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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1991. In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1580.
×

Index

A

Acute pain, 136, 138–141

Advertising, 114–115

Anxiety, 16, 123, 124, 126

athletic performance and, 208, 209

deception and, 164

exercise and, 225, 227

measurement of, 194

pain and, 134, 136, 138–139, 143

see also Relaxation

Army Research Institute, 3, 125

Army War College, 81, 90–91, 93, 95–

Articulation, cognition, 62, 75

Athletics, see Sports and athletics

Attention and distraction, 19

athletic performance and, 209, 217, 228, 232

automaticity, 27–28, 48, 67, 151, 224

deception detection, 159

exercise and, 227

meditation and, 126

pain and, 137, 140, 143

Audience behavior, 251–252, 253

Audiotapes, 5, 8, 16, 105, 107–117, 208, 209, 211

Automaticity, 27–28, 48, 224

deception and, 151

expertise and, 67

B

Biofeedback, 124, 125

athletic performance, 206

pain and, 9, 141

Blood pressure, 122, 124, 125, 131

Body movements, deception, 151–153, 154, 159, 164, 165, 172

posture, 152, 160

see also Facial expressions

Brain, 4, 222–224, 228–229

athletic performance, 222–224, 228–

exercise, 227

hemispheric factors, 4, 19, 129, 222–224, 228

imaging and modeling, 228–229

meditation, 126, 129

pain, 134–135

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1991. In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1580.
×

Brainstorming, 254

Breathing, 123, 129, 131, 139

Buddhism, 120–121, 127, 128

c

Campbell work orientation survey, 91

Cardiac acceleration/deceleration, 220–222

Chi-gong, 128

Children

deception by, 173

subliminal training of, 109

China, 128, 163

Chronic pain, 17, 136, 141–144

Classification, of deception, 159–160, 173–176, 177–184

Classroom instruction, teaching of expertise, 72–73

Coaching, 61–62

career development, 87, 88

defined, 59

Cognitive apprenticeship, 58, 59–63, 74–75

Cognitive-behavioral interventions, 19, 193, 203–224, 232, 233

athletics, 193, 203–224, 228, 233

pain management, 17

preperformance preparation, 19, 191, 193, 215–219, 224, 232, 233

Cognitive processes, 6, 19

analogies, 67–68

articulation, 62, 75

athletic, 193, 203–224, 228, 233

brain hemisphere aspects, 228

deception and, 160

knowledge aspects, 65–67, 69, 70–

pain and, 9, 17, 137, 140–141, 142

peak performance, 19, 227–233, 234

reflection, 62–63, 75, 94

retention and transfer of training, general, 23, 24

understanding and retention, 31–33

see also Attention and distraction;

Decision making;

Learning processes;

Memory;

Problem solving

Combat effectiveness, 5

group performance, 20, 257, 258–259

imagery and mental practice, 213–215

meditation and, 129–130

pain, 137

Computers and computer science

athletic performance enhancement, 213

expert systems, 14, 70, 71, 73–74

instruction, assisted by, 14, 73–74, 213

nuclear reactor control rooms, 260–

Concentration, see Attention and distraction

Consensus, 254–257

Contextual factors

deception and, 160–164

frame breaking, careers, 83–84

interference, 40–43

psychological tests, false answers, 198

Cooperative learning, 33–34

Cost effectiveness

career development techniques, 15

training, 48

Creativity, 90

Cues, 34, 37, 216

see also Nonverbal behavior

Cultural factors

deception and, 155, 160–165, 166, 171, 172, 180, 184, 185, 188–189

definitions, meaning, 181

peak experiences, 230–231

D

Decision making

careers, 84–85, 86, 90

group, 248, 249, 254–257, 260–261

interactive, 5, 20, 249

leaders, 80

subliminal assistance, 109, 111–112

Decomposition, problem solving, 68

Delphi technique, 256–257, 266

Depression, 136–137, 195, 197

Depression Adjective Checklist, 195

Diseases and disorders

meditation, 126, 127, 129

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1991. In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1580.
×

psychopathology and athletic performance, 193–203

wounds, 137

Dissociation, pain, 140

Distraction, see Attention and distraction

Drugs, pain control, 139, 142

E

Eating habits, subliminal suggestion, 113, 114–115

Electrophysiology, 19, 142, 193, 219, 220, 222–224, 23

Epistemology, 130

Error analysis, 74

Evaluation

brainstorming, 254

career development techniques, 8, 15, 81, 87, 95–99

deception detection, 153–160, 188–189

enhancement approaches, previously studied, 4, 6

exercise and stress, 225–227

expertise, self-evaluation, 64–65

group performance, 247–257, 263–

individual

vs

group, 250

meditation, 12, 121–127, 130–131

pain control, 138–144

reflection and problem solving, 62–63

sports performance enhancement, 202–203, 208–212, 218–219, 231–232

subliminal self-help, 110–113, 116

see also Field tests;

Laboratory tasks;

Self-assessment techniques;

Testing and measurement

Examples, as training method, 44, 72–73

Exercise

anxiety and, 225, 227

stress and, 19, 193, 225–227, 234

see also Sports and athletics

Expectancy effects, 114, 115

placebo effects, 16, 113–114, 138, 141

Experience sampling method, 231

Expert systems, 14, 70, 71, 73–74

Exploratory behavior, 63, 75

Extraversion, 97–98, 100

see also Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Extroversion, 195

Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), 194–195, 196

F

Facial expressions, 151, 154, 158, 159, 160, 161–164, 165, 186–187

Fear, 136

see also Anxiety

Feedback, 61–62, 75

athletic performance enhancement, 212–213, 223–224

biofeedback, 9, 124, 125, 141, 206

career development, 91

coaching, 59, 61–62, 87, 88

deception detection, 17, 155, 165, 187

pain and, 9, 141

and transfer of training, 40, 45–47

video techniques, 46, 212–213

Field tests

group performance, 20, 248, 257–265, 265

pit burial studies, 9, 122–123, 125

sports events as, 193

Fort Bliss, 92

Fort Knox, 4

Fort Leavenworth, 92–93

Frame breaking, 83–84

G

Gateways Institute, 107–108, 109, 113

Generation effects, 34

Group processes, 3, 5, 10–11, 19–20, 192, 247–266, 275

audience behavior, 251–252, 253

combat effectiveness, 20, 257, 258–259

consensus, 254–257

cooperative learning, 33–34

decision making, 248, 249, 254–257, 260–261

evaluation of techniques, 247–257, 263–265

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1991. In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1580.
×

field tests, 20, 248, 257–265, 265

individual performance and, 11, 249–251, 253–254, 258–259, 262

laboratory studies, 247–249, 257

leadership, 80, 82, 86, 87–88, 90–94

longitudinal studies, 192

military applications, 20, 257, 258–

motivation and, 252–253

organizational factors, 4, 20

problem solving, 5, 20, 253–254, 266

psychological factors, general, 247–266

research recommendations, 192, 263–265

time factors, 10–11, 20, 252, 262, 266

training of groups, 20, 261–263

H

Hemispheric lateralization, brain, 4, 19, 129, 222–224, 228

Hypertension, 122, 124, 125, 131

Hypnosis, 9, 141, 143, 206

I

Images and image processing

athletic performance, 203, 204, 206, 208–209, 211–212, 216–217

brain, 228–229

individual performance, 213–215

military applications, 213–215

pain control, 140

subliminal, 109

visualization, 109

India, 122–123, 128

Industrial College of the Aimed Forces, 92

Insight, 94

Isolation, 130

Instruction, direct, 72–73

Intelligence agencies, deception and, 176, 187–188

Interference

during training, 40–43

frame breaking, careers, 83–84

Interpersonal processes, 185–188

bargaining, gender differences, 252

competence, 3

decision making, 5, 20, 249

generation effects, 34

leadership, 80, 82, 86, 87–88, 90–94

mentors, career development, 82, 87, 88

peer influence, teaching and, 33–34

Interviewing, experts, 71

Introversion, 97–98, 100

see also Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

J

Jokes, 183

Justification effects, 114

K

Kirton Adaptation-Innovation Inventory, 90, 91, 94

Knowledge

career planning, 84, 85–86

expert, 65–67, 69, 70–71, 75–76

see also Understanding

Knowledge-based systems, see Expert systems

Kundalini yoga, 17, 127, 128–130

L

Laboratory tasks, 63–65

deception, 18, 149–153, 155–160, 164, 166, 171, 172, 177–178, 189

expertise, 63–65, 70–71

group, 247–249, 257

motor function performance, 204–206

subliminal perception, 110–111

Leadership, 86, 90–94

decision making, 80

longitudinal studies, 87–88

mentors, 82, 87, 88

Leadership Assessment and Development Program, 92–93, 94

Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description, 90, 91

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1991. In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1580.
×

Learning processes, general, 5, 7, 26–29, 100

accelerated, 3

articulation, 62

behavior-learning approaches, general, 17

coaching and scaffolding, 59, 61–62, 87, 88

cognitive apprenticeship, 58, 59–63, 74–75

cooperative, 33–34

exploration, 63

mastery criteria, 13, 26–27, 28, 47, 48

mathematical learning theory, 36

measurement of, 13

original learning and, 26–29, 37–38

overlearning, 26, 28–29

pain, coping with, 137–138

participatory, 33–35, 75

reflection, 62–63, 75, 94

testing of, 13, 34–35, 47–48

time factors, 3, 31

see also Retention of training;

Subliminal processes;

Transfer of training;

Training

Longitudinal studies

career development, 87–88

group performance, 192

sports and athletics, 199–200

Lying, 17, 106, 148–156, 161–166

M

Mathematical learning theory, 36

MBTI

, see

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Measurement, see Testing and measurement

Memory, 93–94

expertise and, 64, 69

MBTI, 93–94

subliminal self-help, 115

see also Retention of training;

Transfer of training

Mental health

meditation, 127

and sports performance, 18, 193–

Mental practice

athletic performance, 203, 204–206, 211, 233

military applications, 213–215

motor skills and, 10, 204–206

Mentors, career development, 82, 87, 88

Military applications, 4, 5

Army Research Institute, 3, 125

Army War College, 81, 90–91, 93, 95–96

career development, 80, 81, 90–96, 82, 85–96

deception, 173, 176, 187–188

group performance, 20, 257, 258–

imagery and mental practice, 213–215

meditation, 126–127, 129–130, 131

National Defense University, 91–92

pain control, 137

Rangers, U.S. Army, 257, 259

Special Forces, U.S. Army, 257, 258–259, 262

see also Combat effectiveness

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), 195

Modeling

brain, 228–229

deception, 155, 173–185, 188

individual performance, 210–213

mental, as aid to retention, 32, 36

motor functions, 210–213

nuclear reactor control rooms, 260–261

sport performance, 18, 193–203, 210–213, 231–232, 233

Moods, 104, 195, 196, 197–198, 200–202

depression, 136–137, 195, 197

peak experiences, 230–231

see also Anxiety;

Relaxation techniques

Motivation

career development, 82–83, 88, 90

deception, 17, 153–154, 165, 172

group behavior, 252–253

meditation, 124

Motor functions and skills, 3, 6, 204–205, 275

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1991. In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1580.
×

cognitive-behavioral interventions, 193, 204–206, 215

cohesion and organization, 29–30

expertise, 22, 57

laboratory tasks, 204–206

meditation and, 124

mental practice, 10, 204–206

modeling of, 210–213

organizational schema, 44–45

practice, general, 44–45

prepreformance preparation, 19, 191, 193, 215–219, 224, 232

retention and transfer, general, 23, 24

see also Body movements;

Sports and athletics

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), 8, 15, 22, 81, 89–90, 91, 92, 93–102

N

National Defense University, 91–92

Neuroscience, 4

exercise, 227

meditation, 129–130

pain, 134–135, 142–143

peak performance, 19, 227–233, 234

see also Brain

Nonverbal behavior, deception, 9–10, 17, 148–154, 156, 159–164, 171

coding systems, 159–160

see also specific behaviors

Nuclear reactor, control room behavior, 257, 259–261

O

Officers, see Leadership

Organizational factors

career development, 7–8, 80, 81–82, 85, 90

deception, 173, 187

expertise, 65–67, 69, 70

motor skill schema, 44–45

order of presentation, 44

retention and transfer of training, 25, 29–30, 31–32, 36, 38–43, 44, 48

similarity of tasks, 37, 38–40

Organizational Values Survey, 90

Original learning

retention of training and, 26–29

transfer of training and, 37–38

Overlearning, 26, 28–29

Overtraining, sports, 199, 201

P

Participatory learning, 33–35, 75

Parapsychology, 3, 4

deception and, 173

Patriotism, 123

Peak performance, 19, 227–233, 234

Peer influence, teaching and, 33–34

Personality traits

extroversion, 195

introversion-extraversion, 97–98, 100

MBTI, 8, 15, 22, 81, 89–90, 91, 92, 93–102

see also Moods

Physiological processes

athletes, 201, 219–224

biofeedback, 9, 124, 125, 141, 206

blood pressure, 122, 124, 125, 131

breathing, 123, 129, 131, 139

electrophysiology, 19, 142, 193, 219, 220, 222–224, 23

exercise, 227

individual performance, 191

meditation and, 8, 9, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 128–129, 131

pit burial studies, 9, 122–123, 125

preperformance preparation and, 19

Picnic,

Pilgrim's Progress,

Pit burial studies, 9, 122–123, 125

Placebo effects

pain, 16, 138, 141

subliminal self-help, 113–114

Posttraining interventions, 35–37

Postural cues, deception, 152, 160

Potentials Unlimited, 108–109

Practice, 18, 30–31, 34, 40–41, 204–206, 233

automaticity and, 28, 224

expert systems, 73–74

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1991. In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1580.
×

mental, 10, 18–19, 203, 204–206, 233

motor skill schema, 44–45

physical

timing factors, 18–19, 30–31, 199

Preperformance preparation, 19, 191, 193, 215–219, 224, 232

Problem solving

career development, 90

error analysis, 74

evaluation of techniques, 62–63

examples, as training method, 44, 72–73

expertise and, 60–61, 65, 67–69, 70, 73–74, 75

group, 5, 20, 253–254, 266

Procedural tasks, general, 13, 23–24, 29, 34, 36

examples, as training method, 44, 72–73

expertise and, 66–67, 68, 69, 70–71

meditation, 120

pain and, 138–139

retention and transfer of training, 23

Profile of Mood States (POMS), 104, 195, 196, 197–198, 200, 202

Psychodymanics Research Institute, 109

Psychological factors

deception, 148–156, 157, 165, 171–185

(passim), 188

expertise, 69

group, 247–266

justification, 114

meditation, 126

motivation, 17, 82–83, 88, 90, 124, 153–154, 165, 172, 252–253

pain, 5, 9, 17, 135–138, 142, 143–144

sports, 5, 10, 18, 191, 193–219, 230–233

see also Moods;

Personality traits;

Stress, human environments

Psychological tests, false answers, 198

R

Rangers, U.S. Army, 257, 259

Reaction time, 220–221

Reasoning, expertise and, 67–69

Red Badge of Courage,

Reflection, 62–63, 75

insight, 94

see also Self-assessment techniques

Refresher training, 35–37, 48

Relaxation techniques, 9, 16, 122, 124–

athletic performance, 203, 206, 208, 209, 212, 216, 217

pain and, 17, 139, 143

Religious experience, 120–122, 123, 124

Buddhism, 120–121, 127, 128

God, 121, 124

Repetition, 19

feedback, 46–47

see also Practice

Retention of training, 7, 12, 13–14, 21, 24–37, 48, 274

defined, 23

motor skills, 23, 24

organizational factors, 25, 29–30, 31–32, 36, 38–43, 44, 48

original learning and, 26–29

practice, 18–19, 30–31

see also Transfer of training

Retraining, 13–14, 35–37, 48

Rokeach inventories, 90, 91, 94

S

Scaffolding, 59, 62

Schema

knowledge structures, 65–67, 70

motor skills, 44–45

Self-assessment techniques

career development, 14–15, 80, 83, 84–85, 88, 89–92, 96

expertise, 64–65

Self-concept and self-control

athletics and, 232

career development, 8, 84–85, 89–90

commercial products, 107–108, 109, 112, 113

deception, 151, 152, 165

exercise and, 226–227

meditation, 131

pain, control over, 137, 139–140, 142

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1991. In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1580.
×

stress reduction and, 4, 131

subliminal suggestions, 8, 15–16, 107–110, 112, 113, 115

Self-report instruments see Testing and measurement

Sex differences, intergroup bargaining, 252

Sleep, 4, 122

Social factors, 175, 184–185

see alsoCultural factors;

Interpersonal processes

Somatic Perception Questionnaire, 195

Special Forces, U.S. Army, 257, 258–

Speech patterns, deception cues, 151, 152, 163

Sports and athletics, 18–19, 206–210, 215–224

anxiety and, 208, 209

attention levels, 209, 217, 228, 232

biofeedback, 206

brain, 222–224, 228–229

cognitive-behavioral interventions, 193, 203–219, 232, 233

computer-aided enhancement, 213

evaluation of enhancement techniques, 202–203, 208–212, 218–219, 231–232

feedback, 212–213, 223–224

field tests, sports events as, 193

historical perspectives, 120–121

images, use of, 203, 204, 206, 208–209, 211–212, 216–217

longitudinal studies, 199–200

meditation, 208

mental health and, 18, 193–203, 231–232, 233

mental practice, 203, 204–206, 211, 233

modeling, 18, 193–203, 210–213, 231–232, 233

overtraining, 199, 201

physiological processes, general, 201, 219–224

psychological aspects, 5, 10, 18, 191, 193–219, 230–233

relaxation techniques, 203, 206, 208, 209, 212, 216, 217

self-concept, 232

stress and, 193, 197, 199–202

testing and measurement, 18, 194–203

time factors, 199, 220–221

video techniques, 211–213

State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, 194

Stress, human environments, 3, 191, 275

career development and, 83, 92

deception and, 152–153

exercise and, 19, 193, 225–227, 234

fear, 136

inoculation training, 9, 17, 140–141, 208

isolation, 130

meditation and, 9, 16, 123–124, 125, 128, 129–130, 131

nuclear reactor control rooms, 257, 259–261

pain and, 9, 17, 140–141

performance under extreme, 231–232

self-control and, 4, 131

sports and athletics, 193, 197, 199–

time factors, learning, 31

see also Anxiety;

Combat effectiveness

Stress, physiological, 140–141

see also Exercise;

Sports and athletics

Success, 82

Suffering, 135–136

Sybervision, 211–212

T

Tasks and task analysis

concept listing, 70

cohesion and organization, 29–30

mental models, as aids to retention, 32

similarity and transfer of training, 37, 38–40

static dynamic

, vs

time factors, 69

see also Laboratory tasks;

Procedural tasks

Terminal and Instrumental Values Surveys, 90, 91, 94

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1991. In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1580.
×

Testing and measurement

anxiety, 194

career development and, 15, 81, 85–86, 87–90, 93–95, 96–101

learning and performance, general, 13, 34–35, 47–48

mastery learning, criteria, 13, 26–27, 28, 47, 48

MBTI, 7, 15, 22, 81, 89–90, 91, 92, 93–102

meditation effects, 121–130

psychological tests, false answers, 198

sports performance, 18, 194–203

subliminal perception, 110–113, 116

see also Evaluation;

Field tests;

Laboratory tasks

Think-aloud protocols, 71

Time factors

career development, 82, 84, 86, 87–88

deception, 172

experts' time on task, 69

generation effects, 34

group behavior, 10–11, 20, 252, 262, 266

peak experiences, 230, 231

practice, 18–19, 30–31, 199

reaction time, 220–221

sports and athletics, 199, 220–221

subliminal perception, 111

tests as learning events, 34–35

see also Retention of training;

Transfer of training

Training

cues used in, 34, 37

deception, detection of, 156–158, 189

examples, use of, 44, 72–73

group, 20, 261–263

inoculation training, stress, 9, 17, 140–141, 208

interference of, 40–43

original learning, 26–29, 37–38

overlearning, 26, 28–29

overtraining, sports, 199, 201

posttraining interventions, 35–37

retraining, 13–14, 35–37, 48

variety and, 40–45

see also specific training methods and instruments

see also Retention of training

Transfer of training, 12, 13, 14, 21, 24–25, 37–47, 49

defined, 23

feedback and, 40, 45–47

meditation techniques, generalization, 123–125

motor functions, 23, 24

negative, 38

organizational factors, 25, 29–30, 31–32, 36, 38–43, 44, 48

original learning and, 37–38

similarity of tasks, 37, 38–40

Transition, career frame breaking, 83–84

U

Understanding, 31–33

of novice, 57–58

see also Knowledge

V

Variety

in careers, 83–84

in training, 40–45

Video techniques

of deceptive behavior, 18, 149–151, 158, 159–160, 164, 166, 189

feedback via, 46, 212–213

sports performance enhancement, 211–213

subliminal, 109, 114–115

Visualization, 109

Visual training exercises, 4

Voice, see Speech patterns

W

Wounds, 137

Y

Yoga, 16–17, 121, 122–123, 127, 128

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1991. In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1580.
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In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance Get This Book
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The archer stands and pulls back the bow, visualizing the path of the arrow to the target. Does this mental exercise enhance performance? Can we all use such techniques to improve performance in our daily lives?

In the Mind's Eye addresses these and other intriguing questions. This volume considers basic issues of performance, exploring how techniques for quick learning affect long-term retention, whether an expert's behavior can serve as a model for beginners, if team performance is the sum of individual members' performances, and whether subliminal learning has a basis in science.

The book also considers meditation and some other pain control techniques. Deceit and the ability to detect deception are explored in detail. In the area of self-assessment techniques for career development, the volume evaluates the widely used Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

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