National Academies Press: OpenBook

Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials (2001)

Chapter: Appendix B: Glossary of terms

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Page 64
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary of terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2001. Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14594.
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Page 64
Page 65
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary of terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2001. Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14594.
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Page 65
Page 66
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary of terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2001. Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14594.
×
Page 66
Page 67
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary of terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2001. Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14594.
×
Page 67
Page 68
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary of terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2001. Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14594.
×
Page 68
Page 69
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary of terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2001. Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14594.
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Page 69

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Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials64 Appendix B: Glossary of terms Auto Terminal.Atransloadfacilityforfinishedmotorvehiclesmovingvariouslybetweenocean- goingvessels,railcars,andtrucktrailers. Backhaul.Theprocessofatransportationvehicle(typicallyatruck)returningfromtheoriginal destinationpointtothepointoforigin.Abackhaulcanbewithafullorpartiallyloadedtrailer,and contraststoanemptymovement. Barge. Thecargo-carryingvehiclethatinlandwatercarriersprimarilyuse.Basicbargeshaveopen tops,buttherearecoveredbargesforbothdryandliquidcargoes. Bottleneck.Asectionofahighwayorrailnetworkthatexperiencesoperationalproblemssuchas congestion.Bottlenecksmayresultfromfactorssuchasreducedroadwaywidthorsteepfreeway gradesthatcanslowtrucks. Boxcar.Anenclosedrailcar,typically40ormorefeetlong,usedforpackagedfreightandsome bulkcommodities. Breakbulk Cargo.Cargoofnon-uniformsizes,oftentransportedonpallets,sacks,drums,orbags. These cargoes require labor-intensive loadingandunloadingprocesses. Examplesofbreakbulk cargoincludecoffeebeans,logs,orpulp. Bulk Cargo. Cargothat isunboundas loaded; it iswithoutcount ina looseunpackagedform. Examplesofbulkcargoincludecoal,grain,andpetroleumproducts. Bulk Terminal.See“TransloadTerminal.” Capacity.Thephysicalfacilities,personnel,andprocessavailabletomeettheproductorservice needsofthecustomers.Capacitygenerallyreferstothemaximumoutputorproducingabilityof amachine,aperson,aprocess,afactory,aproduct,oraservice.Inregardstothetransportation system,thistermreferencestheabilityofthetransportationinfrastructuretoaccommodatetraffic flow. Carload. Quantityoffreight(intons)requiredtofillarailcar;amountnormallyrequiredtoqualify foracarloadrate. Carrier.Afirmwhichtransportsgoodsorpeoplevialand,sea,orair. City Terminal.  A carrier operating facility whose chief functions are the intramodal sorting andconsolidationof loadsetsbetweenintercity linehaulandlocalpickupanddeliveryandthe managementofpickupanddeliveryservicestocustomers. Chassis.Atrailer-typedevicewithwheelsconstructedtoaccommodatecontainers,whicharelifted onandoff.

Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials 65 Class I Railroad.Amajorrailroadwithannualcarrieroperatingrevenuesof$250millionormore. Thereare sevenClass I railroads in theUSandCanada:BurlingtonNorthernSantaFe (BNSF), CanadianNational(CN),CanadianPacific(CP),CSX,KansasCitySouthern(KCS),NorfolkSouthern (NS),andUnionPacific(UP). Classification yard. Arailroadterminalareawhererailcarsaregroupedtogethertoformtrain units. Commodity. An item that is traded in commerce. The term usually impliesan undifferentiated productcompetingprimarilyonpriceandavailability. Common Carrier. Anycarrierengagedintheinterstatetransportationofpersons/propertyona regularscheduleatpublishedrates,whoseservicesareforhiretothegeneralpublic. Container. A “box,” typically ten- to forty-feet long,which is usedprimarily forocean freight shipment.Containersaredesignedtobemovedwithcommonhandlingequipment,functioningas thetransferunitbetweenmodesratherthanthecargoitself.Fortraveltoandfromports,containers areloadedontotruckchassisoronrailroadflatcars. Container yard.See“DropYard.” Containerization. Ashipmentmethodinwhichcommoditiesareplacedincontainers,andafter initialloading,thecommoditiesarenotrehandledinshipmentuntiltheyareunloadedatdestination. Containerized Cargo. Cargothatistransportedincontainersthatcanbetransferredeasilyfrom onetransportationmodetoanother. Contract Carrier.Carrierengagedininterstatetransportationofpersons/propertybymotorvehicle onafor-hirebasis,undercontractwithoneoralimitednumberofcustomerstomeetspecificneeds. Cross-Dock Facility.Astagingfacilitywhereinbounditemsarenotreceivedintostock,butare preparedforshipmenttoanotherlocationorforretailstores. Distribution Center (DC).Awarehousefacilitywhichholdsinventoryfrommanufacturingpending distributiontotheappropriatestores. Dock.Aspaceusedforreceivingmerchandiseatafreightterminal. Double-Stack.Railcarmovementofcontainersstackedtwohigh. Drayage.Transportingofair,rail,oroceanfreightbytrucktoanintermediateorfinaldestination; typicallyachargeforpickup/deliveryofgoodsmovingshortdistances(e.g.,frommarineterminal towarehouse).

Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials66 Drop yard. A typeofdistributioncenter towhichanequipmentoperatordepositsa traileror boxcaratafacilityatwhichitistobeloadedorunloaded. Durable Goods. Generally,anygoodswhosecontinuousserviceability is likelytoexceedthree years. Flatbed.Atrailerwithoutsidesusedforhaulingmachineryorotherbulkyitems. Freight Forwarder.  A personwhose business is to act as an agent on behalf of a shipper. A freightforwarderfrequentlyconsolidatesshipmentsfromseveralshippersandcoordinatesbooking reservations. Freight Village. See“IntegratedLogisticsCenter.” Foreign Trade zone (FTz).Anareaorzonesetasideatornearaportorairport,underthecontrol oftheUSCustomsService,forholdinggoodsduty-freependingcustomsclearance. Hub. Acommonconnectionpoint inanetwork,as ina“hubandspoke”configuration,which is commonintheairlineandtruckingindustries. Hub Terminal.Carrieroperatingfacilitywhoseprincipalfunctionistheintramodalre-sortingand reconsolidationofinboundintooutboundloadsetsforcontinuationinintercitylinehaul. Inbound Logistics. Themovementofmaterialsfromshippersandvendorsintoproductionprocesses orstoragefacilities. Industrial yard. Arailroadcityterminalallowingthetransferofrailcarsbetweentracksforlocal andintercitytrains. Inland Port.Aphysicalsitelocatedawayfromtraditionalcoastalorlandborderswiththepurpose offacilitatingandprocessinginternationaltradethroughvarioustransportationmodesandtypically offeringvalue-addedservicesasgoodsmovethroughthesupplychain. Integrated Logistics Center (ILC).Aclusteringofactivitiesrelatedtotransport,logistics,andthe distributionofgoodsfordomesticand/orinternationaluse.Activitiesarecarriedoutbyacollection ofvariousoperators.Alsoknownasa“freightvillage.” Interline Freight. Freightmovingfrompointoforigintopointofdestinationoverthelinesoftwo ormoretransportationcompanies. Intermodal Transportation. Transportingfreightbyusingtwoormoretransportationmodessuch astruckandrailortruckandoceangoingvessel. Intermodal Terminal. Alocationwherelinksbetweendifferenttransportationmodesandnetworks connectandtransfercanoccur.

Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials 67 Inventory.  Thenumberof unitsand/orvalueof the stockofgoods (rawmaterials, in-process, finishedgoods)acompanyholds. Just-in-Time (JIT).  An inventory control system that controls material flow into assembly and manufacturingplantsbycoordinatingdemandand supply to thepointwheredesiredmaterials arrivejustintimeforuse.Aninventoryreductionstrategythatfeedsproductionlineswithproducts delivered“just-in-time.” Lead-Time. Thetotaltimethatelapsesbetweenanorder’splacementanditsreceipt.Itincludesthe timerequiredforordertransmittal,orderprocessing,orderpreparation,andtransit. Less-Than-Containerload/Less-Than-Truckload (LCL/LTL).  A container or trailer loaded with cargofrommore thanoneshipper; loads thatdonotby themselvesmeet thecontainer loador truckloadrequirements. Level of Service (LOS).  A qualitative assessment of a road’s operating conditions. For local government comprehensive planning purposes, level of service is an indicator of the extent or degreeofserviceprovidedby,orproposedtobeprovidedby,afacilitybasedonandrelatedto theoperationalcharacteristicsofthefacility. Line Haul. Theintercitymovementoffreightovertheroad/railfromoriginterminalormarketto destinationterminalormarket,oftenoverlongdistances. Load Center. Aseaportengagedincontainertradethatactsasahighvolumetransferpointfor goodsmovinglongdistancesinland,andprovidesservicetoitsregionalhinterland. Logistics.  All activities involved in themanagement of productmovement; delivering the right productfromtherightorigintotherightdestination,withtherightqualityandquantity,attheright scheduleandprice. marshalling yard. See“IndustrialYard.” node. Afixedpointinalogisticssystemwheregoodscometorest;includesplants,warehouses, supplysources,andmarkets. Outbound Logistics.Theprocessrelatedtothemovementandstorageofproductsfromtheend oftheproductionlinetotheenduser. Piggyback. Arail/truckservice.Ashipperloadsahighwaytrailer,andacarrierdrives it toa railterminalandloadsitonaflatcar;therailroadmovesthetrailer-on-flatcarcombinationtothe destinationterminal,wherethecarrieroffloadsthetraileranddeliversittotheconsignee. Pool/Drop Trailers. Trailersthatarestagedatfacilitiesforpreloadingpurposes.

Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials68 Port (sea and air). Aplaceservingasaharbor,airport,orpointofentryandexitforincoming andoutgoingshipments. Post-Panamax.  Refers to ships thatare too large topass through thePanamaCanal, suchas contemporarysupertankersandthelargestcontainerships. Private Carrier. Acarrierthatprovidestransportationservicetothefirmthatownsorleasesthe vehiclewhichistypicallyashipperorreceiverofgoods. Private Warehouse.Acompany-ownedwarehouse. Pull Logistics System.“Justintime”logisticssystemdrivenbycustomerdemandandenabledby telecommunicationsandinformationsystemsratherthanbymanufacturingprocessandinventory stockpiling. Push Logistics System.  Inventory-based logistics system characterizedby regularly scheduled flowsofproductsandhighinventorylevels. Rail Siding. Averyshortbranchoffamainrailwaylinewithonlyonepointofaccess.Sidingsallow fastertrainstopasssloweronesandfacilitatemaintenanceorloadingoffthemaintrack. Regional Railroad. Railroaddefinedasline-haulrailroadoperatingatleast350milesoftrack and/orearningrevenuebetween$40millionand$272million(2002). Reverse Logistics. Aspecializedsegmentoflogisticsfocusingonthemovementandmanagement ofproductsandresourcesaftersaleandafterdeliverytothecustomer.Includesproductreturns andrepairforcredit. Receiving. Thefunctionencompassingthephysicalreceiptofmaterial,theinspectionoftheshipment forconformancewiththepurchaseorder(quantityanddamage),theidentificationanddeliveryto destination,andthepreparationofreceivingreports. Radio Frequency (RFID). Aformofwirelesscommunicationthatletsusersrelayinformationvia electronicenergywavesfromaterminaltoabasestation,whichislinkedinturntoahostcomputer. Theterminalscanbeplacedatafixedstation,mountedonaforklifttruck,orcarriedintheworker’s hand.Thebasestationcontainsatransmitterandreceiverforcommunicationwith theterminals. Whencombinedwithabar-codesystemforidentifyinginventoryitems,aradio-frequencysystem canrelaydatainstantly,thusupdatinginventoryrecordsin“realtime.” Seasonality. Repetitivepatternofdemandfromyeartoyear(orotherrepeatingtimeinterval) withsomeperiodsconsiderablyhigherthanothers.Seasonalityexplainsthefluctuationindemand forvariousrecreationalproducts,whichareusedduringdifferentseasons. Service Center.See“CityTerminal.” Shipper.Partythattendersgoodsfortransportation.Oftenusedlooselytomeananybuyerof freighttransportationservices,whethershippingorreceivinggoods.

Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials 69 Shipping manifest.Adocumentthatliststhepiecesinashipment. Short-Line Railroad. FreightrailroadswhicharenotClassIorRegionalRailroads,thatoperateless than350milesoftrackandearnlessthan$40million. Short-Sea Shipping.  Also known as coastal or coastwise shipping, describes marine shipping operationsbetweenportsalongasinglecoastorinvolvingashortseacrossing. Switching and Terminal Railroad.Railroadthatprovidespickupanddeliveryservicestoline-haul carriers. Supply Chain. Startingwithunprocessedrawmaterialsandendingwithfinalcustomerusingthe finishedgoods. Third-Party Logistics (3PL) Provider.  A specialist in logistics who may provide a variety of transportation,warehousing, and logistics-related services to buyers or sellers. These tasksmay previouslyhavebeenperformedin-housebythecustomer. Throughput. Awarehousingoutputmeasurethatconsidersthevolume(weightandnumberofunits) ofitemsstoredduringagiventimeperiod. Ton-mile.  Ameasure of output for freight transportation; reflects weight of shipment and the distanceitishauled;amultiplicationoftonshauledbythedistancetraveled. Transit time. Thetotaltimethatelapsesbetweenashipment’spickupanddelivery. Transload Terminal.Areceivinganddistributingfacilityforlumber,concrete,petroleumaggregates, andothersuchbulkproducts. Transloading. Transferringbulkshipmentsfromthevehicle/containerofonemodetothatofanother ataterminalinterchangepoint. Truckload (TL). Quantityoffreightrequiredtofillatruck,orataminimum,theamountrequired toqualifyforatruckloadrate. Twenty-Foot Equivalent unit (TEu).Theeight-footbyeight-footby20-footintermodalcontainer usedasabasicmeasureinmanystatistics;itisthestandardmeasureusedforcontainerizedcargo. unit Train. Atrainofaspecifiednumberofrailcarshandlingasinglecommoditytypewhichremain asaunitforadesignateddestinationoruntilachangeinroutingismade. Vehicle miles Traveled (VmT).Aunittomeasurevehicletravelmadebyaprivatevehicle,suchas anautomobile,van,pickuptruck,ormotorcycle.Generallyusedasanoverallmeasureofregional travelefficiencyorvolume. Warehouse.Storageplaceforproducts.Principalwarehouseactivitiesincludereceiptofproduct, storage,shipment,andorderpicking.

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TRB’s National Freight Cooperative Research Program (NFCRP) Report 13: Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials describes the key criteria that the private sector considers when making decisions on where to build new logistics facilities.

A final report that provides background material used in the development of NFCRP Report 13 has been published as NCFRP Web-Only Document 1: Background Research Material for Freight Facility Location Selection: A Guide for Public Officials (NCFRP Report 13)

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