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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Older Commercial Drivers: Do They Pose a Safety Risk?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14420.
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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org COMMERCIAL TRUCK AND BUS SAFETY SYNTHES IS PROGRAM CTBSSP SyntheSiS 18 Research Sponsored by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration SubScriber categorieS Motor Carriers • Public Transportation • Safety and Human Factors Older Commercial Drivers: Do They Pose a Safety Risk? A Synthesis of Safety Practice conSultantS GENE BERGOFFEN MaineWay Services, Inc. with JOHN F. BROCK Windwalker Corporation and LOREN STAPLIN TransAnalytics, LLC

COMMERCIAL TRUCK AND BUS SAFETY SYNTHESIS PROGRAM Safety is a principal focus of government agencies and private-sector organiza- tions concerned with transportation. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Admin- istration (FMCSA) was established within the Department of Transportation on January 1, 2000, pursuant to the Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act of 1999. Formerly a part of the Federal Highway Administration, the FMCSA’s primary mission is to prevent commercial motor vehicle-related fatalities and injuries. Administration activities contribute to ensuring safety in motor carrier operations through strong enforcement of safety regulations, targeting high-risk carriers and commercial motor vehicle drivers; improving safety information systems and commercial motor vehicle technologies; strengthening commercial motor vehicle equipment and operating standards; and increasing safety aware- ness. To accomplish these activities, the Administration works with federal, state, and local enforcement agencies, the motor carrier industry, labor, safety interest groups, and others. In addition to safety, security-related issues are also receiving significant attention in light of the terrorist events of September 11, 2001. Administrators, commercial truck and bus carriers, government regula- tors, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and underevaluated. As a conse- quence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valu- able experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information available on nearly every subject of concern to commer- cial truck and bus safety. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a system- atic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the commercial truck and bus industry, the Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program (CTBSSP) was established by the FMCSA to undertake a series of studies to search out and synthesize useful knowledge from all available sources and to prepare documented reports on current practices in the subject areas of concern. Reports from this endeavor constitute the CTBSSP Synthesis series, which collects and assembles the various forms of information into single concise documents pertaining to specific commercial truck and bus safety problems or sets of closely related problems The CTBSSP, administered by the Transportation Research Board, began in early 2002 in support of the FMCSA’s safety research programs. The pro- gram initiates three to four synthesis studies annually that address concerns in the area of commercial truck and bus safety. A synthesis report is a document that summarizes existing practice in a specific technical area based typically on a literature search and a survey of relevant organizations (e.g., state DOTs, enforcement agencies, commercial truck and bus companies, or other organiza- tions appropriate for the specific topic). The primary users of the syntheses are practitioners who work on issues or problems using diverse approaches in their individual settings. The program is modeled after the successful synthesis pro- grams currently operated as part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and the Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). This synthesis series reports on various practices, making recommendations where appropriate. Each document is a compendium of the best knowledge available on measures found to be successful in resolving specific problems. To develop these syntheses in a comprehensive manner and to ensure inclu- sion of significant knowledge, available information assembled from numerous sources, including a large number of relevant organizations, is analyzed. For each topic, the project objectives are (1) to locate and assemble docu- mented information (2) to learn what practice has been used for solving or alleviating problems; (3) to identify all ongoing research; (4) to learn what problems remain largely unsolved; and (5) to organize, evaluate, and document the useful information that is acquired. Each synthesis is an immediately useful document that records practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. The CTBSSP is governed by a Program Oversight Panel consisting of indi- viduals knowledgeable in the area of commercial truck and bus safety from a number of perspectives—commercial truck and bus carriers, key industry trade associations, state regulatory agencies, safety organizations, academia, and related federal agencies. Major responsibilities of the panel are to (1) provide general oversight of the CTBSSP and its procedures, (2) annually select syn- thesis topics, (3) refine synthesis scopes, (4) select researchers to prepare each synthesis, (5) review products, and (6) make publication recommendations. Each year, potential synthesis topics are solicited through a broad indus- try-wide process. Based on the topics received, the Program Oversight Panel selects new synthesis topics based on the level of funding provided by the FMCSA. In late 2002, the Program Oversight Panel selected two task-order contractor teams through a competitive process to conduct syntheses for Fiscal Years 2003 through 2005. CTBSSP SYNTHESIS 18 Project MC-18 ISSN 1544-6808 ISBN: 978-0-309-14314-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2010925482 © 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copy- right to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce mate- rial in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or repro- duced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Coun- cil. Such approval reflects the Governing Board’s judgment that the program concerned is appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropri- ate by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (sponsor of the Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. Published reports of the COMMERCIAL TRUCK AND BUS SAFETY SYNTHESIS PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the ser- vices of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and prog- ress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

CTBBSP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE CHAIR NORM LITTLER American Bus Association MEMBERS LAMONT BYRD International Brotherhood of Teamsters B. SCOTT CLAFFEY Great West Casualty Company CHRISTOPHER CREAN Peter Pan Bus Lines, Inc. ALESSANDRO “ALEX” GUARIENTO MV Transportation, Inc., Plano, TX STEPHEN A. KEPLER Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance BRENDA LANTZ North Dakota State University DEAN NEWELL Maverick Transportation LLC DAVID OSIECKI American Trucking Associations, Alexandria, VA E. JAN SKOUBY Missouri DOT CARI SULLIVAN Two Men and a Truck International, Inc. TOM WEAKLEY Owner–Operator Independent Drivers Association Foundation GREER WOODRUFF J.B. Hunt Transport Services, Inc. CHRISTOPHER ZEILINGER Community Transportation Association of America FMCSA LIAISON ALBERT ALVAREZ MARTIN WALKER FHWA LIAISON MICHAEL S. “MIKE” GRIFFITH JOHN C. NICHOLAS APTA LIAISON GREG HULL AASHTO LIAISON LEO PENNE TRB LIAISON CHARLES W. NIESSNER RICHARD PAIN CRP STAFF FOR CTBSSP SYNTHESIS 18 CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs NANDA SRINIVASAN, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications CTBSSP SYNTHESIS STAFF STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies DONNA VLASAK, Senior Program Officer DON TIPPMAN, Editor DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate

Administrators, commercial truck and bus carriers, government regulators, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and underevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information available on nearly every subject of concern to commercial truck and bus safety. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day jobs. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the commercial truck and bus industry, the Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program (CTBSSP) was established by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) to undertake a series of studies to search out and synthesize useful knowledge from all available sources and to prepare documented reports on current practices in the subject areas of concern. Reports from this endeavor constitute the CTBSSP Synthesis series, which collects and assembles information into single concise documents pertaining to specific commercial truck and bus safety problems. The CTBSSP, administered by the Transportation Research Board, was authorized in late 2001 and began in 2002 in support of the FMCSA’s safety research programs. The program initiates several syn- thesis studies annually that address issues in the area of commercial truck and bus safety. A synthesis report is a document that summarizes existing practice in a specific technical area based typically on a literature search and a survey of relevant organizations (e.g., state DOTs, enforcement agencies, com- mercial truck and bus companies, or other organizations appropriate for the specific topic). The primary users of the syntheses are practitioners who work on issues or problems using diverse approaches in their individual settings. This synthesis series reports on various practices; each document is a compendium of the best knowl- edge available on measures found to be successful in resolving specific problems. To develop these syn- theses in a comprehensive manner and to ensure inclusion of significant knowledge, available information assembled from numerous sources is analyzed. For each topic, the project objectives are (1) to locate and assemble documented information; (2) to learn what practices have been used for solving or alleviating problems; (3) to identify relevant, ongoing research; (4) to learn what problems remain largely unsolved; and (5) to organize, evaluate, and document the useful information that is acquired. Each synthesis is an immediately useful document that records practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. This synthesis provides a knowledge base regarding age-related changes in the basic functional abilities needed to drive safely that can assist industry and labor practitioners in promoting safer commercial operations. Managers of bus and truck fleets, academic and trade association researchers, and federal and state agency officials with responsibility for developing effective regulatory and incentive programs may find this report useful. The synthesis team conducted a literature review about changes in medical (functional) fitness to drive that affect older drivers generally, and older commercial drivers, specifically. Although research data on older drivers and older drivers in general was found to be broad, findings for older commercial drivers appeared to be limited. One 1995 study proved useful to this synthesis study. As surveys with carriers and others in the trucking industry regarding older drivers’ information yielded a low response rate, in-person telephone inter- views were conducted with six carriers to gather more detailed information from industry safety managers. Gene Bergoffen, MaineWay Services, Inc.; John F. Brock, Windwalker Corporation; and Loren Sta- plin, TransAnalytics, LLC, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The Com- mercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program Oversight Committee members are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand. FOREWORD PREFACE By Donna L. Vlasak Senior Program Officer Transportation Research Board

CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background, 3 Objectives and Scope, 3 5 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction, 5 Medical Conditions and Older Driver Safety, 5 Medication Use and Safety Concerns Among Older Drivers, 8 Age-Related Functional Deficits That Predict Crash Risk, 10 Strategies to Maintain Safety with an Aging Driver Population, 17 21 CHAPTER THREE TRUCK CARRIER INDUSTRY Large Truck Crash Causation Study, 21 Industry’s View, 21 22 CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSIONS General Findings on Older Drivers, 22 General Findings on Older Commercial Drivers, 22 Summary, 22 Conclusions, 23 24 REFERENCES

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TRB’s Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program (CTBSSP) Synthesis 18: Older Commercial Drivers: Do They Pose a Safety Risk? explores age-related changes in the basic functional abilities needed to drive safely. The report is designed to help assist industry and labor practitioners in promoting safer commercial operations.

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