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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Operator Drug- and Alcohol-Testing Across Modes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14635.
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Operator Drug- and Alcohol-Testing Across Modes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/14635.
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CONTENTS 1 PREFACE 2 CHAPTER ONE OBJECTIVES 3 CHAPTER TWO BACKGROUND 5 CHAPTER THREE TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG- AND ALCOHOL-TESTING PROGRAM Reasons for Testing, 5 Drug Testing, 6 Alcohol Testing, 12 Consequences of a Drug or Alcohol Violation, 12 Substance Abuse Professional, 12 Records, 12 13 CHAPTER FOUR SPECIFIC REGULATIONS BY MODE Aviation, 13 Maritime, 14 Motor Carriers, 15 Pipeline and Hazardous Materials, 16 Public Transit, 16 Rail, 17 19 CHAPTER FIVE ALCOHOL- AND DRUG-TESTING STATISTICS Aviation, 19 Maritime, 20 Motor Carriers, 20 Pipelines, 23 Public Transit, 24 Rail, 25 Drug Positivity Rates in Different Workforces, 27 30 CHPATER SIX ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES Zero-Tolerance Policies, 30 Pre-Employment Alcohol Screening, 31 Pre-Employment Background Check, 31 Alternative Specimens, 31 Higher Random Testing Rates, 38 Longer Preduty Alcohol Abstinence Periods, 38 Consequences for Bacs 0.020–0.039, 38 Stricter Postaccident Testing, 39 Stricter Follow-Up Testing, 39 National Database, 40 Driving Record Notations, 40 41 CHAPTER SEVEN SUMMARY AND RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS 44 REFERENCES

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TRB’s Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program (CTBSSP) Synthesis 23: Operator Drug- and Alcohol-Testing Across Modes explores practices used to deter drug and alcohol use among operators within the U.S. Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) regulated community.

The report includes a brief history of the transportation workplace drug- and alcohol-testing program, the general approach, the reasons for testing, some of the issues that impact the validity of the tests, and an outline of the specific regulations by mode.

Some alcohol- and drug-testing statistics are presented in the report to help provide a sense of the scope of the program and of the prevalence of illegal alcohol and drug use among safety-sensitive employees.

The report also highlights alternative strategies aimed at helping to deter illegal alcohol and drug use among employees.

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