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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Operator Drug- and Alcohol-Testing Across Modes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14635.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Operator Drug- and Alcohol-Testing Across Modes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14635.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Operator Drug- and Alcohol-Testing Across Modes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14635.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Operator Drug- and Alcohol-Testing Across Modes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14635.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Operator Drug- and Alcohol-Testing Across Modes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14635.
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44 REFERENCES Barroso, M., E. Gallardo, D.N. Vieira, J.A. Queiroz, and M. Lopez-Rivadulla, “Bioanalytical Procedures and Recent Developments in the Determination of Opiates/Opioids in Human Biological Samples,” Analytical and Bioana- lytical Chemistry, Vol. 400, 2011, pp. 1665–1690. Baselt, R.C. and R.H. Cravey, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, Chemical Toxicology Institute, Foster City, Calif., 1995. Baumgartner, W.A. and V.A. Hill, “Hair Analysis for Drugs of Abuse: An Investigation of the Melanin Bias Hypoth- esis,” International Journal of Drug Testing, Vol. 2, 2001, pp. 1–19. Bernstein, E., J. Bernstein, K. Tassiopoulos, A. Valentine, T. Heeren, S. Levenson, and R. Hingson, “Racial and Eth- nic Diversity Among a Heroin and Cocaine Using Popu- lation: Treatment System Utilization,” Journal of Addictive Diseases, Vol. 24, 2005, pp. 43–63. Burns, M., T.E. Page, and J.B. Leikin, Drug Information Handbook, Lexi-Comp., Hudson, Ohio, 1998. Burris, A., “HB Man Sentenced for Making Fake Pee Prod- ucts,” The Orange County Register [Online]. Available: http://www.ocregister.com/articles/drug-243187-press- release.html [accessed Apr. 8, 2010]. Bush, D.M., “Federal Regulation of Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing,” in Drug Abuse Handbook, S.B. Karch, Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 2007, pp. 736–747. Bush, D.M., “The U.S. Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug-Testing Programs: Current Status and Future Considerations,” Forensic Science International, Vol. 174, 2008, pp. 111–119. Cairns, T., V. Hill, M. Schaffer, and W. Thistle, “Levels of Cocaine and Its Metabolites in Washed Hair of Demon- strated Cocaine Users and Workplace Subjects,” Foren- sic Science International, Vol. 145, 2004a, pp. 175–181. Cairns, T., V. Hill, M. Schaffer, and W. Thistle, “Removing and Identifying Drug Contamination in the Analysis of Human Hair,” Forensic Science International, Vol. 145, 2004b, pp. 97–108. Caplan, Y., “Specimen Validity Testing,” In Drug Abuse Handbook, S.B. Karch, Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 2007, pp. 842–856. Cody, J.T. and S. Valtier, “Effects of Stealth Adulterant on Immunoassay Testing for Drug of Abuse,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Vol. 25, 2001, pp. 466–470. Cone, E.J., R. Lange, and W.D. Darwin, “In Vivo Adultera- tion: Excess Fluid Ingestion Causes False-Negative Mari- juana and Cocaine in Urine Test Results,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Vol. 22, 1998, pp. 460–473. Cone, E.J., A. Sampson-Cone, and M.A. Huestis, “Interpret- ing Alternative Matrix Test Results,” In Drug Abuse Handbook, S.B. Karch, Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 2007, pp. 814–842. Couper, F.J. and B.K. Logan, Drug and Human Performance Drug Sheets, Report No. DOT HS 809-725, 2004, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration website [Online]. Available: http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/ injury/research/job185drugs/drugs_web.pdf. Dasgupta, A., “The Effects of Adulterants and Selected Ingested Compounds on Drug-of-Abuse Testing in Urine,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, Vol. 128, 2007, pp. 491–503. Drummer, O.H., “Forensic Toxicology,” Experientia, Vol. 100, 2010, pp. 579–603. DuPont, R.L. and W.A. Baumgartner, “Drug Testing by Urine and Hair Analysis: Complementary Features and Scientific Issues,” Forensic Science International, Vol. 70, 1995, pp. 63–76. Gallardo, E. and J.A. Queiroz, “The Role of Alternative Specimens in Toxicological Analysis,” Biomedical Chro- matography, Vol. 22, 2008, pp. 795–821. GAO, Undercover Tests Reveal Significant Vulnerabilities in DOT’s Drug Testing Program, GAO Publication No. 08-225T, Washington, D.C., 2007 [Online]. Available: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d08225t.pdf. GAO, Motor Carrier Safety: Improvements to Drug Testing Programs Could Better Identify Illegal Drug Users and Keep Them Off the Road, GAO Publication No. 08-600, Washington, D.C., 2008 [Online]. Available: http://www. gao.gov/new.items/d08600.pdf. Goldberger, B.A. and Y.H. Caplan, “Effect of Glutaralde- hyde (UrinAid) on Detection of Abused Drugs in Urine by Immunoassay,” Clinical Chemistry, Vol. 40, 1994, pp. 1605–1606. Gruberg, R., Memorandum to Terry Sheldon, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Washington, D.C., 1997. Gruberg, R., Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey: 2004 and 2005 Results, Report No. FMCSA-RRA-07-013, 2007 [Online]. Available: http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/facts- research /research-technology/analysis /FMCSA- RRA-07-014.htm. Halliburton, Halliburton Safety Statistics: 1 Jan 2000 through 30 Jun 2010, 2010 [Online]. Available: http://

45 www.halliburton.com/public/about_us/pubsdata/hse/ pdf/Glbl_Mon_Rpt_YTD_Public.pdf. Hill, V., T. Cairns, and M. Schaffer, “Hair Analysis for Cocaine: Factors in Laboratory Contamination Studies and Their Relevance to Proficiency Sample Preparation and Hair Testing Practices,” Forensic Science Interna- tional, Vol. 176, 2008, pp. 23–33. Hill, V., M. Schaffer, and T. Cairns, “Absence of Hair Color Effects in Hair Analysis Results for Cocaine, Benzoylec- gonine, Morphine, 6-Monoacetylmorphine, Codeine, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-THC in Large Workplace Pop- ulations,” Annales de Toxicologie Analytique, Vol. 17, 2005, pp. 285–297. Hoelzle, C., F. Scheufler, M. Uhl, H. Sachs, and D. Thieme, “Application of Discriminant Analysis to Differentiate Between Incorporation of Cocaine and Its Congeners into Hair and Contamination,” Forensic Science Interna- tional, Vol. 176, 2008, pp. 13–18. Hoffman, B.H., “Analysis of Race Effects on Drug Test Results,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 41, 1999, pp. 612–614. Jaffee, W.B., E. Trucco, C. Teter, S. Levy, and R.D. Weiss, “Ensuring Validity in Urine Drug Testing,” Psychiatric Services, Vol. 59, 2008, pp. 140–142. Jambor, L., “Adulterants Continue to Challenge Laborato- ries,” Clinical & Forensic Toxicology News, Dec. 2008, pp. 1, 8–10. Kelly, R.C., T. Meiczkowski, S.A. Sweeney, and J.A. Bour- land, “Hair Analysis for Drug of Abuse. Hair Color and Race Differentials or Systematic Differences in Drug Preferences?” Forensic Science International, Vol. 107, 2000, pp. 63–86. Khan, M.A., Results from the 2008 Drug and Alcohol Test- ing Survey, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administra- tion, Washington, D.C., 2010. Kidwell, D.A., and F.P. Smith, “Passive Exposure, Decon- tamination Procedures, Cutoffs, and Bias: Pitfalls in the Interpretation of Hair Analysis Results for Cocaine Use,” In Analytical and Practical Aspects of Drug Testing in Hair, P. Kintz, Ed., Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, Fla., 2007, pp. 25–72. Kidwell, D.A., E.H. Lee, and S.F. DeLauder, “Evidence for Bias in Hair Testing and Procedures to Correct Bias,” Forensic Science International, Vol. 107, 2000, pp. 39–61. Kintz, P., M. Villain, and V. Cirimele, “Analytical Approaches for Drugs in Biological Matrices Other Than Urine,” In Drug Abuse Handbook, S.B. Karch, Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 2007, pp. 800–813. Koren, G., J. Klein, R. Forman, and K. Graham, “Hair Anal- ysis of Cocaine: Differentiation Between Systemic Expo- sure and External Contamination,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Vol. 32, 1992, pp. 671–675. LeBeau, M.A. and M.A. Montgomery, “Considerations on the Utility of Hair Analysis for Cocaine,” Journal of Ana- lytical Toxicology, Vol. 33, 2009, pp. 343–344. LeBeau, M.A. and M.A. Montgomery, “Hair Analysis for Cocaine Continues to Be a Valuable Tool in Forensic and Clinical Toxicology: The Authors’ Reply,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Vol. 34, 2010, pp. 355–356. Mas, M., M. Farre, R. De La Torre, P.R. Roset, J. Ortuño, J. Segura, and J. Cami, “Cardiovascular and Neuroendo- crine Effects and Pharmacokinetics of 3,4-Methylene- dioxymethamphetamine in Humans,” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Vol. 290, 1999, pp. 136–145. Mieczkowski, T., “Passive Contamination of Undercover Narcotics Officers by Cocaine: An Assessment of Their Exposure Using Hair Analysis,” Microgram, Vol. 27, 1995, pp. 193–198. Mieczkowski, T., “Urinalysis and Hair Analysis for Illicit Drugs of Driver Applicants and Drivers in the Trucking Industry,” Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Vol. 17, 2010, pp. 254–260. Mieczkowski, T. and M. Kruger, “Interpreting the Color Effect of Melanin on Cocaine and Benzoylecgonine Assays for Hair Analysis: Brown and Black Samples Compared,” Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Vol. 14, 2007, pp. 7–15. Mieczkowski, T. and R. Newel, “An Evaluation of Patterns of Racial Bias in Hair Assays for Cocaine: Black and White Arrestees Compared,” Forensic Science Interna- tional, Vol. 63, 1993, pp. 85–98. Mieczkowski, T. and R. Newel, “Statistical Examination of Hair Color as a Potential Biasing Factor in Hair Analy- sis,” Forensic Science International, Vol. 107, 2000, pp. 13–38. Mieczkowski, T., K.M. Lersch, and M. Kruger, “Police Drug Testing, Hair Analysis, and the Issue of Race Bias,” Criminal Justice Review, Vol. 27, 2002, pp. 124–139. Mieczkowski. T., C. Sullivan, and M. Kruger, “The Use of Bayes Coefficients to Assess the Racial Bias–Hair Anal- ysis Conjecture for Detection of Cocaine in Hair Sam- ples,” Forensic Science Communications, Vol. 9, 2007, pp. 1–12. Mikkelsen, S.L. and K.O. Ash, “Adulterants Causing False Negatives in Illicit Drug Testing,” Clinical Chemistry, Vol. 34, 1988, pp. 2333–2336. Moeller, K.E., K.C. Lee, and J.C. Kissack, “Urine Drug Screening: Practical Guide for Clinicians,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Vol. 83, 2008, pp. 66–76.

46 Moskowitz, H. and D. Fiorentino, A Review of the Literature on the Effects of Low Doses of Alcohol on Driving-Related Skills, Report No. DOT HS 809 028, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, D.C., 2000. Paul, B.D. and A. Jacobs, “Effects of Oxidizing Adulterants on Detection of 11-nor-delta9-thc-9-Carboxylic Acid in Urine,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Vol. 26, 2002, pp. 460–463. Paul, B.D. and A. Jacobs, “Spectrophotometric Detection of Iodide and Chromic (III) in Urine After Oxidation to Iodine and Chromate (VI),” Journal of Analytical Toxi- cology, Vol. 29, 2005, pp. 658–663. Pearson, S.D., K.O. Ash, and F.M. Urry, “Mechanism of False-Negative Urine Cannabinoid Immunoassay Screens by Visine Eyedrops,” Clinical Chemistry, Vol. 35, 1989, pp. 636–638. Pragst, F. and M.A. Balikova, “State of the Art in Hair Anal- ysis for Detection of Drug and Alcohol Abuse,” Clinica Chimica Acta, Vol. 370, 2006, pp. 17–49. Pragst, F., H. Sachs, and P. Kintz, “Hair Analysis for Cocaine Continues to Be a Valuable Tool in Forensic and Clinical Toxicology,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Vol. 34, 2010, 354–355. Quest Diagnostics, New Hair Data Validate Sharp Down- ward Trend in Cocaine and Methamphetamine Positivity in General U.S. Workforce, According to Quest Diagnos- tics Drug Testing Index, Nov. 2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.questdiagnostics.com/employersolutions/ dti/2009_11/dti_index.html. Quest Diagnostics, U.S. Worker Use of Prescription Opiates Climbing, Shows Quest Diagnostics Drug Testing Index, Sep. 2010 [Online]. Available: http://www.questdiagnos- tics.com/employersolutions/dti/2010_09/dti_index.html. Redington, M., E. Rutyna, N. Grace, and F. Shanahan, Drug and Alcohol Testing Results: 2007 Annual Report, Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FTA-09-01, 2009 [Online]. Available: http://transit-safety.fta.dot.gov/publications/substance/ damis07/pdf/damis07.pdf. Romano, G., N. Barbera, and I. Lombardo, “Hair Testing for Drugs of Abuse: Evaluation of External Cocaine Con- tamination and Risk of False Positives,” Forensic Science International, Vol. 123, 2001, pp. 119–129. Ropero-Miller, J.D. and P.R. Stout, Analysis of Cocaine Ana- lytes in Human Hair: Evaluation of Concentration Ratios in Different Hair Types, Cocaine Sources, Drug-User Populations, and Surface-Contaminated Specimens, 2008 [Online]. Available: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdf- files1/nij/grants/225531.pdf. Ropero-Miller, J.D. and P.R. Stout, Analysis of Cocaine Ana- lytes in Human Hair II: Evaluation of Different Hair Color and Ethnicity Types, 2011 [Online]. Available: https://www.ncjrs.gov/app/publications /Abstract. aspx?id=256586. Sample, B., “Recent Trends in Workplace Testing of Illicit Drugs in Hair and Urine,” Jan. 28, 2010 [Online]. Avail- able: http://employersolutions.zynite.com/seminars.cfm [accessed June 24, 2010]. Schaffer, M.I., W.L. Wang, and J. Irving, “An Evaluation of Two Wash Procedures for the Differentiation of External Contamination Versus Ingestion in the Analysis of Human Hair Samples for Cocaine,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Vol. 26, 2002, pp. 485–488. Schaffer, M., V. Hill, and T. Cairns, “Hair Analysis for Cocaine: The Requirement for Effective Wash Proce- dures and Effects of Drug Concentration and Hair Poros- ity in Contamination and Decontamination,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Vol. 29, 2005, pp. 1–8. Schwope, D.M., G. Milman, and M.A. Huestis, “Validation of an Enzyme Immunoassay for Detection and Semi- quantification of Cannabinoids in Oral Fluid,” Clinical Chemistry, Vol. 56, 2010, pp. 1007–1014. Stout, P.R., “Hair Testing for Drugs—Challenges for Inter- pretation,” Forensic Science Review, Vol. 19, 2007, pp. 69–84. Tassiopoulos, K., J. Bernstein, T. Heeren, S. Levenson, R. Hignson, and E. Bernstein, “Hair Testing and Self-Report Cocaine Use by Heroin Users,” Addiction, Vol. 99, 2004, pp. 590–597. Thorspecken, J., G. Skopp, and L. Potsch, “In Vitro Con- tamination of Hair by Marijuana Smoke,” Clinical Chem- istry, Vol. 50, 2004, pp. 596–602. Tsai, S.C., M.A. ElSohly, T. Dubrovsky, B. Twarowska, J. Towt, and S.J. Salamone, “Determination of Five Abused Drugs in Nitrite-Adulterated Urine by Immunoassay and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Vol. 22, 1998, pp. 474–480. Tsanaclis, L. and J.F.C. Wicks, “Differentiation Between Drug Use and Environmental Contamination When Test- ing for Drugs in Hair,” Forensic Science International, Vol. 176, 2008, pp. 19–22. United Transportation Union, FRA Drug and Alcohol Pre- sentation, 2008 [Online]. Available: http://www.utu.org/ worksite/safety.htm. Urry, F.M., G. Komaromy-Hiller, B. Staley, D.K. Crockett, M. Kushnir, G. Nelson, and R.E. Struempler, “Nitrite Adulteration of Workplace Urine Drug-Testing Speci- mens. I. Sources and Associated Concentrations of Nitrite in Urine and Distinction Between Natural Causes and Adulteration,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Vol. 22, 1998, pp. 89–95.

47 U.S. DOT, The Substance Abuse Professional Guidelines, 2009, U.S. Department of Transportation website: [Online]. Available: http://www.dot.gov/ost/dapc/sap.html. Verstraete, A.G., “Detection Times of Drug of Abuse in Blood, Urine, and Oral Fluid,” Therapeutic Drug Moni- toring, Vol. 26, 2004, pp. 200–205. Vindenes, V., B. Yttredal, E.L. Oiestad, H. Waal, J.P. Ber- nard, J.G. Morland, and A.S. Christophersen, “Oral Fluid Is a Viable Alternative for Monitoring Drug Abuse: Detection of Drugs in Oral Fluid by Liquid Chromatog- raphy–Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Comparison to the Results from Urine Samples from Patients Treated with Methadone or Buprenorphine,” Journal of Analyti- cal Toxicology, Vol. 35, 2011, pp. 32–39. Wada, M., R. Ikeda, N. Kuroda, and K. Nakashima, “Ana- lytical Methods for Abused Drugs in Hair and Their Applications,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 397, 2010, pp. 1039–1067. Wennig, R., “Potential Problems with the Interpretation of Hair Analysis Results,” Forensic Science International, Vol. 107, 2000, pp. 5–12. Wu, A.H.B., B. Bristol, K. Sexton, G. Cassella-McLane, V. Holtman, and D.W. Hill, “Adulteration of Urine by “Urine Luck,” Clinical Chemistry, Vol. 45, 1999, pp. 1051–1057. Wu, A., J. Schmaltz, and W. Bennett, “Identification of Uri- nAid-Adulterated Urine Specimens by Fluorometric Anal- ysis,” Clinical Chemistry, Vol. 40, 1994, pp. 845–846.

NEED SPINE WIDTH Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA Air Transport Association ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Randell H. Iwasaki, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Rosa Clausell Rountree, CEO–General Manager, Transroute International Canada Services, Inc., Pitt Meadows, BC Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNX–Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* CHAIR James Wilding Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR Jeff Hamiel Minneapolis–St. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission MEMBERS James Crites Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport Richard de Neufville Massachusetts Institute of Technology Kevin C. Dolliole Unison Consulting John K. Duval Beverly Municipal Airport Kitty Freidheim Freidheim Consulting Steve Grossman Jacksonville Aviation Authority Tom Jensen National Safe Skies Alliance Catherine M. Lang Federal Aviation Administration Gina Marie Lindsey Los Angeles World Airports Carolyn Motz Hagerstown Regional Airport Richard Tucker Huntsville International Airport EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Sabrina Johnson U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Richard Marchi Airports Council International—North America Laura McKee Air Transport Association of America Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials Melissa Sabatine American Association of Airport Executives Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Transportation Research Board SECRETARY Christopher W. Jenks Transportation Research Board *Membership as of October 2009.*Membership as of October 2009. MASTERS

92+ pages; Perfect Bind with SPINE COPY = 14 pts Operator Drug- and Alcohol- Testing Across Modes COMMERCIAL TRUCK AND BUS SAFETYCTBSSP SYNTHESIS 23 CTB SSP SYN TH ESIS 23 Operator Drug- and Alcohol-Testing Across M odes NEED SPINE WIDTH Job No. XXXX Pantone 723 TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 500 F ifth S treet, N .W . W ashing to n, D .C . 20001 A D D R ESS SER VICE R EQ UESTED TRB A Synthesis of Safety Practice Sponsored by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration

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TRB’s Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program (CTBSSP) Synthesis 23: Operator Drug- and Alcohol-Testing Across Modes explores practices used to deter drug and alcohol use among operators within the U.S. Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) regulated community.

The report includes a brief history of the transportation workplace drug- and alcohol-testing program, the general approach, the reasons for testing, some of the issues that impact the validity of the tests, and an outline of the specific regulations by mode.

Some alcohol- and drug-testing statistics are presented in the report to help provide a sense of the scope of the program and of the prevalence of illegal alcohol and drug use among safety-sensitive employees.

The report also highlights alternative strategies aimed at helping to deter illegal alcohol and drug use among employees.

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