20:06 18:53 19:03 19:13 19:20 19:29 19:45 19:54 20:01 20:11 20:21 20:28 19:05 19:18 19:28 19:35 19:44 19:54 19:23 19:33 19:43 19:50 19:59 20:05 20:14 20:21 20:31 20:42 20:46 19:35 19:48 19:58 20:05 20:14 20:25 20:34 20:41 20:51 21:01 21:08 19:53 20:03 20:12 20:19 20:26 20:36 20:06 20:18 20:26 20:32 20:39 20:45 20:54 21:01 21:11 21:22 21:26 20:28 20:38 20:46 20:52 20:59 21:05 21:12 21:18 21:26 21:35 21:48 20:46 20:58 21:06 21:12 21:19 21:25 21:32 21:38 21:46 21:56 22:06 21:08 21:18 21:26 21:32 21:39 21:45 21:52 21:58 22:06 22:15 22:28 21:26 21:38 21:46 21:52 21:59 22:05 22:12 22:18 22:26 22:36 22:46 21:48 21:58 22:06 22:12 22:19 22:25 22:32 22:38 22:46 22:55 23:08 22:06 22:18 22:26 22:32 22:39 22:45 22:52 22:58 23:06 23:16 23:26 22:28 22:38 22:46 22:52 22:59 23:05 23:12 23:18 23:26 23:35 23:48 22:46 22:58 23:06 23:12 23:19 23:25 23:32 23:38 23:46 23:56 0:06 23:08 23:18 23:26 23:32 23:39 23:49 23:26 23:38 23:46 23:52 23:59 0:05 0:12 0:18 0:26 0:36 0:56 23:48 23:58 0:06 0:12 0:19 0:29 0:06 0:18 0:26 0:32 0:39 0:49

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-71 Level ͯ. Advanced Blocking The next trip that needs to be hooked is the ͭͲ:ͮͯ departure from Sand Point (for the moment, focus on completing all the existing blocks and ignore pull-outs). This can be hooked with the ͭͲ:ͭͱ arrival on block ͵Ͳͭͭ. Continue block ͵Ͳͭͭ through the rest of the day—a very short rest of the day, since ͵Ͳͭͭ now pulls in at ͭʹ:ͭͰ. Next, look at the ͭͲ:ͯͬ trip from Wishram. The only trip available to hook to this trip is the ͭͲ:ͮʹ arrival on block ͵Ͳͬͱ. Two minutes layover is very tight, and at the end of the ͭͲ:ͯͬ trip, there is another two-minute layover at Rugby Circle. The work rules allow this, and our operat- ing knowledge tells us this works on a regular basis, so assign the ͭͲ:ͯͬ trip to block ͵Ͳͬͱ. Continuing with block ͵Ͳͬͱ, The ͭͳ:ͭͳ southbound trip arrives at Wishram at ͭʹ:ͬͯ, and the schedule calls for it to hook with the ͭʹ:ͬͱ trip. This would be three consecutive trips with only two minutes of layover each, so try to reassign the ͭʹ:ͬͱ trip to another block and hook the ͭʹ:ͬͯ arrival with a later trip at ͭʹ:ͯͱ. Continuing to hook trips would result in a pull-in time of ͬ:Ͱ͵ for block ͵Ͳͬͱ. The schedule sheet on the following page shows the completed blocks ͵Ͳͭͭ and ͵Ͳͬͱ. The change in hooking trips has another side benefi t. The only trip available to hook with the ͭʹ:ͬͱ trip is the ͭͳ:Ͱͳ arrival at Wishram. The schedule originally called for this block to pull out at ͭͲ:ͭͭ, make one round trip, and pull in at ͭʹ:ͬͳ. As stressed in the intermediate block- ing section, it is almost always advantageous to reblock to lengthen very short blocks. So this change ends up meeting two objectives: to provide adequate layover time and to avoid pulling out a bus for only one or two trips. Advanced schedulers would realize at this point that the change in hooking trips creates another problem. The ͭʹ:ͯͱ trip was originally scheduled to be hooked with a block that pulls out at ͭͲ:Ͱͱ and fi nishes its fi rst southbound trip at ͭʹ:ͭͳ. If you assign the ͭʹ:ͯͱ trip to block ͵Ͳͬͱ instead of to its original block, then you are left with a block that does only one round-trip before pulling in. A similar problem occurred in the intermediate section and was addressed by shifting blocks at the end of the exercise, but now that you are aware of the issue, you can catch it at this point before you complete the rest of the blocking, and save yourself from hav- ing to redo it later. This is an example of how a seemingly great solution can have unexpected impacts down the road. It reinforces the importance of looking at the bigger picture while analyzing any one ele- ment of scheduling. In this case, your blocking solution is threefold: Keep the hook between the ͭʹ:ͭͳ arrival trip and the ͭʹ:ͯͱ departure trip. Hook the ͭͳ:Ͱͳ arrival trip with the ͭʹ:ͬͱ departure trip. Pull in block ͵Ͳͬͱ after it arrives at Wishram at ͭʹ:ͬͯ. • • •

Level ͯ. Advanced BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-72 S C HE D UL E S HE E T with c hang e s to b lo c ks 9 6 0 5 and 9 6 1 1 Ro ute 96 IN EF F: M O NDAY THRU FRIDAY P art 2 NO RTHB O UND S O UTHB O UND OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9610 13:53 14:03 14:14 14:21 14:31 14:35 14:45 14:52 15:03 15:14 15:23 9610 9603 14:05 14:18 14:29 14:36 14:46 14:50 15:00 15:07 15:18 15:30 15:35 9603 9608 14:23 14:33 14:44 14:51 15:01 15:05 15:15 15:22 15:33 15:44 15:58 9608 9602 14:35 14:48 14:59 15:06 15:16 15:20 15:30 15:37 15:48 16:00 16:05 9602 9611 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:52 16:03 16:15 16:23 9611 9605 14:53 15:03 15:14 15:21 15:31 15:45 15:56 16:04 16:15 16:28 16:30 9605 9609 15:05 15:18 15:29 15:36 15:46 15:57 16:08 16:16 16:27 16:39 16:41 9609 9610 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:51 16:01 16:09 16:20 16:28 16:39 16:52 16:55 9610 9603 15:35 15:48 15:59 16:06 16:16 16:20 16:32 16:41 16:53 17:05 17:08 9603 16:19 16:29 16:41 16:50 17:02 17:15 17:17 9612 15:43 15:58 16:09 16:16 16:26 16:37 16:49 16:58 17:10 17:22 17:17 9612 9608 15:58 16:08 16:19 16:26 16:36 16:45 16:57 17:06 17:18 17:31 17:40 9608 9602 16:05 16:18 16:29 16:36 16:46 16:53 17:05 17:14 17:26 17:38 17:53 9602 16:11 16:26 16:38 16:46 16:57 17:01 17:13 17:22 17:34 17:47 18:07 9611 16:23 16:34 16:46 16:54 17:05 17:09 17:21 17:30 17:42 17:54 9611 18:14 9605 16:30 16:44 16:56 17:04 17:15 17:17 17:29 17:38 17:50 18:03 18:35 9605 16:41 16:52 17:04 17:12 17:23 17:25 17:37 17:46 17:58 18:10 18:23 16:45 17:00 17:12 17:20 17:31 17:35 17:46 17:54 18:05 18:17 18:35 16:55 17:09 17:21 17:29 17:40 17:45 17:56 18:04 18:15 18:26 18:46 17:08 17:19 17:31 17:39 17:50 17:55 18:06 18:14 18:25 18:37 18:57 17:17 17:31 17:43 17:51 18:02 18:07 18:18 18:26 18:37 18:48 18:53 17:28 17:39 17:51 17:59 18:10 18:20 18:31 18:39 18:50 19:02 19:05 17:40 17:53 18:03 18:10 18:19 18:29 17:53 18:03 18:13 18:20 18:29 18:35 18:46 18:54 19:05 19:16 19:23 18:05 18:18 18:28 18:35 18:44 18:50 18:59 19:06 19:16 19:27 19:35 18:23 18:33 18:43 18:50 18:59 19:05 19:14 19:21 19:31 19:41 19:53 9605 18:35 18:48 18:58 19:05 19:14 19:25 19:34 19:41 19:51 20:02 20:06 9605 18:53 19:03 19:13 19:20 19:29 19:45 19:54 20:01 20:11 20:21 20:28 19:05 19:18 19:28 19:35 19:44 19:54 19:23 19:33 19:43 19:50 19:59 20:05 20:14 20:21 20:31 20:42 20:46 19:35 19:48 19:58 20:05 20:14 20:25 20:34 20:41 20:51 21:01 21:08 19:53 20:03 20:12 20:19 20:26 20:36 9605 20:06 20:18 20:26 20:32 20:39 20:45 20:54 21:01 21:11 21:22 21:26 9605 20:28 20:38 20:46 20:52 20:59 21:05 21:12 21:18 21:26 21:35 21:48 20:46 20:58 21:06 21:12 21:19 21:25 21:32 21:38 21:46 21:56 22:06 21:08 21:18 21:26 21:32 21:39 21:45 21:52 21:58 22:06 22:15 22:28 9605 21:26 21:38 21:46 21:52 21:59 22:05 22:12 22:18 22:26 22:36 22:46 9605 21:48 21:58 22:06 22:12 22:19 22:25 22:32 22:38 22:46 22:55 23:08 22:06 22:18 22:26 22:32 22:39 22:45 22:52 22:58 23:06 23:16 23:26 22:28 22:38 22:46 22:52 22:59 23:05 23:12 23:18 23:26 23:35 23:48 9605 22:46 22:58 23:06 23:12 23:19 23:25 23:32 23:38 23:46 23:56 0:06 9605 23:08 23:18 23:26 23:32 23:39 23:49 23:26 23:38 23:46 23:52 23:59 0:05 0:12 0:18 0:26 0:36 0:56 23:48 23:58 0:06 0:12 0:19 0:29 9605 0:06 0:18 0:26 0:32 0:39 9605 0:49

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-73 Level ͯ. Advanced Blocking Make the revisions to block ͵Ͳͬͱ to pull in after arriving at Wishram at ͭʹ:ͬͯ, and then com- plete the blocking for the all-day blocks. The results are shown below. S C HE D U LE SH E ET with revis ion to b lock 960 5 and com ple tion of a ll-d ay blocks R ou te 96 IN EFF : M O ND AY T HRU F R ID AY P art 2 N O R T H BO UN D S O U T H BO UN D OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9610 13:53 14:03 14:14 14:21 14:31 14:35 14:45 14:52 15:03 15:14 15:23 9610 9603 14:05 14:18 14:29 14:36 14:46 14:50 15:00 15:07 15:18 15:30 15:35 9603 9608 14:23 14:33 14:44 14:51 15:01 15:05 15:15 15:22 15:33 15:44 15:58 9608 9602 14:35 14:48 14:59 15:06 15:16 15:20 15:30 15:37 15:48 16:00 16:05 9602 9611 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:52 16:03 16:15 16:23 9611 9605 14:53 15:03 15:14 15:21 15:31 15:45 15:56 16:04 16:15 16:28 16:30 9605 9609 15:05 15:18 15:29 15:36 15:46 15:57 16:08 16:16 16:27 16:39 16:41 9609 9610 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:51 16:01 16:09 16:20 16:28 16:39 16:52 16:55 9610 9603 15:35 15:48 15:59 16:06 16:16 16:20 16:32 16:41 16:53 17:05 17:08 9603 16:19 16:29 16:41 16:50 17:02 17:15 17:17 9612 15:43 15:58 16:09 16:16 16:26 16:37 16:49 16:58 17:10 17:22 17:17 9612 9608 15:58 16:08 16:19 16:26 16:36 16:45 16:57 17:06 17:18 17:31 17:40 9608 9602 16:05 16:18 16:29 16:36 16:46 16:53 17:05 17:14 17:26 17:38 17:53 9602 16:11 16:26 16:38 16:46 16:57 17:01 17:13 17:22 17:34 17:47 18:07 9611 16:23 16:34 16:46 16:54 17:05 17:09 17:21 17:30 17:42 17:54 9611 18:14 9605 16:30 16:44 16:56 17:04 17:15 17:17 17:29 17:38 17:50 18:03 9605 18:23 9609 16:41 16:52 17:04 17:12 17:23 17:25 17:37 17:46 17:58 18:10 18:23 9609 16:45 17:00 17:12 17:20 17:31 17:35 17:46 17:54 18:05 18:17 18:35 9610 16:55 17:09 17:21 17:29 17:40 17:45 17:56 18:04 18:15 18:26 9610 18:46 9603 17:08 17:19 17:31 17:39 17:50 17:55 18:06 18:14 18:25 18:37 9603 18:57 17:17 17:31 17:43 17:51 18:02 18:07 18:18 18:26 18:37 18:48 18:53 17:28 17:39 17:51 17:59 18:10 18:20 18:31 18:39 18:50 19:02 19:05 9608 17:40 17:53 18:03 18:10 18:19 9608 18:29 9602 17:53 18:03 18:13 18:20 18:29 18:35 18:46 18:54 19:05 19:16 19:23 9602 18:05 18:18 18:28 18:35 18:44 18:50 18:59 19:06 19:16 19:27 19:35 9609 18:23 18:33 18:43 18:50 18:59 19:05 19:14 19:21 19:31 19:41 19:53 9609 18:35 18:48 18:58 19:05 19:14 19:25 19:34 19:41 19:51 20:02 20:06 18:53 19:03 19:13 19:20 19:29 19:45 19:54 20:01 20:11 20:21 20:28 19:05 19:18 19:28 19:35 19:44 19:54 9602 19:23 19:33 19:43 19:50 19:59 20:05 20:14 20:21 20:31 20:42 20:46 9602 19:35 19:48 19:58 20:05 20:14 20:25 20:34 20:41 20:51 21:01 21:08 9609 19:53 20:03 20:12 20:19 20:26 9609 20:36 20:06 20:18 20:26 20:32 20:39 20:45 20:54 21:01 21:11 21:22 21:26 20:28 20:38 20:46 20:52 20:59 21:05 21:12 21:18 21:26 21:35 21:48 9602 20:46 20:58 21:06 21:12 21:19 21:25 21:32 21:38 21:46 21:56 22:06 9602 21:08 21:18 21:26 21:32 21:39 21:45 21:52 21:58 22:06 22:15 22:28 21:26 21:38 21:46 21:52 21:59 22:05 22:12 22:18 22:26 22:36 22:46 21:48 21:58 22:06 22:12 22:19 22:25 22:32 22:38 22:46 22:55 23:08 9602 22:06 22:18 22:26 22:32 22:39 22:45 22:52 22:58 23:06 23:16 23:26 9602 22:28 22:38 22:46 22:52 22:59 23:05 23:12 23:18 23:26 23:35 23:48 22:46 22:58 23:06 23:12 23:19 23:25 23:32 23:38 23:46 23:56 0:06 23:08 23:18 23:26 23:32 23:39 23:49 9602 23:26 23:38 23:46 23:52 23:59 0:05 0:12 0:18 0:26 0:36 9602 0:56 23:48 23:58 0:06 0:12 0:19 0:29 0:06 0:18 0:26 0:32 0:39 0:49

Level ͯ. Advanced BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-74 Finally, fi nish blocking the PM-only blocks. Recall that the numbering scheme in this example is by pull-out time, so block ͵Ͳͭͮ is correctly numbered. Block ͵Ͳͭͯ is the pull-out at ͭͲ:ͭͭ, block ͵ͲͭͰ at ͭͲ:ͭ͵, and block ͵Ͳͭͱ at ͭͲ:Ͱͱ. The PM blocks are highlighted in the fi nal PM schedule sheet below. S C HE D UL E S HE E T with P M b lo c ks ad d e d Ro ute 96 IN EF F: M O NDAY THRU FRIDAY P art 2 NO RTHB O UND S O UTHB O UND OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9610 13:53 14:03 14:14 14:21 14:31 14:35 14:45 14:52 15:03 15:14 15:23 9610 9603 14:05 14:18 14:29 14:36 14:46 14:50 15:00 15:07 15:18 15:30 15:35 9603 9608 14:23 14:33 14:44 14:51 15:01 15:05 15:15 15:22 15:33 15:44 15:58 9608 9602 14:35 14:48 14:59 15:06 15:16 15:20 15:30 15:37 15:48 16:00 16:05 9602 9611 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:52 16:03 16:15 16:23 9611 9605 14:53 15:03 15:14 15:21 15:31 15:45 15:56 16:04 16:15 16:28 16:30 9605 9609 15:05 15:18 15:29 15:36 15:46 15:57 16:08 16:16 16:27 16:39 16:41 9609 9610 15:23 15:33 15:44 15:51 16:01 16:09 16:20 16:28 16:39 16:52 16:55 9610 9603 15:35 15:48 15:59 16:06 16:16 16:20 16:32 16:41 16:53 17:05 17:08 9603 9614 16:19 16:29 16:41 16:50 17:02 17:15 17:17 9614 9612 15:43 15:58 16:09 16:16 16:26 16:37 16:49 16:58 17:10 17:22 17:28 9612 9608 15:58 16:08 16:19 16:26 16:36 16:45 16:57 17:06 17:18 17:31 17:40 9608 9602 16:05 16:18 16:29 16:36 16:46 16:53 17:05 17:14 17:26 17:38 17:53 9602 9613 16:11 16:26 16:38 16:46 16:57 17:01 17:13 17:22 17:34 17:47 18:05 9613 9611 16:23 16:34 16:46 16:54 17:05 17:09 17:21 17:30 17:42 17:54 9611 18:14 9605 16:30 16:44 16:56 17:04 17:15 17:17 17:29 17:38 17:50 18:03 9605 18:23 9609 16:41 16:52 17:04 17:12 17:23 17:25 17:37 17:46 17:58 18:10 18:23 9609 9615 16:45 17:00 17:12 17:20 17:31 17:35 17:46 17:54 18:05 18:17 18:35 9615 9610 16:55 17:09 17:21 17:29 17:40 17:45 17:56 18:04 18:15 18:26 9610 18:46 9603 17:08 17:19 17:31 17:39 17:50 17:55 18:06 18:14 18:25 18:37 9603 18:57 9614 17:17 17:31 17:43 17:51 18:02 18:07 18:18 18:26 18:37 18:48 18:53 9614 9612 17:28 17:39 17:51 17:59 18:10 18:20 18:31 18:39 18:50 19:02 19:05 9612 9608 17:40 17:53 18:03 18:10 18:19 9608 18:29 9602 17:53 18:03 18:13 18:20 18:29 18:35 18:46 18:54 19:05 19:16 19:23 9602 9613 18:05 18:18 18:28 18:35 18:44 18:50 18:59 19:06 19:16 19:27 19:35 9613 9609 18:23 18:33 18:43 18:50 18:59 19:05 19:14 19:21 19:31 19:41 19:53 9609 9615 18:35 18:48 18:58 19:05 19:14 19:25 19:34 19:41 19:51 20:02 20:06 9615 9614 18:53 19:03 19:13 19:20 19:29 19:45 19:54 20:01 20:11 20:21 20:28 9614 9612 19:05 19:18 19:28 19:35 19:44 9612 19:54 9602 19:23 19:33 19:43 19:50 19:59 20:05 20:14 20:21 20:31 20:42 20:46 9602 9613 19:35 19:48 19:58 20:05 20:14 20:25 20:34 20:41 20:51 21:01 21:08 9613 9609 19:53 20:03 20:12 20:19 20:26 9609 20:36 9615 20:06 20:18 20:26 20:32 20:39 20:45 20:54 21:01 21:11 21:22 21:26 9615 9614 20:28 20:38 20:46 20:52 20:59 21:05 21:12 21:18 21:26 21:35 21:48 9614 9602 20:46 20:58 21:06 21:12 21:19 21:25 21:32 21:38 21:46 21:56 22:06 9602 9613 21:08 21:18 21:26 21:32 21:39 21:45 21:52 21:58 22:06 22:15 22:28 9613 9615 21:26 21:38 21:46 21:52 21:59 22:05 22:12 22:18 22:26 22:36 22:46 9615 9614 21:48 21:58 22:06 22:12 22:19 22:25 22:32 22:38 22:46 22:55 23:08 9614 9602 22:06 22:18 22:26 22:32 22:39 22:45 22:52 22:58 23:06 23:16 23:26 9602 9613 22:28 22:38 22:46 22:52 22:59 23:05 23:12 23:18 23:26 23:35 23:48 9613 9615 22:46 22:58 23:06 23:12 23:19 23:25 23:32 23:38 23:46 23:56 0:06 9615 9614 23:08 23:18 23:26 23:32 23:39 9614 23:49 9602 23:26 23:38 23:46 23:52 23:59 0:05 0:12 0:18 0:26 0:36 9602 0:56 9613 23:48 23:58 0:06 0:12 0:19 9613 0:29 9615 0:06 0:18 0:26 0:32 0:39 9615 0:49

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-75 Level ͯ. Advanced Blocking Once all the blocks are fi nished, re-calculate the Block Summary table and once again calculate the mileage. The new Hours and Mileage summary tables are shown below. Hours Summary B loc k G arage Depart G arage A rrive P lat form Hours 9601 3:45 8:57 5:12 9602 4:10 24:56 20:46 9603 4:15 18:57 14:42 9604 4:39 9:46 5:07 9605 4:55 18:23 13:28 9606 4:59 8:46 3:47 9607 6:05 9:57 3:52 9608 6:17 18:29 12:12 9609 7:05 20:36 13:31 9610 7:17 18:46 11:29 9611 15:23 18:14 2:51 9612 15:43 19:54 4:11 9613 16:11 0:29 8:18 9614 16:19 23:49 7:30 9615 16:45 0:49 7:44 Total 134:40 Mileage Summary B l oc k 96 N B T rip s 96A N B T rip s 96 N B T rip s f rom E ssex 9 6 S B T rip s 96A S B Tr ip s P ul l T rip s Li bb y/W ish ram P ul l T rip s S an d P oi nt P ul l T rip s P a sco E sse x P ul l T rip s R ug by Ci rc l e M il ea ge 9 60 1 3 3 2 57 .3 9 60 2 11 2 12 2 1 1 21 5.1 9 60 3 8 1 8 1 2 14 9.2 9 60 4 3 3 2 54 .0 9 60 5 1 7 2 7 1 1 13 2.5 9 60 6 2 2 2 39 .6 9 60 7 2 2 2 41 .8 9 60 8 1 7 1 6 1 1 11 7.3 9 60 9 6 3 5 3 1 1 13 6.3 9 61 0 1 6 1 6 2 11 2.8 9 61 1 1 2 1 1 29 .6 9 61 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 41 .1 9 61 3 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 85 .4 9 61 4 1 4 1 4 2 78 .4 9 61 5 5 1 5 1 1 88 .6 Total 42 40 3 43 40 8 9 3 10 1378.7 tripper A short piece of work whose total time is less than that specifi ed as constituting a full-time run. A tripper is often a piece of work in the AM or PM peak period that cannot be combined with another piece of work to form a split run because of insuffi cient hours, excessive swing time, or excessive spread time. Trippers are often operated by extraboard or part-time operators. Tripper can also refer to a vehicle that pulls out, makes no more than one round-trip, and pulls in.

Level ͯ. Advanced BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-76 Below is a comparison showing what these changes cost. Existing Proposed Change No. of PM Peak Buses ͵ ͭͭ +ͮ Platform Hours ͭͯͬ:ͯͳ ͭͯͰ:Ͱͬ +Ͱ:ͬͯ Platform Miles ͭͯͳʹ.ͯ ͭͯͰͭ.ͳ +ͯͳ.Ͳ The change added the equivalent of half of an operator. Actually, it added two two-hour trippers, which may or may not be a problem for the runcut, depending on what the other blocks at this route’s garage look like. The Block Summary Table shows that three of the fi ve PM pull-out blocks continue to be close to eight hours in length, compared to two of those blocks that were on the original schedule. There will have to be some re-working of the runs in order to fi t the new block profi le, but at least one more pull-out to pull-in late run will be avail- able with only minor changes to their times. We review the other blocks in the Block Summary carefully to make sure the changed blocks do not set up a runcutting problem. For example, if one of the PM pull-outs stayed out to ͮͬ:ͬͬ or ͮͭ:ͬͬ, forming a fi ve-hour block with a late pull-in, it could not easily be worked into any run. This is a topic for the Chapter ͱ: Runcutting chapter, but is also an example of how schedulers must consider all aspects of scheduling when working on one particular problem. Block ͵Ͳͭͮ could be a problem in this regard. One of the secrets to being a good scheduler is being willing to tinker constantly with the schedules—even when you think you are fi nished. In this case, examine how block ͵Ͳͭͮ might be changed. Specifi cally, instead of pulling in when it does, could its last trip hook with another trip, preferably from a longer all-day block? In our most recent schedule sheet above, the last trip on block ͵Ͳͭͮ arrives at Rugby Circle at ͭ͵:ͰͰ and pulls in. The next southbound trip departing from Rugby Circle is at ͮͬ:ͬͱ on block ͵Ͳͬͮ. This is exactly the kind of swap we were hoping to fi nd. Pull block ͵Ͳͬͮ in, and hook the trip arriving at ͭ͵:ͰͰ on block ͵Ͳͭͮ with the trip leaving at ͮͬ:ͬͱ. The aff ected trips are shown below, followed by the fi nal revised Block Sheet.

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-77 Level ͯ. Advanced Blocking S C HE D UL E S HE E T with 9 6 0 2-9 6 1 2 swap - F INA L S HE E T Rou te 96 IN EFF : M O NDA Y T HRU F RIDA Y P art 2 NO RTHB O UN D S O UTHB O UN D OUT Libby Sand Pasco Pasco Pasco Rugby Rugby Pasco Pasco Pasco Sand Libby NEXT IN BLK GAR Wishrm Point Essex Havre Willis Circle Circle Willis Havre Essex Point Wishrm TRIP BLK GAR 9612 19:05 19:18 19:28 19:35 19:44 20:05 20:14 20:21 20:31 20:42 20:46 9612 9602 19:23 19:33 19:43 19:50 19:59 9602 20:09 9613 19:35 19:48 19:58 20:05 20:14 20:25 20:34 20:41 20:51 21:01 21:08 9613 9609 19:53 20:03 20:12 20:19 20:26 9609 20:36 9615 20:06 20:18 20:26 20:32 20:39 20:45 20:54 21:01 21:11 21:22 21:26 9615 9614 20:28 20:38 20:46 20:52 20:59 21:05 21:12 21:18 21:26 21:35 21:48 9614 9612 20:46 20:58 21:06 21:12 21:19 21:25 21:32 21:38 21:46 21:56 22:06 9612 9613 21:08 21:18 21:26 21:32 21:39 21:45 21:52 21:58 22:06 22:15 22:28 9613 9615 21:26 21:38 21:46 21:52 21:59 22:05 22:12 22:18 22:26 22:36 22:46 9615 9614 21:48 21:58 22:06 22:12 22:19 22:25 22:32 22:38 22:46 22:55 23:08 9614 9612 22:06 22:18 22:26 22:32 22:39 22:45 22:52 22:58 23:06 23:16 23:26 9612 9613 22:28 22:38 22:46 22:52 22:59 23:05 23:12 23:18 23:26 23:35 23:48 9613 9615 22:46 22:58 23:06 23:12 23:19 23:25 23:32 23:38 23:46 23:56 0:06 9615 9614 23:08 23:18 23:26 23:32 23:39 9614 23:49 9612 23:26 23:38 23:46 23:52 23:59 0:05 0:12 0:18 0:26 0:36 9612 0:56 9613 23:48 23:58 0:06 0:12 0:19 9613 0:29 9615 0:06 0:18 0:26 0:32 0:39 9615 0:49

Level ͯ. Advanced BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-78 Revised Blocking Sheet - Multiple Terminals ROUTE 96 Special Instructions: DAY Weekday Goal: 7-9 minutes minimum layover time per round trip DATE 7 minutes OK before 5:00/after 19:45 Northbound Southbound Depart Depart Depart Arrive Depart Arrive Arrive Available Libby Sand Pasco Rugby Rugby Sand Libby for next trip Block # Pull Out Wishram Point Essex Circle Circle Point Wishram (arrival + Pull In NB1 NB2 midroute SB2 SB1 layover) 9601 3:45 4:05 4:41 4:50 5:23 5:35 5:35 6:16 6:20 6:57 7:05 7:05 7:50 7:55 8:37 8:57 9602 4:10 4:20 4:53 5:05 5:05 5:46 5:50 6:27 6:45 6:45 7:30 7:35 8:17 8:35 8:35 9:16 9:22 9:59 10:05 10:05 10:44 10:52 11:29 11:35 11:35 12:14 12:22 12:59 13:05 13:05 13:44 13:50 14:30 14:36 14:35 15:16 15:20 16:00 16:05 16:05 16:46 16:53 17:38 17:53 17:53 18:29 18:35 19:16 19:23 19:23 19:59 20:09 9603 4:15 4:35 5:11 5:20 5:57 6:05 6:05 6:46 6:50 7:32 7:45 7:45 8:30 8:35 9:17 9:35 9:35 10:14 10:22 10:59 11:05 11:05 11:44 11:52 12:29 12:35 12:35 13:14 13:22 13:59 14:05 14:05 14:46 14:50 15:30 15:35 15:35 16:16 16:20 17:05 17:08 17:08 17:50 17:55 18:37 18:57 9604 4:39 4:59 5:31 5:35 6:12 6:19 6:19 6:56 7:05 7:46 7:57 7:57 8:40 8:45 9:26 9:46 9605 4:55 5:05 5:37 5:49 5:49 6:26 6:35 7:12 7:17 7:17 8:00 8:05 8:46 8:53 8:53 9:31 9:37 10:13 10:23 10:23 10:59 11:07 11:43 11:53 11:53 12:29 12:37 13:13 13:23 13:23 13:59 14:05 14:44 14:53 14:53 15:31 15:45 16:28 16:30 16:30 17:15 17:17 18:03 18:23 15-Sep-07

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-79 Level ͯ. Advanced Blocking Revised Blocking Sheet - Multiple Terminals ROUTE 96 Special Instructions: DAY Weekday Goal: 7-9 minutes minimum layover time per round trip DATE 7 minutes OK before 5:00/after 19:45 Northbound Southbound Depart Depart Depart Arrive Depart Arrive Arrive Available Libby Sand Pasco Rugby Rugby Sand Libby for next trip Block # Pull Out Wishram Point Essex Circle Circle Point Wishram (arrival + Pull In NB1 NB2 midroute SB2 SB1 layover) 9606 4:59 5:19 5:56 6:05 6:42 6:57 6:57 7:40 7:45 8:26 8:46 9607 6:05 6:25 7:10 7:15 7:57 8:05 8:05 8:50 8:55 9:37 9:57 9608 6:17 6:37 7:20 7:25 8:06 8:23 8:23 9:02 9:07 9:48 9:53 9:53 10:29 10:37 11:13 11:23 11:23 11:59 12:07 12:43 12:53 12:53 13:29 13:35 14:13 14:23 14:23 15:01 15:05 15:44 15:58 15:58 16:36 16:45 17:31 17:40 17:40 18:19 18:29 9609 7:05 7:25 8:10 8:15 8:57 9:05 9:05 9:44 9:52 10:29 10:35 10:35 11:14 11:22 11:59 12:05 12:05 12:44 12:52 13:29 13:35 13:35 14:16 14:20 15:00 15:05 15:05 15:46 15:57 16:39 16:41 16:41 17:23 17:25 18:10 18:23 18:23 18:59 19:05 19:41 19:53 19:53 20:26 20:36 9610 7:17 7:37 8:20 8:25 9:06 9:23 9:23 9:59 10:07 10:43 10:53 10:53 11:29 11:37 12:13 12:23 12:23 12:59 13:07 13:43 13:53 13:53 14:31 14:35 15:14 15:23 15:23 16:01 16:09 16:52 16:55 16:55 17:40 17:45 18:26 18:46 15-Sep-07

Level ͯ. Advanced BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-80 Revised Blocking Sheet - Multiple Terminals ROUTE 96 Special Instructions: DAY Weekday Goal: 7-9 minutes minimum layover time per round trip DATE 7 minutes OK before 5:00/after 19:45 Northbound Southbound Depart Depart Depart Arrive Depart Arrive Arrive Available Libby Sand Pasco Rugby Rugby Sand Libby for next trip Block # Pull Out Wishram Point Essex Circle Circle Point Wishram (arrival + Pull In NB1 NB2 midroute SB2 SB1 layover) 9611 15:23 15:33 16:15 16:23 16:23 17:05 17:09 17:54 18:14 9612 15:43 15:58 16:26 16:37 17:22 17:28 17:28 18:10 18:20 19:02 19:05 19:05 19:44 20:05 20:42 20:46 20:46 21:19 21:25 21:56 22:06 22:06 22:39 22:45 23:16 23:26 23:26 23:59 0:05 0:36 0:56 9613 16:11 16:26 16:57 17:01 17:47 18:05 18:05 18:44 18:50 19:27 19:35 19:35 20:14 20:25 21:01 21:08 21:08 21:39 21:45 22:15 22:28 22:28 22:59 23:05 23:35 23:48 23:48 0:19 0:29 9614 16:19 16:29 17:15 17:17 17:17 18:02 18:07 18:48 18:53 18:53 19:29 19:45 20:21 20:28 20:28 20:59 21:05 21:35 21:48 21:48 22:19 22:25 22:55 23:08 23:08 23:39 23:49 9615 16:45 17:00 17:31 17:35 18:17 18:35 18:35 19:14 19:25 20:02 20:06 20:06 20:39 20:45 21:22 21:26 21:26 21:59 22:05 22:36 22:46 22:46 23:19 23:25 23:56 0:06 0:06 0:39 0:49 15-Sep-07

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-81 Level ͯ. Advanced Blocking Once all the blocks are fi nished, recalculate the Block Summary table and the mileage. The fi nal Hours and Mileage summary tables are shown below. Final Hours Summary B loc k G arage Depart G arage A rrive P lat form Hours 9601 3:45 8:57 5:12 9602 4:10 20:09 15:59 9603 4:15 18:57 14:42 9604 4:39 9:46 5:07 9605 4:55 18:23 13:28 9606 4:59 8:46 3:47 9607 6:05 9:57 3:52 9608 6:17 18:29 12:12 9609 7:05 20:36 13:31 9610 7:17 18:46 11:29 9611 15:23 18:14 2:51 9612 15:43 0:56 9:13 9613 16:11 0:29 8:18 9614 16:19 23:49 7:30 9615 16:45 0:49 7:44 Total 134:55 Final Mileage Summary B loc k 96 NB Trips 96A NB Trips 96 NB Trips from E s s ex 96 S B Trips 96A S B Trips P ull Trips Libby /W is hram P ull Trips S and P oint P ull Trips P as c o E s s ex P ull Trips Rugby C irc le M ileage 9601 3 3 2 57.3 9602 8 2 8 2 2 157.9 9603 8 1 8 1 2 149.2 9604 3 3 2 54.0 9605 1 7 2 7 1 1 132.5 9606 2 2 2 39.6 9607 2 2 2 41.8 9608 1 7 1 6 1 1 117.3 9609 6 3 5 3 1 1 136.3 9610 1 6 1 6 2 112.8 9611 1 2 1 1 29.6 9612 4 1 1 5 1 1 1 98.3 9613 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 85.4 9614 1 4 1 4 2 78.4 9615 5 1 5 1 1 88.6 Total 42 40 3 43 40 8 9 3 10 1378.7

Level ͯ. Advanced BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-82 The change has added ͬ:ͭͱ to the total platform hours (ͭͯͰ:Ͱͬ before the ͵Ͳͬͮ-͵Ͳͭͮ swap, ͭͯͰ:ͱͱ now), which results in a total increase of Ͱ:ͭʹ from the existing schedule before the running time and headway adjustments. This should result in a more effi cient runcut. The new block graph is shown below. B loc k 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A 10A 11A 12P 1P 2P 3P 4P 5P 6P 7P 8P 9P 10P 11P 12A Hours 345 857 9601 5:12 410 2009 9602 15:59 415 1857 9603 14:42 439 946 9604 5:07 455 1823 9605 13:28 459 846 9606 3:47 605 957 9607 3:52 617 1829 9608 12:12 705 2036 9609 13:31 717 1846 9610 11:29 1523 1814 9611 2:51 1543 2456 9612 9:13 1611 2429 9613 8:18 1619 2349 9614 7:30 1645 2449 9615 7:44

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-83 Level ͯ. Advanced Blocking Observations on the advanced blocking exercise include: When running times or headways change, you can expect to reblock all trips after the fi rst changes go into eff ect. In this case, all blocks (with the exception of the AM-only blocks) changed as a result of changed running times and headways in the PM peak. Each element of the scheduling process aff ects other elements. Consideration of the eff ects of blocking on runcutting can result in changes, as seen in this example. This is an important point that can get lost in the process of breaking down “scheduling” into its components, as this manual necessarily does. Good schedulers always keep this point in mind. Computerized scheduling software packages simplify the blocking process (and all aspects of scheduling) greatly. This raises an obvious question: why go through these spreadsheet-based exercises at all if the computer can spit out the answer I need? There are many levels on which this question may be answered, from the basic com- puter axiom of Garbage In, Garbage Out to a sophisticated discussion of the algorithms used in scheduling packages. Here is the best answer: to be a scheduler, you need to think like a scheduler and to understand all aspects of the craft of scheduling. In using computerized packages, thinking like a scheduler helps you to see where criteria can be adjusted. In this case, you could specify that no block shorter than fi ve hours can pull out after ͭͱ:ͬͬ. Experimenting with various criteria is one way to maximize the usefulness of a comput- erized software package. To do this eff ectively, though, you need to have a sense of which “tweaks” are most helpful. Working through spreadsheet-based or even by-hand scheduling exercises is a time-tested means of developing this sense. • • •

Level ͯ. Advanced BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-84 Applying Garages to Each Block In medium to large systems where routes travel a great distance and are through-routed from one side of town to the other, many routes work out of two (or more) garages. This can oc- cur due to the size of the route in terms of the large number of buses and can also be done to minimize to the extent possible the amount of deadhead miles and hours involved with pulling out and in. Assume that you are scheduling a through-route operated from two garages, one at each end of the route. The task for the scheduler is to get the respective blocks back to their home garages while minimizing operator pay hours. In the simplest example, buses pull out to either end of the route or to a midpoint such as downtown. As seen earlier, blocks do not necessarily end service at the same location where they begin service. Following normal blocking practice as discussed earlier, blocks will naturally end at (ͭ) the same place of the route where they be- gan, (ͮ) at downtown, or (ͯ) at the opposite end of the route. The goal is to eliminate as many of these “end opposites” as possible, or more formally, to minimize the number of runs that end in places that require long deadhead trips to reach the garage. There is no miracle way of making blocks end where they began. The scheduler deals with each block individually. The same-side start and fi nish blocks are checked off and forgotten about. Normally downtown starts or fi nishes are a “free square” which off ers half the savings (half the deadhead of going from one side of the route to the other to pull in). The scheduler can check those off too, since there is no perfect solution and downtown is a legitimate place to start and end service. That leaves us with the “end opposite” blocks. There are only two potential actions for fi xing these: (ͭ) re-hooking or (ͮ) creating extra trips. We discussed re-hooking in order to give us a better block length to aid the runcutting process. In the case of a long, through-routed line, we could also re-hook trips to yield a block which starts and fi nishes on the same side of the route. Care must be taken, though, that re-hooking works for both blocks involved. The resulting change must work for both. The concern of leav- ing a block that becomes a runcutting problem must also be considered. If the scheduler has to choose between the lesser of these two “evils” it is usually best to go with block length. That is probably the least expensive choice, as deadhead time and miles may well be less costly than a block whose pieces wind up as trippers. Creating extra trips may be desirable if they come at a time where ridership would benefi t from them. Schedulers normally view any trips that are above what is needed to meet the standards for carrying passenger volume as “bad.” In this instance, however, the added trips may not add all that much extra cost, since the mileage has to be operated anyway and the extra time in

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-85 Level ͯ. Advanced Blocking service over and above that required for deadheading may yield extra patronage. This is where the scheduler’s good judgment comes into play. Midday Storage Lots A number of larger systems store buses during the day at a central location, usually near down- town. These central storage facilities may be as simple as a parking lot located under an ele- vated portion of a freeway or may be a dedicated lot with covered parking and full facilities for drivers and supervisors, including a waiting lounge. Sometimes a centrally located bus garage can be used to host these “foreign” blocks during the midday. This arrangement is especially handy for saving unnecessary deadheading of equipment and operators. The agencies that use central midday storage normally have suburban or interurban routes that operate from quite a distance out and would have a relatively long return back to their respective garages. Many of these routes are peak-direction-only express routes that require lengthy deadheads to pull in after the AM peak and to pull out before the PM peak. In most cases, these agencies have negotiated with their unions to eliminate the need to pay drivers to deadhead back to the garage, so there is a signifi cant saving in both miles and plat- form hours. However, most systems do provide transportation back for those who want to return to the home garage. This is typically handled by sending selected pull-ins through the storage facility every ͯͬ to Ͳͬ minutes to pick up any drivers wanting to go back. The process is reversed for the start of the PM peak. In cases where the labor agreement requires payment to drivers, the shuttles between the garage and the storage lot can be more frequent, on the order of every ͭͬ to ͭͱ minutes. The scheduler’s responsibility here is to pick candidate blocks from the various routes and garages which would benefi t from this scheme. Several garages may be involved, but con- strained parking space is often the limiting factor (the union contract may also specify a maxi- mum number of buses that can be stored). Besides picking out the blocks which would stay, the scheduler must also arrange a schedule of buses going back to the home garage from the pull-ins available. There is an obvious need to account for all of the storage buses to make sure that they are all needed to pull out for the PM, although they could be used on a diff erent route ultimately returning to the home garage. Interlining on a Garage or System Basis Modern block optimizing software has given the scheduler the ability to throw a large garage’s worth of blocks or a sector of a system into an electronic hopper and allow the software to try to reduce the number of blocks necessary to operate a given set of trips by looking sys- tem-wide or garage-wide at all interlining possibilities. The software adds a new dimension

Level ͯ. Advanced BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-86 to the task by asking if certain key trips during peak times, when the number of buses is at a premium, can be moved by one or more minutes in order to eff ect a bus saving. One large transit system saved well over a dozen buses during the AM peak using this software in one sector of their service area. This resulted in monetary savings, but also in extensive deadhead- ing between terminals on diff erent routes in order to achieve the savings. Operators also found themselves working a number of diff erent routes during the course of their day. The upsides of using these block optimizers are obvious: The savings in peak buses can be signifi cant The peak bus savings translates directly into run and operator reduction But, there are downsides also: The scheduler must know when and where to use this tool or what we will character- ize as needless interlining will occur. Remember that the computer does not “see” the movement of buses; it only accounts for the mathematical savings. This can result in some unexpected situations, such as two buses passing each other while deadheading to each other’s former route in order to shave a couple of minutes off vehicle hours. This is particularly true during off -peak periods where headways are generally stable and random interlines would not normally be considered as a way of saving hours. The travel time information in the point-to-point deadhead table that drives the optimi- zation must be accurate and kept up-to-date. Otherwise, delays are spread to a number of routes, decreasing the overall on-time performance. Maintaining this large matrix is not a simple task. APC or AVL information needs to be available in large quantity and to be monitored regularly. The transit agency must use a scheduling package that off ers the block optimizing routine as an extra cost add-on. Not all packages have this routine. To perform this kind of global optimization by hand is incredibly time-consuming and usually beyond what time is available to the scheduler to prepare for the next sign-up even without this extra step. The recommendation is that schedulers should always look to their knowledge of the route structure and route performance information before deciding on how to set the criteria guiding the block optimization software. Interlining stray peak-hour pieces is a rightful concern for the scheduler, but it is possible to go overboard with the block optimization tool. Common sense and knowledge of your system can guide you. • • • • •

Chapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-87 Level ͯ. Advanced Blocking Route Assignments by Garage Many transit agencies periodically revisit which bus routes are assigned to which garages. Ongoing scheduling changes that add or reduce the number of buses operated on each route may confl ict with the capacity of a particular garage. Introduction of new types of vehicles (alternate-fuel, articulated buses) for use on specifi c routes may result in reassignment of those routes to garages with the capacity to store and/or fuel these vehicles. Opening a new garage usually triggers an analysis of this type. The scheduler’s goal in route assignment is to minimize deadhead miles and hours within any system constraints (garage capacity, fueling capabilities, maintenance bays that can accom- modate articulated buses). Computerized scheduling software is very useful in this task, par- ticularly for major changes such as the opening or closing of a garage. A reconsideration of route assignments by garage does not need to be done more than once every fi ve years or so—even less often if service levels are stable. The scheduling survey re- vealed that this is a common but not a universal practice among agencies that operate out of multiple garages. alternate-fuel buses Buses using low-polluting fuels in place of diesel or gasoline. Examples of alternate fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefi ed natural gas (LNG), ethanol, methanol, and propane. Electric or hybrid electric vehicles also fall within this defi nition. articulated bus An extra-long (54 to 62 feet) bus with the rear body section connected to the main body by a joint mechanism which allows the vehicle to bend when in operation for sharp turns and curves and yet have a continuous interior for passenger movement.

Level ͯ. Advanced BlockingChapter 4. Schedule Blocking 4-88 LEVEL 3 End of Schedule Blocking. Runcutting continues on the next page.

Next: Chapter 5 - Runcutting »
Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 135: Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling explores information on available scheduling tools and techniques and their capabilities. Also, the report provides guidance to transit agencies on a variety of scheduling issues typically faced in a transit operating environment.

TCRP Report 135 is an update to TCRP Report 30: Transit Scheduling: Basic and Advanced Manuals and addresses contemporary issues in transit scheduling. The appendixes to TCRP Report 135 were published as TCRP Web-Only Document 45: Appendixes to TCRP Report 135: Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling.

An interactive scheduling manual is available as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below. Once a CD-ROM has been made with the ISO image, open the folder on the CD-ROM called Interactive Scheduling Manual and click on Transit_Scheduling_Lessons.pps.

Help on Burning an .ISO CD-ROM Image

Download the .ISO CD-ROM Image

(Warning: This is a large and may take some time to download using a high-speed connection.)

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!