National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Information Technology Systems at Airports--A Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14622.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Information Technology Systems at Airports--A Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14622.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Information Technology Systems at Airports--A Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14622.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Information Technology Systems at Airports--A Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14622.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Information Technology Systems at Airports--A Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14622.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Information Technology Systems at Airports--A Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14622.
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TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 59 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation Information Technology Systems at Airports—A Primer John Purnell Ruth Hough FAITH GROUP, LLC St. Louis, MO Robert White Sandra Gonzalez Frank Haley Matt Hyde HAS DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION Houston, TX Jim Willis Gerard de Grandis John Walfish CONVERGENT STRATEGIES CONSULTING, INC. Chadds Ford, PA

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- national commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 59 Project 01-12 ISSN 1935-9802 ISBN 978-0-309-21376-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2011944294 © 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 59 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Joseph J. Brown-Snell, Program Associate Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor ACRP PROJECT 01-12 PANEL Field of Administration John Newsome, Greater Orlando Aviation Authority, Orlando, FL (Chair) Frank Barich, Barich, Inc., Chandler, AZ James C. DeLong, Capital Improvement…1904, LLC, Castle Rock, CO Dominic A. Nessi, Los Angeles World Airports, Los Angeles, CA Carl E. Remus, Tulsa Airport Authority, Tulsa, OK David Ruch, Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Paul L. Friedman, FAA Liaison Matthew J. Griffin, Airports Council International – North America Liaison Thomas Palmerlee, TRB Liaison C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S

ACRP Report 59: Information Technology Systems at Airports—A Primer provides insights and advice to help airport executives and information technology (IT) professionals plan for and communicate about information technology at airports. The report offers techniques for both groups to identify critical issues and thereby communicate effectively, articulates sound IT principles for implementing new IT systems using a standard IT system lifecycle process for their airport, describes the benefits and value of various IT systems when formu- lating airport strategic goals and making financial investment decisions, and helps clarify mutual understanding of the fundamental architecture concepts of IT systems as they relate to airport goals. This primer is based on the knowledge, expertise, opinions, and recommendations of airport executives, IT professionals, and other airport industry practitioners collected through focus group discussions, online surveys, interviews, and case studies. In addition to proven techniques and tools applied at some airports, the primer provides innovative solutions for common IT issues. Occasionally, airport executives do not fully understand how to place a value on infor- mation systems and technology when making resource allocation decisions, and likewise IT professionals frequently have a difficult time communicating and justifying the business benefits of newer technologies to executive management. This creates a dilemma of sorts, and as a result, airports tend to lag behind private industry in the strategic use of technology to improve business operations and financial performance. Today, IT is a core component of nearly all processes at the airport. A change is occur- ring in business processes at airports, where the airport is becoming a fully involved service provider in the daily operation of all airport activities, including tenant activities. With IT applications, airports are offering more comprehensive services to their tenants and cus- tomers in the normal course of doing business. Notwithstanding, airports do not always know how to tailor information systems and technology to best support their own opera- tions, let alone those of their tenants. Airports sometimes experience problems such as cost overruns, underperformance, implementation delays, internal disputes, poor reliability, unanticipated collateral impacts, and failure to consider integration when implementing new IT applications. Through ACRP Project 01-12, Faith Group, LLC, developed a user-friendly management tool to facilitate airport executives’ and IT professionals’ mutual understanding and help them work together more effectively on IT projects, leading to better performance and reli- ability of IT systems and fewer cost overruns and delays during system implementation. F O R E W O R D By Michael R. Salamone ACRP Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Purpose of the Primer 1 1.2 The Communication Triangle 3 1.3 Guiding IT Principles 3 1.4 IT System Lifecycle 3 1.5 Evaluating IT Systems 4 1.6 IT Systems Architecture 4 1.7 Checklists – A Common Management Tool 4 1.8 IT Vocabulary 6 Chapter 2 The IT Communication Triangle—Solving IT Issues 6 2.1 The Challenges of Communicating About IT 6 2.2 CEO–CIO Communication 15 2.3 CIO–Stakeholder Communication 24 2.4 CEO–Stakeholder Communication 29 Chapter 3 The IT System Lifecycle—A Common Process 29 3.1 Introduction 30 3.2 Strategic Planning 32 3.3 System Planning Phase 37 3.4 Implementation Phase 41 3.5 Operations and Maintenance Phase 44 Chapter 4 Guiding IT Principles for Airports—A Common Framework 44 4.1 Sample IT Principles 49 Chapter 5 Evaluating IT Investments—A Common Decision Tool 49 5.1 A Process for Valuing IT Systems 49 5.2 Documenting System Benefits 50 5.3 Determining Total Lifecycle Costs 50 5.4 Cost–Benefit Analysis 53 5.5 Scoring Systems 55 Chapter 6 IT System Architecture—A Common Understanding 55 6.1 A Layered Architecture 59 Appendix A Example Document Outlines 70 Appendix B Airport Systems 88 Appendix C Airport and IT Acronyms and Abbreviations 97 References C O N T E N T S Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 59: Information Technology Systems at Airports--A Primer is designed to help facilitate mutual understanding between airport executives and information technology (IT) professionals to enable them to work together effectively on IT projects. One of the goals of the report is to help airports achieve better performance and reliability of IT systems and fewer cost overruns and delays during system implementation.

ACRP Report 59 offers techniques to identify critical IT issues and communicate effectively on those issues. The report also addresses sound IT principles for implementing new IT systems, describes the benefits and value of various IT systems, and highlights the fundamental architecture concepts of IT systems as they relate to airports.

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