National Academies Press: OpenBook

Forest Trees (1991)

Chapter:5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources

« Previous: 4 Conservation and Management of Tree Genetic Resources
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page99
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page100
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page101
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page102
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page103
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page104
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page105
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page106
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page107
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page108
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page109
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page110
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page111
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page112
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page113
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page114
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page115
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page116
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page117
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page118
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page119
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page120
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page121
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page122
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page123
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page124
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page125
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page126
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page127
Suggested Citation:"5 Institutions Involved in Managing Tree Genetic Resources." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
×
Page128

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

~ ~ ~:::E: ES ::? ~ ~ ~:~ ..' ':: :. :.: :,...: :.: : :,. ~ ~ ~ ~ E: ~ ~ ~ ~ : E: : .~ ::~ :: 7~?seRatio~n~o~f~#s!~#neic~resour~s~#as lad ~tha~!t Of ~ ~ law spies. ~ ~or~in#~)io#~ef~to~<con~ Hat L~/en~t~i~#s-~;~n only into theta\! Is, ~0ith~the~4~\ Andes Em to ~0 f ~ tag ~F#d~and~133~^an##iion~(F~iO) (~- awed ~Na~bon~f'UN1i~E~abd ~beve~1~6ni1~ in<LtuSSns ~ most ~d~~- o~<ed~co4n~~s~. YE ~ln~:~tbe~p4~#o ^~#esy~s?^s~p~ss~InE~ls~e~cn an ~s6=ulA~d by {d ~ndespendent sb~ur~of~s~i~n~{s~t: we improvement plumes age iffy dig that economy -benefits can bereaved Cow using geneuc~~sou~es in production f~~sby~and (egg wing e~nme~n~la~areness hasled~to (e~ne=1 recognition of the need to~p~ser~e natural diverse because of~fEe dew scion ofthe Tucson a ~assivescalean~dtheapparentlossof success The preponde~nceofac~viti4s ~odd~ddetoconserve ~res!tgeneSc . . resources focuses on oonnmercially valuable age spewers, objec~vesof ~nyso~fthose p~o@<a~s'ho~ever'~reth~acqulsl~ongn~ ~ s ~ # conse~rva~on. Banding prisms' however, demand on an Date supply of genetic resources. luff future demands am to ~ met ~ breedings prams, Here is Bluely ~ ~ a need for Me availability of a Abler gone pool Can is currents in breeders c~Jechons This may nest both Do d~ucing anew malarial and ensues the Donation of Elopes, populations, and species that are currently avadable in collections but are in danger of loss Suing from neglect or from the deletion of those . . . .. n~atenalsln ulsuse.

/ to~sr ~ ~ A ~e~ mower fin Weston pappies seeded far plan^# is part Offs Resin pat. A Me Bay of tag go essays to emit vad~bus ~ Ian ~ ~ -~^^ am ~ Id. Cody: as A~n~ Or lnte~~0na1 De~l~~n~t. Int>~a~o~1 eggs to con Mast Meant sons am papacy those of gove^~n~1 Eddies or i~^n6. Tbe most active organic moons are the Oxford Forest lapsed (0~) in the [nixed Adorn Remedy ~ Co~o~n~eblth Foresaw lnshtu~; ~ Cents Iethniqu~e to~rJ~p~1 <~ ~ Fang; tag 92#o~ ~ Poesy and Forest Fret Research of the Co~mOn~^lib Went and l~s~a~1 Re ~h Onion (CSlRO) in Austin; and Me Banish Forest Seed Center (~SC), which is pan of the Banish lnte~atio~1 Development Amens ~nA\TC^~. The i~n~rnatio~I Divides of these o~ani~tions / and many others' are supported and coo~db~ated by the Fig O's Forest Resources [ivision. guidance in planning international act>'it~s is ^ ~ . ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ _ . provided by-the FA O's Panelof Experts on Forest Gene Resources.

J~s7~fi~s l~>Z~d fir #)lz~f~ ~ GO Bomb / Seve=I Oven agencies/ esoec~lIv in the developed world. are also active in conserving forest genetic resources Within their national poundages. The Swedish National Forest Cane Bank, Air Ampler a nuder of 1~ ~ ~ in ~p-er~<etuity Venous pa Younger sands am ~- ~ ~ reason as ~ ~ ,. . . ~ . .. .. lain general, nabo~nal efforts to conserve Wrests genes resources an usually one sources 01 Dream martens 10r the national program.. ~mp~nent~ of a lager tree i=~~vemen~t ~ro~ra~m The latter Rams are designed to meet national tolls, conce~nb~te on com~m~e~=ia~llv valuable specs. ~ `' , ~ as Would be expected, and In pas~tspithe World ~herepd~vateo~ners~hipoffo~restsis widespread, Rest i~ndustbes are Evolved i~n~p~eserv5~ gep~reso~uTces. This is esped~lly~ ~ em Cent A mecca and o~fSputh ~nedc~' cohere a~<ooper~ve~e~fFod is headed by The (en~aT~^sner~a and Credo Coniferous Resosu ~ s Coop~rafi~ve (C^\iC~ORE). ~ . antis Non, composed off bath govemmen~1 bodies aged Upriver induct, was established in 1960~ to prevent the reduct~n~4nd ey~ntua1 loss of proven and potentially vaIupble coniferous species in C<!nt=1 ~ mad pad }iexico.F~Id~cre~sin Hondu.ras'~uat~mala,a~nd~)iexicohavecoJ.l~ect~d seedsofenda~ge<<d~s~peciesand prove!na~nce~and.:have dsistd~bu.tedt!h~e . ln~ene~ral, the movement of forest genes ~natedal has not been ~. ~ ~ . ~. . "southto north" as With agrono~mi!ccropsa~n~ about Which conO~ict~bas adsen over ineq~uides~i~n resources and Shea technical deyeIopm~ent (~lop~penburg, 1988~. Cost exc~banges of fosrest~ma~r~l have been {thinthetemperpe zoneor~itbinse^~t~pi~l~regions+~o~ever, contains ove~{the avai~bili~tr end use offore~stgen~edc esourcesa~c~oss regional boundless arelikely to Wise With the ~o~m~nercial~ation and internphonal~abo~n off t~opical~forestry/ the glo5gl~ef~cts of tropical fo~esidestFucti~on~,and file possibilities of~J~obalclinna~bc charge. With con~mendaDzadon add come tie portal *a db~pee~en~ over the equitable di~sidbu~bon otp~oEtsbet^-ee~nthe~ountrieso~fodgin and ~nul~nationalLndusides.F~u ~ erasth!elos~soffo~es~tisincreasin~ly Mewed as affecting all nations, the issues of conserving forests in indi~dualcounidescouIdbeconnea~sourceo~fdisagree~me~nt/pa~rticularly herethoselandareasa~e vie~daspotent~lsi~tesforagricu~lt~e or m1~ning,ashas ~e~nthe case ~ Braz[.Finally,~anyoftbe Dynamos rgl~alc~Ccchangepo~end ~ve~adve=~con~quen~s~rthe ~orld's Wrests Add~ssingthis,pa~kuladyindevelopingcounides, couldbecomeanotherareao~fJebate ... ~. .

1021 Forest Trees IN SITU CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES The extent of in situ conservation of forests worldwide is very difficult to estimate. Very few natural areas have been set aside specifically for genetic conservation, but areas set aside for other conservation needs can serve that purpose. In the United States, for instance, the National Park system, the National Forest Service's wilderness areas, various state parks, and private reserves protect forest ecosystems, which in turn, protect portions of the genetic resources of the contained species. Similar areas have been preserved in many other countries. Most are in the temperate zone, but a growing number of natural areas are being set aside in the tropics. Conserving, managing, or increasing the genetic diversity within species is rarely a direct objective of the programs, however, and thus their adequacy for such purposes is seldom evaluated. Many of the activities affecting in situ conservation of forest genetic resources have been initiated by the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), and the FAO. The FAO's Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources has been instrumental in identifying the need for in situ conservation of species used for the production of wood and wood products (Food and Agriculture Orga- nization, 1969~. The Panel of Experts has recommended the development of guidelines for in situ conservation (Food and Agriculture Organiza- tion, 1972, 1974) and has drawn up operational priorities (Food and Agriculture Organization, 1977, 1985c). To encourage and stimulate more field projects on in situ conservation, the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the FAO orga- nized an expert consultation on in situ conservation of forest genetic resources in 1980 (Food and Agriculture Organization and United Nations Environment Program, 1981~. The purpose of the group was to provide advice on guidelines for the selection and management of in situ genetic conservation areas, the possibilities of combining general conservation with other management objectives (such as ecosystem conservation and production forestry), and needed international actions. One of the recommendations of the group was a project for the preparation of a practical manual on in situ conservation of within- species genetic diversity. This led to the publication of A Guide to In Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources for Tropical Woody Species (Food and Agriculture Organization, 1984b). Several international agencies, such as the FAO, IUCN, UNEP, and UNESCO, have also carried out studies aimed at outlining a methodology

ibSf!f~f2~S 1~~Z~ {) #~^ TO ~ ~ / Te situ conservation and at drawing up tentative guidelines or action In~d~dib~on tithe sn~nual~nen~honed~above~>t~o m~o~e~an~uaIs _ ~ ~ _ Sc>~f<~ ~< T~!Ibs<(Food and ~,dh~C{garizit~n, 1984a) and 1< S/f~ O~SS^1~, C/ B)~ #~1 [serfs ha: ~ SONS ~' / ~c~f~ ~ seafood find Agriculture 0r~an~2S~n' 1984C). STAR imbrue na~nua~Issum~ar~e gratis known of~in situ Eqre~s~vcon.se~r~ation and describe many ofthe elementsth.ata~re necessary 6~7success~fulconse~ ~ ~ T~anse~t~geneconservabon~u~ecountbes--Ca~neroon (food and ^gdcult~re~Org~ni<~tio~1983d), Siala~ysia<Egod a~nd~^gri- cult!ur~ Orgpr!iyp~ion, 1983e),~nd Per,. (F6od~gnd ^g~cult~re~ Organic Zaire' 1987). ~ explains sum tb~e cu~en~t~sta~tu~s~ problenq~s~, and opp~u~ni$ies~ for insist coven ~ ~ important rest species fig each cane lnibal #~ndin~his Men Ovid, ~bu~t~extensi~s to over test pagers are not planed at thls age, and no mechanism Mists ~r = ~ingtheIesspns~l~ea~rnedirom these p~otp~iec~i~nt~ Wagerer moo= om~preben~sive ~egignal~pr~g~an~s. ^ddibona!l~p~ie~s edst~' such as one operatedin Cameroon bythe Y/odd WideF~n~dfor \~ature~(k~no~n in the Lnited Statesas tie World Wildlife Fun~d).~uch furth~e~rte~sting and development ~pf~p~ot~p~jects reseeded however; shad means (~ust~be~devised.stoi~deVelo~ regional grams that complement the a. e~orts~#flocalreobTe and orzandzaGons~ ~Efk~ts~at ~res!<x~i<<) i<!<ation~9n~e 6~ns~n&lJ~sta~n~d~s agreed Lanai ~rovena~nce~e~s~n~ra~>s~ ~=e~ntl~.~seed~st~nd~s~h~ve~beeb sra~pll~sn~eq<<or~son e~l~iispeg~s;~!~ree~ol~s~!nc~snave~Deen es~b~shed Bor~#Ospedes;a~ndinteJa#)nil~tes~bng~p~grimsh.a~vebeen~sEdiished forsome40~specie~s~(oxcludink~s~p#cies~6f~f~iand~) E{~situ e!tg~s~are concen~trSted~on~econ~rnic(#y~ua~ble,~st-~# Plan ta~tio~n species. Tbe~re~i~s~littIe~as~l~erite~6x~s~#itu~conser(~o~f~n~o~com~ . ~ . ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ . suedes F~ ~n~n~*>s~v. but no p fins of ~ojecion or Using also 1or teem. homier Or gut economically useful savers exist; ~_ been sampled by the C>FFT are considered useful Or some purposes and may besui~ Me for p~n~donforesby,betno gene~lconservabon program exists for them Because further research and development ...

: :: I/ work should be required to verify the economic use of these species, the~pdvate sector ca~nnotbeexpectedio develop conservation programs/ and because na-tio~na1 govern Tenets cannot afford the expend ~ re' i~te~nabon~ eEkuis are needed to conserve then. in the United Stags' About6/000 baa ofes~blished seed orchards and done banks provide extensive ex situ conservation o~fso~me of tie most valuable do meshc species Us. Forest Service/ 19S2~. The tio~usan~ds of hectares of provenance and progeny test gelds and many co~m~nerda~l. plantains couki also be irapor~nt cow pcnents of any coordinated ~- ~. co><ervad~n program -1-he ex Mu con~serva~on. programs in tropical tounides are, for the m ost pan, smaller and Lore regent tia~:fiose in taped counties gun E/<O and U N EF pry forthse-co~serv0bon oigeneLcresources of selected foresttree~sped~!s~and ptovenb~nces~, Benin l9Z5/e~stiblished ibout40~ex Mu cons~rvas~o~n-~nd second stinds(~boutlO~ha enchain sax tropical Asian and ^ Stain counties) using 11 provenances offer spedes--E~66pf~s c: ~ Zing sir artier red ~m), Em. ~ ~fi~-r~ (~Roces~t r~ ~nT.Ti~7vestlhd1an ~inels,and-p.~{Cuba~n paw) ~ ~ ^ ~ ~ r~ \ ~ ~Ha. ~ _.~, These any, I sash Fine seedings am pad of a study ~ 1mp~ve the tee stag of the ~ahona1 Forest system in the United Stags. Credit: James P. Blair ~o=1 C~g~ph~ piety. .,

~S~f~f-S ~ aft ~ GO S~ (Food and ^gricul~~ O~in~abon, 1931~. Many tropical counties are now e~syb~lis~hin~ proven an trials far Sting plantain sp~ies, and a lease proportion of throat plantings will p~ro~bly wolves ink seedling seed orbs or p~venan!ce connation stands Len this may, He Pant of ~ sib contain ^~ ~ TV expands. Torts at forest ax sir conse~adon~ also Clad seed storage St interna~onal and national centers. Appendix C co~nta~i..ns a partial fist of such centers. Very ~ of the Citifies are for lon~g~te~ presera~o~n of e~,l~s=; meanly are ~.~ril~ designed ~sho~r~ storage to a< establish provenance trials an!d ex situ consera~tibn strands and to distribute high~quali~ seed. Most Nominal centers are intereste~d~ph- ~madly in genotypes of flock importance; conservation off all possible genes is mom point to in~rnadso~al ~i~ns~dfu~hons One conclusion truant is ines^~a~e is that lone seed stooge of gee spades gently plays a very mmor rote an ~nseratlon efforts. This must ~ recbRed . , , ^ '2~1 . Bump . . . llie~FA O has begun a projecito assist counthes optic Sa~heli<~n and north Sudani~n regionsininitiahn~reseprch and dev~lop~rie~n~t~ct)>it~s in the geld oigen~eti~re~so~rceso~f ~ooUvs~edes Most Sells. the aim is to enhance~o~r create n~t~ni1 . . . . .. , ~ - ~ -I ~ ~ - -a at ~ - ,, demands Iffy dusted materials bv de~l~6omen~t Trisects. TO . . .. ,. ~a, ~... ~, ~ -~ ~ Ton, and im~p~vesme~nt~o~f the most ~isi6~ specks. Each Ret , ,~ s , , pantingly \~n~!/i11 be able ~ Data o!n pa b~va~il~!~1e ge!n~ebc va~r~bili~ fogged ~itb.i~n~ the species it (i~shes~to i~=p~dve. Thins impOes~!j!ot3~t exploration sand the or~ni>.tio) of fleer Chants between coyotes #~ Hick thy ~ spedes~ ~ Panda. 1 his second preset 1.n~lq,mat~on on selected 1n~<na~t~o~al~i!lp~sp=ppns irking in ~e!*<eas~ o~f~fo~<t co!nsera~n~ansj~resdJ~h;~i~:~ leeks o!f~inyol~e~n~tf speci#~l~ with rehang to Breast! ie~ne5~resou~/ce~. The in~r~a~ti~oo illustrates the scoops kind dyer of activities ends Can ~ i~em~on~ irons ~ mama Cot Anew Bump because most off the in.shtutions mendoned conidbue ~ the area of Wrest genetic resources management but may not be sp~iCc~aJl~y involved in the glad, the budgets in radon p~=se~nt~, -which was dawn 6= annual reports, trip ~ports, and i~nterie~s, is often sketchy. The deschphons of ins[~bons and project am presented as outlines of the known activities of each institution. ~ deigned analysis of the Unctions and impact of the inshtut~ns would Equip a Pate, inking . , . 3, .

I/ examina~Son,a task beyond the scope ofibis~po~. The coveragei~s intended to provide a glotal~ove~<e~ of current Scabies and of od.d~ide nerds that have Yvette bead!dressed good and As _ L~h The F^O/~hea~dqqa~eedin~Ro~e,playsanimportantrolei~n coor- dk~ng and ~npl tang t~ne6c out ~ fly Debugs ove~llaim otps~viding~techni~lis~s~nce.Th~e~F^O'scoo~dina~bon a~i~be~s are conducted through the work ofits Panel of~Expe~ on FoTe~st~Gene Resoles, and its pianning~a~iviities a~eEc~nducted~th~yo~gb its Ecosystems Consera~on Clump and its ~orki~ Croup on in Sin sConse~~bon~ of Plant Cesne~c Races (members am The F~O~ SLACK, UNEP,~and~ [NESCO). Age PO's Direst ~ene~esoJ#s ounces also Ore of Me how's most dramatic erosion and je~~stabon Titans ~ in Nepal, Whew Nests up ~ el~evadons Of 2,^~ m have totally d~i~pp~red Concerted ewes have Ken place in Many areas to provide Anew with their In supples of anew wider and Below to Educe Pusan on name feasts. Here member of a village community in Nepal meet With a Crest , ,. exen~sion~a~nt to discuss the planting of quickly m.atud~n~ trees. Credit: Fog and Ag~cul~e ~gan~tion

l/5fZf~f2775 /~- /~ ~~ ~ If IS / T~7 participates as a member of UNESCO's Sciences Advisory Panel for IFospbere R~-serves(Palniberg and E~squinas'^lcizar, 19903. The~I?<O'sfore~s~tprogiam ha~s~pl~cedincreased emphasis technical ten as on the use o~f~nul~purpose s~peciesid~rth~e provision offs range of goods and servers and tore~nviro~n~aen~1rebabili~bon.~[ncreasing amounts of funds for this purpose age being channeled through unctions institutes in developing counties. In the apnea off genetic eso~urces conservation' increased attention has been pa~i~d.to~ site oonservadon as a desirable complement to various fauns of ex site oonservation. Because of the Hag human and biotic stress to which they are Bed species in the add and semiarid rezones of developing . counties acre Cavern pdori~t~ in the F~O<s brogans. _ ~ G~ ^ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ activities and t~ini~g~.Thus,itfivo~rs projects that may ok nadonb~lor local expertise, *a _ FIe, breeding and co~nservadon align conbas-t to the CFl' ~bich has its own p~<si~onal staff find focuses on ine~a~onaI sampling collechons~s~. Age COW ~.n~of Marts on Faust gene Souses gas ~s~tablisbed ^ ~ T<~sa~bs~) Ott ~ . to colder and establish fast stands Boar ~. . . . s an Buts advise tread c on flats bottom to expired use~n~!conserve ~-~ and long ten programs For F^ O's Scion in this geld and to provide t~f>~na~on~to Amber counties. The pang has~mets~ ti~es~(T~968/ ~1971~1974,1977~1981~1985jin~17 veals to~revie~ die cu ~ n!t~extentof the demon offorestgeneCc~reso~rces to ~ake~reco~n~endations R Nets con~servad~on/ and to establish p~odie~s~for action and intennadonals~pport. At file recomn~endabon fifths Panel of~Experts,~the FA O began to pubb~sh a ne~sledey F)n~1 Gruff!< ~ lo inE1973. The ~ , , ~_~ coDec~on~handltng/storage~, ~stin~,and cerdOca~bon~;tb~e orb n ~ ties and results of~inte~nabonal provenance trifles; arid vacua a.spects~of the conservation and use of~orest~geneti~cre~souroes The ne~s~le-ueris pubb~shedin English,Fre~nch,an~d Spanish and dis~bibu~d E~eo~fchar~ze to state forest services, forest research institutes, indi~dual~den~hs~t~s Who have expressed anin~re~stin the publication. The FA O (1986) has also produced a foot ~ E~ TO ~i Spray S ~ )~ ~) a. Eighty-one spe~es,endan Bred Thereat the species or provenance level, are the focus oftbe book Its main purpose into drag the attention of decision makers, sdentists, and inte~nabonal and national organizations to the need to con serve the speciesin question.

1081 Forest Trees Another major activity of the FAO is the support of seed collection and the handling, seed storage, and evaluation of seedlots. The DFSC, among other seed centers, assists the FAO by providing short-term seed storage and distribution facilities for international use. It was originally created at the recommendation of the FAO Panel of Experts. With the Forest Resources Development Branch, the FAO's core program in forest genetics has limited but constant funding, which annually is about 6 percent, or $100,000, of the branch's overall budget. This does not include salaries or funds to support extrabudgetary and field projects. Genetic resources activities are also conducted by other FAO entities, such as the Forest Wildlands and Conservation Branch and the Plant Production and Protection Division. The division of labor among the various FAO entities with responsibility for forests and trees seems to be well defined and to minimize overlap. The FAO's recently established Commission on Plant Genetic Re- sources is intended to provide policy guidelines for FAO activities in the general area of plant genetic resources, including forestry. The Forestry Resources Division would then implement recommendations of the commission regarding forestry. Another FAO activity that includes a forest genetics component is the Tropical Forestry Action Plan (TFAP) (Food and Agriculture Orga- nization, 1985c). The program, which is intended to provide a framework for global action in tropical forestry, specifies five broad priority areas: forestry in land use, forest-based industrial development, fuelwood and energy, conservation of tropical forest ecosystems, and institutions. The plan for conserving tropical forest ecosystems outlines the desirable actions and funding required for ecosystem conservation and the conservation in situ of inter- and intraspecific variation of genetic resources of target species. In particular, the TFAP calls for (1) carrying out botanical surveys of plant diversity and distribution, (2) developing methods to protect plant diversity and species variation, (3) developing conservation data and increasing awareness of the values of genetic conservation, and (4) increasing research on species of potential eco- nomic value. It is still too early to evaluate the impact of this program on global conservation of forest genetic resources. The TFAP has, however, provided a framework within which international donor agencies can focus activities, and at a November 1988 meeting, orga- nizational plans were advanced for research and development programs. The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) is an international, scientific center of the Consultative Group on International

{,zsff~z~f3~z~s Zing 7~ ~& #, Goof? R^~ / 709 ~g~cuItu:~1 Research (CC1^~. lit is autonomousand governed by independent bard of trustees late gas Funded in 19^ Ad its h~ead- quarte~rs I~tio~ ~ pried ~ Me FAT in bone up its move to separate ounces In mat CltV in 1~. For a number of gears the FAO provided some staff and.\ubsidi.zed office space to the 1~BPCR/ and doting mat pedod tie EGO p moon ~ ~ ~eneLc Sours was coterminous ~iththatof ~elBPOR. Whenit ~screa~'th~elBPGR ha~dabo~ut~s~ixnabonal~p~ro~rams Witch ~hichto ~ork~;cur~ntlyit~orks ~ith~ll~Oscoun~tries.lth.a~ybeeninst~ume~ntalin thein~itiaLo~ of many nabonalprogra~msan~d the e~bli~h~en-t ~! bane bongs. and it all t~inin~andre~ssearch. The o~<na~1 mandate off the 1~BFC~R was broad enough to include nobody s~pedes. Ho~ever,th~e p~e~rence ofits~do~norsled thelSP3~R to focus its ems on a~hcUl~:~1 croak seediest. an__ _ _ ----. ----- -- - -fir . ~ . . . ~. It bags, however, supported anu cooper va~ou~s~ettorts 1~n~vo1vl~n~rest species, particularly flood species. Adsd~idona!l~ly, the pdo!d~) crops of the l.B~POER include a number off moody species acids, cacao, admit, oil palm./ and Pry Or mesh ~ s~bstanbal~ amount of Cork As been supped. ~ve=1 3 Me lB\R's Simmons have Swear evince to conseri~nz gee genetic resources. ~. Th!e l~BPC~R's Clad pro am has an ih~st~ctu~ of p+o~ssi~onal side ad at fifths reg~n~1 o~fflces far Cbina, south and sout~b~st Asia, vest Am a~the Whet easLand math Ada, Cn#1 Vega, south Amed~/ and southwest A.sia, the ~ed~ite~=anean., and ~Europe. Through tubed, the ~1SPG~R targets support and. advice and organizes priority flora on collecting, conseri.n~, c~ha:=cterizin~. and stosdn~ ~er~rlasm and on analyzing data. Science its inception ~tbe 18~PC~R has evolved a policy and strategy plann~in~capabEity and an inEastru~ture~related to national progranns that Solid, with adequate bangs, Provide ~ rapid startup far noes programs.Thel~B~P2Risconsidehng ho~itcou~l.dexpandits ~orki~n.to ~oosdyspecies,andjevelo~pscien~Ecs~nd.a~rdsa~nd~i~m~le~e~ntr:riority pro~grams~van Sloten,1990s). l~te~ coypu ~ ~s~ ~ -0~ Thel~nt~ernatio~nalCoundl for Researc~hin Agro~est:~ (1CRAF) lass · ~ aged ~ 1977 ~ He ~ a Cedes ~ ~ ~ a Judy undertaken ~ tie Non Dev~op~nt R~s~Ch (bluer (ID~C) of Canada. ~ead.q~.arte~=d :in. Nazi, Kenya, the 1CRAF gas established as an international scien.tiOc center devoted to improving the nutritional, economic/ and social ~el~l.~being of people in developing countries bay pivoting agroforest~ry systems Or enhanced use of the

1101 Forest Trees land without degrading the environment. The ICRAF is an autonomous agency, governed by an independent board of trustees with equal representation from developed and developing countries. It is expected to be included in the CGIAR system as part of an overall forestry effort (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, 1990~. The ICRAF acts as a catalyst for agroforestry research, training, and information dissemination. It has verified, for example, that a very high number of agroforestry systems exist worldwide and that, most critical to tree genetic resources, more than 2,000 multipurpose trees are being used in complex agricultural systems. It has also published a directory of worldwide sources of multipurpose tree seed. This type of information is very important to those using and managing minor forest tree genetic resources (von Carlowitz, 1986~. In 1989, the ICRAF received a total of more than $7.2 million in financial support from governments, foundations, national organiza- tions, and international institutions. Of this, $2.96 million was designated for core program support, and $4.3 million was for project activities (International Council for Research in Agroforestry, 1990~. International Tropical Tunber Organization The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) was mandated by the International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983, which was formulated at the United Nations Conference on Tropical Timber (United Nations, 1984~. It became fully operational in April 1985. The purpose of the ITTO is to provide an effective framework for cooperation and consultation between tropical timber-producing and -consuming coun- tries regarding all aspects of the tropical timber economy. The principal governing body of the ITTO is a council composed of 42 member governments, which represent 95 percent of world trade in tropical timber and 70 percent of the global tropical forests. There are three subsidiary bodies in the form of permanent committees on Reforestation and Forest Management, Forest Industry, and Market Intelligence and Economic Information. The funding for ITTO's admin- istrative activities is generated from annual contributions by member states (1989 budget of $2.1 million). The organization's projects are funded separately by the voluntary donations of members (1989 project budget of $8.5 million). The ITTO, based in Yokohama, Japan, meets twice yearly in various locations around the world, including Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Abidjan, Ivory Coast; and Bali, Indonesia. As a commodity-oriented organization, its activities span the range of trade and industry issues, including

I~s,/~S l(~- fit a& ~ Gaff / ~1 arias of the topical Mast resource base. The m~j~r~ctivity of tn~e all lo aviated to Roast genetic Souses invo~l~s~6ndi-n):s~fs~cro~ert~ ~. ~. ~, . ~ ~ ~ ~ r ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ _) ~ _ _ cachet at tee conse^~pn~apd sustainable itself tro~pical~<e~s~ts. Coiners funded ham Lauded study o~( the ~rehabUi~hon of commercially lodes in Asia, res~rch on natural West moment in a~s~' and research and pilot Studies on was dad by O~ ~ Last Kaii~a~ntan/ lnd~o~sia~.~ Dan the ~ de Biro meeting in lure i988' Ace }0Q upped Ending for a Say of ~teg~d~^st~ased deveJ?pment in Ace Hasted anon This pr~iect/ the Bus of Chris is ~su~s~ined Crest management fin the B~zi~an iota of age/ mill ~ Hated sienna ~lpO>~O-ha ~~s~t~i=~ used by coca peppily ~r~pp~g rubtertree~sand~<oJl~ec(ng~pr~zil~u~tsa~nds~ther~rest~prod~ucts.Si~i~r, smaJle~r scare pil~o~t~roje~sf~rBblivia and Ecuador acre also approved . . ~ ~. ~ ~ ^ .~ . . . . .. ^. outhit meeting ~ . ma. Thus Or, li~l~e~e~nC6n is Ode sign ~07~ studies of a Unseal aspect to ring gr conserving Fast amours ~r fire induct uses. In Sat o~ vistas g-~' Breast ~mp~nagp~ent dears to Manna <;=me=~I tropical #war sprees ~i~th~m~rd hand i~p~vi~g hasting methods. The emphasis on su~stain~ility and Angst agent ibis a positive~sep fir gas internal co~modi? o~:niza~on. ~; ~ j .~.~e L GIN, bed quartered ~ inland, S>~i~tzedand~,~is ~ unique~in~r . an, national away inky! that it gas con.$~ti~t~d.~ Piths Lath a go~rnmen~1 aired pSpngo~e~men~ ~e~bersship Its Us cad in lag Pith the support of UNESCO. In the Past dreads, the 1U~ has Tome ~~e=~ #~ s~s~1 c~ ~^ hawk ~ sag a~n~tign to paint gene Souses Funded ~ the PREP Ad the Wand ~ F-d ~ NhW~/ ~ ~(N~. ~>- ~ <In~na~tionaJ (sign for the (onservahon~of Tare and \a!t~{a1 beg sources et~I.,19S07.~4eas~e~sto p~ote~gepedc and biolo~c~ldivee~ity Here a maiorcosmpone~to~f~the s~tT~teg~. ~ ~ ~ ~ , , lee 1~LL^'S budget for 1988 balsa about $14 million' half of Mach gas allocated to bi~od~e~rsity p~#ec!ts~e.~' packs ~nanagement end tensed vation ~n~onitodn~ centesis The or~an~iza~tion has a Vader of expel ~ , - as. . ~{ .~ . ~ · , ., , . ^ ^ ~ commissions and comets that address aspens of biol~o~cal Awe vacation. pitas Threatened Cants Committee/ set up in 19~' produces the 1UCN Oaf ~ >~ god/ a sedes that gives detailed cause histories {red data sheets) on care and weaned plants in pa~softh~e ~orld.For

1121 Forest Trees each species, data are given on conservation status, threats to survival, distribution, and habitat, together with a short description and an evaluation of its interest or potential value to humankind. The IUCN has a World Conservation Monitoring Center (WCMC), located in Cambridge, United Kingdom, for data storage and processing. The WCMC also provides information on international trade in endan- gered plants and animals, especially through the Convention on Inter- national Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora. Another unit, the Protected Areas Data Unit, deals with data on ecosystem conser vation. At present, the units deal with biological resources, mostly at the species level and sometimes at the habitat or ecosystems level. They do not maintain data on genetic variation within species. International Union of Forestry Research Organizations The International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO), headquartered in Vienna, Austria, does not directly conduct programs but coordinates and assists scientists participating in programs. It has traditionally placed strong emphasis on industrial species and has several working parties on provenance testing, progeny testing, and breeding of specific species. It also has a working party on conservation and one on population genetics. Included in these efforts are several temperate-zone and Mediterranean conifers, as well as Quercus (oak), Eucalyptus, and Populus (poplar) species. Recently, a very active working party on tropical species was formed. Material and information on those species of clear and high potential value for production forestry are provided to interested parties at a low cost. The IUFRO's total budget for 1987 was slightly more than $234,600, about 65 percent of which came from membership dues. The IUFRO's Special Program for Developing Countries, established after the organization's 1981 world congress, has organized four regional research planning workshops. During these workshops, the conserva- tion and use of genetic resources was recognized by donors and developing country representatives as an issue for priority attention. Following the first IUFRO planning workshop, for Asia in 1984, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) started a project on fuelwood (Fuelwood/Forestry Research and Development) that in- cludes the collection and dissemination of information on species for wood energy (International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, 1985~. The second IUFRO planning workshop, for the Sahelian and north Sudanian regions of sub-Saharan Africa in 1986, eventually led to the formulation of national genetic resource projects concerning

~s,~f~!~ 1~ fig ~^ ~ C#~/ If / 7~3 Laps of ^2ip~ne m<~-ny,ss<~s~~s!~1~dip~,~ ~ Sped ~ amen Nisi pa the island of Ha, Indonesia. Hey ~ng~!~gn pees in ~-ajo^1 l~r~a-!~ ~, #~)\ n~#l} h;~<est~, <~i)~nt damage ~ Me West ~( War. Bandit: Themes P. Blair {Nd+ioni1 C-~^iS ^ ~ . ~ home. ~ . . ~lUpu~o~ TV plank in We Sudang-~l~n~ ~one. We projects ~ ~ ~ · ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ mere Toasted though a FAO oaken gnawed be ~ French East ~-a - - - - - ~ And (ln~adonal Chion of Wrest Isis Apse 19~, 19~.~ ~ thigh Ash in 1~7!~ Sturdy on leg 61 of mul~pu=~s~ spews in commas Crest in Ban Utica age tag Oceans. The . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . Ague ~o~shpp in 1~8 ide~nd~d~ needs am Spared Ire p#^ts tar ~ e~l~hon ~d~b~edi~g --as far southern and Aster AH u^e m ~di~nous Is and some exotic spews. be REP, beadquare~ in Nairobi' Tanya, is an agency of the UN. it Was es~bl~b~ in 19~ and camp With In Ah ~ovem- ments, other UN options, am nongove~~n~1 Nuns around the Todd to monitor the sate of the global envi~~n~en~t. He UNEP essentially provides a analyst far acorns to ~ Ken to address Source cons~abon needs of memos noons. its actions am

1141 Forest Trees largely undertaken in collaboration with other UN agencies, such as the FAO, but it works closely with organizations outside the UN umbrella, such as the IUCN and the IBPGR. It provided, for example, the funds for a FAO project on forest genetic resources that led to the establishment of two in situ genetic reserves in Zambia and several ex situ conservation stands in tropical Asia and Africa; to the production of the report Methodology of Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources (Roche, 1975~; and to the expert consultation on in situ conservation of forest genetic resources (Food and Agriculture Organization and United Nations Environment Program, 1981~. Much of the UNEP's work is aimed at promoting public awareness of the importance of genetic diversity and methods of conserving and managing that diversity for the future. The UNEP also acts as a facilitator. In 1985, it invited the African Ministers Conference on the Environment to hold its initial meeting in Cairo. At that meeting, it was decided that an African Genetic Resources Network would be created to promote the conservation and management of the biological diversity within African countries. The conference also decided to create a regional committee on forests and woodlands to advise members on the status of forestry and forest products in the region. The UNEP was initially scheduled to receive about $35.5 million in financial support for 1988, to which $500,000 was later to be added. About 50 percent of the funds were allocated to activities directly implemented by the UNEP, and the remaining funds were about equally divided between support of other UN activities and of governmental and nongovernmental programs. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization UNESCO's involvement in gene conservation is primarily through its MAB program. The objectives of MAB have evolved from establishing project areas based on an ecosystem concept (including human activity), to conserving representative ecosystems with zoned management, to developing biosphere reserves that conserve biological diversity and its genetic resources. In cooperation with various UN and other agencies (e.g., IUCN, the U.S. Smithsonian Institution), MAB is engaged in a program of inventorying and monitoring all the vegetation in the biosphere reserves and creating a system of inventory that will enable a global estimate to be made of the extent to which biosphere reserves are assisting in the conservation of genetic resources and biodiversity. The MAB program works through a network of pilot projects at present mainly in the humid tropics. Its draft program and budget for 1990-1991 amount to roughly $2.7 million, of which about $725,000 is

137~sfif~$ 777~# {~ ~ ~ Graft In / TYS earthed for in {stub nq~!e~ ~q~n~r~#og and another TOO concerted action at national, ^~iOna1, and ln~rn.a~oSa~1 levels. ~ L\ESCO, ~adq~a~Stered~ ins Irking fifth Ace FOLIO/ 1~C~N, a~nd~U~NEP~an~dEha~s combined with them I asn~Ecosyste~s Cob~servabon Group. Me mess off genes as d~i!s~nct gloam Bean ' ~ ~G~nseva~hon observes has India toga UNESCO<s~- parubpado~n ~ Even in sin prefects ~r pane esou~e-~ conses~ahon Pith tb~e govern Rent of Lexicon a~ndsthesl8~R~ among otber~endes. ^~G~-~_~ Is ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Sass ~ s so ~ : s ~ =~6 Clam baas es~lisked~ in 197~i to help ~coordiJa:te bled Beam off d~l~opeds~s~and ~ssdeveloping~Sscoubt~e#;~#ublic ends Poe ~stitutio~ns' ends ~intema~tldnal~ and ~ Reginald colons tat ~s6~ a~ Name 0f 1~3~in~tethabohal~ ~cul~l~seirch~ Was. 1~t~ prides ~dc~sm Era Inning O~nda1 Nippon bash the Dated Throd&hEs~inte^~bona~ a~ul~ra1 Research fiend! ~ld~ted~ac~vides~,~ its shale As to E de~l~op~ Rho nob and ~c^~e~ Pith ~ now re~6ea~h~ ~ Systems in. at devel~p~i:ng Manes I fine aim c: a~lev~:mg ~nunge:r~ and popery i~p~g~ t-~ahage=!e~t~o~f~s=~:~l~sou~es/~a!~d~i~nc:~ising e#~p~lo~e~nt Snide Development Program, and the World flank beam, ~19~;~. ~l!n~~adobal Balm! font Ceneuc Resd~rce~s, l9S9~.~lts Sect at is Din _~D:C: ~Pla!ns~exi~st witbintbe CCIAR~foreXpan~si~onto~ddiess~E~re~sby~issUes (Con~sul~d~ve Group on lnte~na~tidnal ~^ ^ ~ ~ . ~ ~ . ~*~1 Resea~h~ ~1~989a~,~b; 1990~. Dis~~ssio~n~s have focused on To broad es^rch areas:~de~re~ tuition, ~induding~ addressing ~ ins causes, ~ameborad~n~> ~p~i~ Es~re~=s/ and colon of forests solders; ~ gad Cupolas and: ~techho~l~gies~ to encouts~ the~a~ivities of ~re~res~ticb and amoral ~~s~t~=apa~e~ment. Lever the gent of bees genes Sours may ~ only One aspect of tbe~CCI^~'s ef~rt~, ~bi~c:b~ill be i=~pleme~ted th~u~gh~s~lC~#F and a nearly created center. Nonetbe~ss, the~e~ct~of ~in~d~a:5vi~s ideas such its ~si~iVic~i~raJ systems' ~g~to~st~, aide im~pro~ment of ~!ulb~uiroose the cads would be to heighten both the intent in ~, anso~u~en~cy lOr the con~se~~atlon, management/ and usse of trees generic Sources. Me CHAR couple Scone involved in ~ global effort to manage me Knew emus: 0) Pugh ~ 1B\R, as deems am, #) tough a cooperative a~iv~ity amount several of its institutes, or (S) through a new enter established for testis purpose. Of the options above, in~volve- ment~t~hrou~h the1~BFCR ~oEu~ld seem to be the mostappropda~te ~, those aspects gland toconservingand manage geneCcd~e~i~.

1161 Forest Trees NATIONAL AND REGIONAL INSTITUTIONS This section describes selected national and regional institutions with international programs bearing on forest genetic resources. The infor- mation presented, as with the international institutions, is a sampling of the approaches and programs now in operation. The information may be of use to countries wishing to establish or expand their work in forestry genetic resources. Complete coverage of the activities and budgets of these organizations has not been attempted. Central America and Mexico Coniferous Resources Cooperative Cooperative efforts such as CAMCORE are one of the few ways in which private organizations have been able to affect directly the devel- opment of genetic resources. The CAMCORE is composed of 13 active cooperating entities in nine countries; about half are private companies and the remainder are units of governmental research and tree breeding agencies. Each entity contributes to the support of the activities of the cooperative and also contributes in-kind services to local collection and planting projects. In the United States, USAID and the Rockefeller Foundation have provided grant funds for collection projects. loins efforts are also undertaken with other agencies, such as the Banco de Semillas Forestales in Guatemala, the Escuela Nacional de Ciencia Forestal in Honduras, and Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza (CATIE) in Costa Rica. Program funds for 1988 were about $250,000, all of which was directed to forest genetic resource programs. The CAMCORE has sponsored collections for some 30 Central Amer- ican and Mexican conifer and angiosperm species. From the collections, seeds are processed, stored, and distributed to cooperating agencies for establishing conservation stands and provenance and progeny tests. The cooperative helps set goals and design studies, employs a head- quarters staff and some field staff, organizes and oversees field activities with the assistance of local cooperators, and analyzes the test data. Each cooperating entity provides its own planting and testing facilities to the extent it chooses, in accord with its potential use of the materials for supporting local breeding efforts and for exchanging materials and data. As a volunteer cooperative, the CAMCORE depends entirely on annual contributions; it also enjoys the support and carries the academic credentials of North Carolina State University, which lends stability as well as access to scientific support. A balance is, therefore, struck

ifs Liz /~ ~^ ~ >~$Sf/< I ~ ~717 between Samson the somewhat longer interests Of an academic Immunity and those of the ~-m~e)~41 endues. Aces far/ su~ppo~ far Me caper ha an saw ~d~- C~ ~O ~p!~ ~- \ l~n~l9~,~ Beg Forest War of ~(~715~ (~;~t#~L#~in ^3eh^~n~Fo~t Seek. fits ~es~i~lsh~me~nt ~ ~!s~d~e~!~mb~!~ got ~ the i ~ ~ r ~ t ~ ~ ~ $ ~ S ~ ~ s e ~ ~ l ~ ~ ~ ! ~ ~ ~ t i n ~ ~ ~ ~ ^ ~ e ~ ~ n ~ ~ ~ ~ n t h ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i n i ~ d ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ c ~ ~ ~ i s ~ d e ~ s t?~St~!~>st!~!~/d~ust>'s~de~and~r~6d~. /!n~(mbe+~fs~ch ~oj<cts me of o~)on~a~1 ii Intro! ~)m~ric#~ Annuity, ~!0 (BUTTE cadent And disputes seeds It Spriest 35~!s~6f+ie{~r (l)^ti)\ alit ~p(>s~s<~ Me fir ~3u~(s df {/ (ARE ~# Cost at, ~ priming) Alit, i (~t~m/I), ~ 6>ju>~s, ~at ~!ind ~ ~ old ~ ~ !! ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ at ~ alit in ~!~!! ~ ~ S ~ s ~ Is Sass sass USA ~!s~s~ _ . ~ Is ~ ~ S ~ is ~ ~ S :S:S:S~:SS ~S:S~:S:~::::S:S~ ~ SO ~ S . ~ gone fief ~ they ~!~C<~E's~!~il~ activists i isle ~ ~e~!~\able~ Shari ~spp~<ces!~ ~ ~partm<)t,~!~ ~ ~hich~.04~$~$~m$~:~<4~ro~$~<e$~!~!~!~$~?i? ~i Bald jabdA~i.~i~hd~!!~!~!~te~b~d~ man j~!n~t~ Ii If <ad S~1~'~'~ ^~t~^ One of -ha Spume ~i~<cti~s elf they ~#ldl~!nds ~p!ro~ is margins protected arias Sign Central acedia and elsewhere ~ man America, including in Site genetics resource Nation. ice tads ~p~ro~a~:m assists in widening and developing neons parks and p!~tec~d~ galas ~ith~in. Cents ^=erica. salt also arcs as a regional liaison for ~terna~nal o~pnizad~on~s ingested in ~onseraiop in thief Up. Labs aged spit explosion ansd co~!~l~ec~(pn of GO ~ and ~ ~2f)~, and is proof the! es~bIis~ent offered stands o~f~cq~=in~ sodas within Ganges o!f the ~~gio~n in co~u~nchon Acid ~ gee Top prod~on p~oisect~ The C~1-E has sad Tom in<~cient and ~s~u~= ~nandng (OSLO moron to 512 million annually. late assesses, however, Ace nece~ssa~ basic ~s-~pre to Eve i~p~nt~ sup to the cease of ~ ~a~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ _ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ in situ conse~at~n resealers find to train The Presto scientists. Canada providessubs~tant1~1ass~1s~nceforfores~tr~researchin devel- opine ~~es group pie} Waned ~ donors such ~ ~ Cana~ia.n l~nte~~abonal Development A~encv and the 1D~ foestr ~, ~

^ ~ ~ ~ ^ ~a~~ ^~ Comas A Isle ~ fain It ~ ~Le~ Gaff is fig clea~d~ind~b~ed. Ed Sap ma ~^n~sr~b~ss~~st loamy aged ~sto~de~ded asps Octet: lames UP. BY Nodal !~G~~ic Ha, ~ a. psalm. Ace L's pawn covers redesign/ production systems ~'~ ^ Ions ~ larch age o~~es Is find training Cares and Nippon ~ lOP~O7s ~~ ko~hops. Of in Flesh egg is demoed to Age a quaker to Ban ~2a' and a -~f ~ Ash, . . . . estibIish~nent off a fadlityin~llkai~bd by the Assod~bon of Southeast gas Nabobs(/~SIVAl<)i~d the Canada Tree Seed~Center to bassist Shea ASH me ^ s in develop ~ beed~technology age ant td forest rene%val~lb sou~beast 73ii.~Cdnt _ for genetic resources and their m ^ tenance in situ and ax Mu are radical components of the seed centers pot. The l[JUC~i~n general does not caky out pa s; rather~itp~o~d~essuppo~ tosden~stsi~n developing counties to car By out pried thafxna~h dbe awns offs foes~by development prc~;am. The DD~RC's projected budget R~ 1988-1939 ~asabout$120 milIion'93 percen~tof ~ldcb alas ~ grant ham the Canadian government

I~6f~f~f3~6 ~- fit ^~- ~ GO as / !~9 The C{PT~i!S:~a de~pa~men!t ofthe Fre~nch~<eign~assis~tance a~e~cv Cen~ed~esCoo~Rd~tionInte~nibonale~en Reche~he ^gronomiqu;po~ le D{veloppe~ent(C1 ~ 03~, 0~dh habits begins ~ ~ bus tropical ~ ~ _ - -^^^ = the CTFT~ba~s _11 Ha IS 3~ lava Orga~n~tiOn~E~Of~s~bOut 1,~O pCOplE;~S '~ ich~it~rece~e~s~some~suppb~ ~ gassy ~ Ha, .. . l~ne~1Ll~ss~leofope~tion~isve~yin~n~sWeand~na~ly Caused _ A_ h~e~lF~l~!conce~nb~tes~,E~f~rex~ple;sson 1~2f#~tophOne~s~u#Saha~n ~fdcan~counideS~plus Ffenc~Guiana adduce Caledonia The CTFT a~l~so~<u~sesitsachvi~eson onlvaselectnu~berof~species:E~!/y~f~s~ Species ~r~theih~umid~andsdr;~s~o~s~Fi~s~r ~and~P~.~ ~ Ace. T/n~l~ spin b~nd~s~-s~n~ut trees! ofthe System Fac~c~a~nd ~> ~-f0~s(~k)~, G~!~stuse~d~r~!~^t~in~t~p~ics)' Cod (~(est~slndia~n~or Spanish cedir)~,~CJ~s)~)o~,~a~nd 3.~c~,~ fin, Ail. mu Andy. ~! The~ClFT'~s actKid~s wi~t~be~se~e<~res~e>!in~n~s~e;!~yd~!!~bith!~I~I?~s of~fo~s~try o~pe=~!ti~o~n~s>~cm~deve10pment~s~ot~bs~ed~i~g~a~nd n~urserv techies to primaTyconvesion and u~iza.~tio~n.~ Sped ! esp~bb~esss~var~idelv~!~O^~the~ ! ~ ~ ~ p ~ ~ : J~cdJ~bbies~ith~hi~ch . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ th~esETPT ha~bl~te~l a~)reem~h~.~s~l~n~de~ne~l. spades Ado , ~. so~rcesi~s based on use. ~Some~s.hort-~=n conservabonS~o}~ecives.a~ metLy ~ ~CTFI'ss~s~d~3ge~men~t~p^~(ct,~an~d~s~ode~meds meteor o~D~ectlv~sare metbv~its~d~c~lecti~n act hits but~esClTT~iA~!not , · . . enz~zedin anv~10~e~n~situ area Asia Reacts . ~, ~ The LILT has deVe10ped~ seldom stodgy' re~.=h~s Wanda ~dlit~s Air supplyinG~seedsof~hi3~Iy~vaJuabIespedes~r~eva)~hon~.p~bunGsa~nd other~nseedsin nations with I chit hascoope~bveEproi~cts~ltalso heisted plantings of~its ~gget~s~ped~sin~Ve~Jcou~nt~es Although . . ~ . ~ ., tine s1~1~l~sa~ 01 m~e~neediose~ns~u~ thecontinue~d existence ofat le~as~ta ~ mple-ofthe~sepl~n!tingsa~nda~lsotoes~blishinsituston~servab~on s~nds~it~ha~sno~long~te~n genetic con _ titan purge. The CTFrs 1988-19e budget for genetic resources So 5825.7 milhon. Ante ~S~0.2 Lion of that amount was Red airs poplar poem ca~tegodes: Election and eva~luabon of tropic Crest Neck !res~urces (~6 ~million), co~nse~abon~ in the ~p~1~1 zone (~3.4 million), and labo~to~ research and studies (S68.S million). The funds age provided by the French government and European communities. ~~ . ~.

1201 Forest Trees Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization In Australia, forest genetics work is conducted through CSIRO's Division of Forestry and Forest Products Research, Program on Austra- lian Tree Resources, Canberra. About 75 percent of the CSIRO's funds are appropriated by the Australian Parliament; contributions by industry and other groups account for most of the remainder. Total research expenditures by the CSIRO in 1988 amounted to roughly $362.6 million, of which nearly 23 percent ($82.8 million) was allocated to plant production and processing, the category into which forest genetics activities likely fall. The committee was not able, however, to obtain a more precise estimate of CSIRO's expenditures related to forest genetic resources. The Tree Seed Center, a key unit of the Program on Australian Tree Resources, is a focal point for many projects that require access to Australian forest genetic resources for use in other countries. The center collects and distributes high-quality, source-identified seed of commer- cially promising Australian woody plants for research purposes, provides professional advice on the choice of species and seed supply, and provides technical information on species of value and makes the materials widely available. During 1982-1985, the center undertook 45 major collecting programs, about half of which involved the collection of Eucalyptus seed. The major activity focused on individual tree collections from superior provenances of proven species for tree breeding purposes. One project, Australian Trees and Shrubs for Fuelwood and Agroforestry, funded by the Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), has meant a new direction for the center. This project involves the exploration and collection of seed of lesser known Australian trees and shrubs with potential for use in agroforestry and fuelwood plantings in developing countries. The program supports conservation of species both directly through seed storage and ex situ plantings and indirectly by drawing attention to their potential for utilization. It also provides a stimulus to sample genetic resources of non-Eucalyptus species. The center's work in this area has concentrated mainly on nitrogen-fixing Acacia and Casuarina (she oak) species. The center collaborates with Australian and international donor organizations in arranging and distributing the seed for international provenance trials of important species. Trials of Acacia mangium and A. aneura, for example, have been established with the participation of 40 organizations and 11 countries. The CSIRO and the Queensland Forestry

ifs !~~Z~ a ~^ #~ ~!~!L F~ / 727 Oepa~rt=~e-nt' fifth support 6= the ACIAR, are developing a~da~t<-~se system for siding and selectively Ens the result of geld dials, especially~th~o~ -using ~e~ll~doc~n~ted seed Jo provided byte TO Am. ~ -~_ the Management p~ctice~s~used gas aIso~cJuded. ~ The C~S~lRO~ hasSn~oted~at-th~e~ is~l~ess~pres~su~ on naO=l~standssof o!no~i~lly im~~rta~nt~.spede in Austria Man in ct~r~counides~,~but ~ sip Amps am s!~l~est~is~hed as partsofla~e-~ unsexes managed by the ~abo~ni1 P~rk~Seri~s. The CSIRO bag also noted that Bags Or constraint to the most eaves co~nse~adon Andre of Asian genedc esoures~in~sothe!r coun~t~es~s.~e~. the lances off a roped i~temationa~1~ ~r~suth activities Ih~e pities of the~DESC~, ! a ~s~t) deve~lop~men~t~assis~nce toga= ni~^n Glanced by O~1~D^> ~i3ha~d.~in lags under~the~p~isect name Da~sh/F^O ~Fbres-t~! Reseed Center The ~OPSC is. bond in H~=lebae!~. Denmark. ` - - - - - . . .~altio~gh~ nostrils activifies~.~tzk~ place ~devel~ping~!~co~unid~es,~ph mildly t~sou~the~st~^sia and Can ~ I ^ media. Procreant of~large q~andties off high~quaL~ty~seed~!i~ssb~ne~o~its again Eves. He Manly gags been~f0=si3~g~ on three i.mbo~nt Spies: ~ ~, Pi~s~,k~s~ff, find !G!~~ J~ ^ #<J~or~acL~-~ off tag OPSC has been acting as a~ha~ndlip~' storage, find d~ist~b.t~n Point ~r~seesdscollected ~ith!~n~tb~e~FAO]B~PC~{UN~EP proi~ec$,~gene) ~esoures of~.Add~a~nd Se~~dd Zone {b~eal~S~pe~s !fo~t~be~!!~l~r~e!me!nt of Mull Livings. ^ Mated achvitv has~been.~ssisd other p~g~ms elan the eva1ua~t~n 01~ 1n~terna~on~l provenance teals coo~in~a~ted~ by Me DFSC, which includes geld medsu~=en!ts., com-pu~tati~o~. off data, acid integer of results. Twists regaled as ~. ~ . fine of OFSC'~s~hi~est pho~acEv:i!hes. ~1~D^ has also Men p~vidih~ assisting to seventies Air the mana~ment of ex situ cons eon stands to ~h~elo~:maintain the rea~test~~ss~i!b~ genetic~div~ers~i} ~i~in~th~e stands CoIl~tio!ns of Psalms ~ ~ <~ ~ brat The Mapping, fiend, and Vi~= in c-~ With Me Forests l~ns~ti~tute. in 1980, DAN~lDA spentiust under ~30 Allison on Presto projects, about 7 percent of its total budget. Funds am provided by the Banish government and then channeled into bilateral and multilateral Reacts . ~ He's ~ ~ am alp. . ,,

122 / Forest Trees Oxford Forestry Institute The OFI is a world center for forest research and development. The need for adequate supplies of correctly named, site-identified seed trees grown for industrial and nonindustrial purposes led the OFI to establish international provenance testing projects for some 50 species in Central America and parts of Africa. The projects cover exploration, taxonomy, collection, seed storage and distribution, field trials, establishment of conservation stands, evaluation, and conservation and development of genetic improvement strategies for a number of tropical species. Since 1963, the OFI has made collections in the entire Central American region for provenance and progeny trials, especially of pines. Since 1980, it has also made collections of tropical broadleaf trees from arid and semiarid zones in Central America. Seed from OFI collections are distributed free of charge for trials all over the world. The evaluation of such trials has already provided a great deal of information about genetic variation within the collected species. The emphasis in all OFI genetic projects is on breeding for use in the tropics. The species OFI initially worked on were largely tropical pines, Pinus caribaea, P. oocarpa, and P. tecunumanii. Recently, it has expanded its work to include P. patula, P. kesiya, P. merkusii, and P. greggii, among the pines, and to a lesser extent, other gymnosperms, including Agathis (kauri), Cupressus (cypress), and Widdringtonia (African cypress) species and Abies guatemalensis. Among the hardwood species with industrial uses, projects are being developed for Cedrela (Chinese cedar) species, Cordia alliodora (Ecuador laurel), and Liquidambar styraciflua (species of sweet gum) from Central America. For agroforestry use, Gliricidia septum and several species of Leucaena and Prosopis are included in initial species assays, and in east Africa several species of Acacia (A. albida, A. tortilis, A. senegalensis, and A. nilotica) are being collected in various cooperative projects. Some 25 tree species from the Central American dry zone, mainly legumes, are also being studied. For all of the above species, a two- or three-stage sequence of projects is followed. The first stage begins with initial collection of materials for identification and study of phenotypic variation. A second stage is a more formal ecogeographic study using rangewide collections and widely distributed trial plantations to establish initial provenance trials. A third stage is sometimes necessary for more intensive sampling of selected individuals or populations. Selections from the initial prove- nance trials are also used with materials from the third stage to establish local breeding populations.

l~5f/~f~s /~ Off !~7 Tab Gregg R~s/?e The models~o~fthe OF~l/soperptio~ngls~l~ar~itstrq~Ricq~l~pine projects {Pica> amp an, P I and P. - ^ ~ ~ ~ at, Pay ~ ~ ~nded~plo~,sof~!~hich bbout15 sites age consi~dered~representpuve and getable ~rde~iled data analysis over several environments. about one id of the ~odginal~soun~s mere considered useful~+~resa~/in~> and with ~subs~nbaI in!t~popu~tiona1 neck vacation and at least 25 ages Pled par po^Iad~/ a su~cien!t breeding gases is On sided ~^ arm. ~ a, The impact offs these cr~e~s~ on the s~enedc;. rehouse base fist mixed. Intoned above -l-he .. . ~ , PI ~hs~ been ~411~ gamble and ~exiAts~.in~ Enough sdivetse test for breeding populations that its ~ne~c vadition~is~ currently ~e11 conserved. . Past If ~ P. I; And APE. ~&~ All ply rebut a ~ ~p~pula~bon~s are missing Am col~lechons~. Bead Be Mae Gaps All Pus Bogy and in most of Be come ha;rd~~d ~colle~ons/ e~spedal\~of populations at ~eed~s of spices ~here~s~many local variants ~ being lost Portage ~uncglle~bl~e~. The 0 ~ hags Usov~n~i~n~h~ousetedEn~sy~(and~otherpro~ssionals on outside~fundt~g) but~tie~ instate lb~gelys!~d~ependsss'~on~sho~$etm Gra~ntsand~ben~e,fu~ndingheco=~sicon~i~ton~pbog~ar1~con~ndi?. There ~ 11 pro~ssion~Isinthe Ce~e~tics~s~d~liee~Breedi~ELnk~salJ on non>~un~esi~nded~ ("ma") probes ~e~ unlit is respond floor all prompts anon Neck Issue development ~ it Opted with Only nati~onaJ governments and in~=abonal avenges, ibis ~1 Sups! seed center ~ deve1~opi!n~ ~u!n~e-s' Is used otiose seed cent= in its Tepee= croi~ects. and has Econ~n~v made all mated Ion freely available to all sConsidedng To sit costs rawly $1 elision to es~bEsh the pine Pals by its standard procedure' and that its Ending cycle is ~ ~ ~ >>r pawn He ~ ~ a ^^ in ~ view of prospect pd~odties. BuilSi~g~ ~i~n~st#~e and- d~e~I~opi~ng perk so~nneI in the counties Them it Form is not a mai~orscomp~e~nt of a paroled and hence> Be SOFT does its own seed coon Laid di~s~but~n. One off its other Mentions is, hoppers academic; inns partings' ~ OF1 offers intensive courses Sign Oxen and abroad ~ a wide And of subjects. [-S. Dam of dreg ~ ~ ~ ~ APE Hi. I: TO advises of the U.S. Department of ^~#ul~e's Foist Seam delude esearh and ~nedc imp~# pawns endued ~ national Blasts. Rewash is proudly aimed at secedes of Thigh amp

124 / Forest Trees mercial value, but there is a growing emphasis on maintaining diversity in forests. The Forest Service also provides international assistance in forestry to USAID's overseas missions. The Forest Service has collected and maintained varieties of Pinus tueda (loblolly pine) since 1943. Storage facilities for tree germplasm are located at its laboratories. These are not long-term storage facilities, however, and there is no national inventory of what tree germplasm is in storage. When the Forest Service identifies endangered populations of forest tree species, it collects germplasm and, when possible, grows it at a site with similar environmental conditions. Most U.S. national parks have set aside land as genetic management areas. Individual states also have independent conservation programs, and several states have a tree improvement program that includes genetic resources components. State activities generally do not have an inter- national aspect, but they can serve as models for larger efforts. California, for example, has an innovative project to conserve conifer genetic resources. The Conifer Germplasm Conservation Project is designed to provide information and resources needed for long-term protection of the diversity of California's forests. As part of this program a major effort will be to complete seed collections in California from the range of Pseudotsuga (Douglas fir) and Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine). Intensive seed collection also will be made for Picea brewerana (Brewer's spruce), a rare and little known species found in a few locations in northern California. Related aspects of the project will include research on the geographic patterns of genetic variation in the above-mentioned fir, pine, and spruce species, restoration of several ongoing gene conservation collections that have fallen into disrepair, and a computer- based catalog of lands dedicated to forest gene conservation. CONCLUSIONS l Funding levels for forest tree genetic resources programs around the world are inadequate to ensure the continuation of even the current level of activity. Base program funding is being reduced in some organizations and was never adequate in others. Support for tree genetic resources is, therefore, often the product of the personal interests of individual scientists. The situation is exacerbated by the frequent lack of defined policies and programs designed specifically to prevent the loss of valuable genetic resources. It has been roughly estimated (S. Krugman, U.S. Forest Service Timber Management, personal commu- nication, 1989) that the total expenditure worldwide specifically for forest germplasm conservation activities is $5 million annually. If the

7~!f~ff~s I~1~ ~ +~# ~ ~ ~ / ~ You s lands (~ cams madly Tab ~~ she at Pall ala ~ Dames pubic. ~o~h~ 95~ ~d of sprain has ~ dart, so flue to ~ ~~ data tar wand wand gad Is ~~<e cowl. En Bears have ban igad~u~te. DIN As age,. the Cascade off the problem ~< mods the ^~1~ r~ou~s~tp wrest. Cast: Jams Pa. Hair Atonal ~p#~ Am. us ~. a al nt~ Myers ulna tails gem 01 ~~01ng. beams ~ Hands age bo~e~r/ ~q~e-nEy d=~lt to ~; any pawns Id ~~s Competed a ad Wolcott ~n~: fh~ On at Me in~=a-~1 Lois a ec d nod/ Me finds Arab ~ support ^~ an unit ma be Mated. ~us' pus at tar national, Banal' and in~=abonaI levels masts demand to Had on exls~nz ~S~0~1 al and to Pole ^ , gamest ~1 of a~ Thin Sub Caning constants His Grieved by Stag poesy ~ne~o~ng aviates' sharing ~ Ha. , . Sponges baaing noons' lions), add inter Davies Ail War Neal esou~es promos (e.g ~ two of the 1~#, He World Wig Fund fir Na~' Tonal gardens a~ Volta, and development projects). We insertions diseased in this adapter am Swings out Daunt Cork at naval and in~rna-~1 le-Is. Ho~^e~r, gaps Bean in bath AL and ~te!^adonaI

126 / Forest Trees priorities for and methods of conserving forest genetic resources on a global scale. This situation is due, in part, to the lack of a well-supported international institution that is specifically mandated to coordinate and facilitate the conservation and management of forest genetic resources. The FAO and the IUFRO are serving important functions in this regard, but a greater effort is needed. The pressures on forest genetic resources in industrialized and nonindustrialized countries differ in many respects, but the stability of future forest genetic resources for both could be enhanced through greater international leadership and coordination. For the industrialized countries of the temperate and boreal regions, there are well-established species of widespread commercial use, pop- ulations of some of which have been widely sampled in parks, test stands, and in breeding and production stands. Many of those species are still incompletely sampled for conservation purposes, however, and for virtually all of them clear programs still do not exist for using genotypes or populations as introductions or substitutes for their current breeding populations. The number of supporting populations for those species could profitably be at least doubled within existing national and international programs, and systems for testing and breeding enhanced alternatives could also be profitably established. In that regard, the number of species with clear potential for future use that could be managed in breeding or prebreeding operations is at least twice the number of species currently used, and their inclusion would quadruple the number of populations used. The flow of genetic materials from conserved status into advanced breeding populations would also have to be clearly established for this second set of species if they are to be used effectively. Hence, those species also may be justifiably conserved. A third set of species, equal in number to the second set, could also be tested and conserved for future production forestry. The attention of the IUFRO and national agencies (with some interregional coopera- tion) is focused primarily on the first set, somewhat on the second, but little on the third. Largely independent interest groups also exist for nonproduction forestry species, which overlap with the third set of species. They focus on ecosystem conservation, however; very little research attention is given to the genetics of conservation or to amelio- rative interventions. In the nonindustrialized world, pressure is growing for production forestry, especially for fuelwood in dry areas but also for timber and other wood products. Breeding is largely just beginning (with a few exceptions, such as for Eucalyptus), and the structure of breeding populations has not yet been clearly defined. Hence, a need exists for founding a structure of primary and alternative breeding populations

l~Si~ff~f~S Z)~# Off ~- ~ Game S~ / 12~7 . ~ ^ ~n~dida~s far Pro dun ~~s<, such gal those~th~at are beings in~i~a~d ~bv the SCORE, CS1~, Am, FOLIO. and OFI.~ Bomber/ many of Bose activates am staff fund on Beg deveJospm~ent off test Plantings ~r pdme>~ Potentially Seal spedes>~pnd tb~a~t Equips a lame collection and testings alkyd. Stopover' seven hundred species off pond value' espeoa11y in the abbe anal tier ~~ and Maoists- pi^1areas' are notincl~ud~ed. Those s~pedes ae~at~sh~[ d~s~k off median loss and bothin mu Andrea situ efforts by nau~na - ~, ~.. ... c~ ms~are needed to p~rotecithem Steven greater dsk,~h ~ evermore t~ose~s~pec<s or no db~ous value to~p~od~ucdon forestry thatare not managesd~or~conseryeda!nd for Ecosystem conservadon~prog~ ma clay grimly notbestructu~redioconserveany ~ithin-spec~s d~ersi?.. lbe~reis~no global pram ~rsy~ste ~ decals surveyingtho~se spades fair potentia~luse,~nd no efforts age under myth develop the Yearns fortheirresto~ti~on oruici~ af~res~hon. ~ ~ span Life If ~ fief Are /~~ /~: gasify ~d ~ ~ ^~ ~ of If Amp. Many nadona~1 and in rational efforts are directed toward consuming and Anacin mast the spades and populations Them is, however ~ greater number of Mast teens filth potential value tat should include-d in conse~~hon, testing, and Wading Crams. ~ ~ -A S~sf~f~ golf If ~d ^~ {~-~! #~ If pats Tar If tiff IS Is, Tar Saw ~i I saga fame ~i ~rs~/l~>ffo~ ofi~sf~f~f/~1s fief ~ fad its of fag fat ~ If ~ . ~ ~ -- --- - as -- ~ ~ - ~ <- lo increase Crest tam resources Sian national and inte~abo~na1 programs for biological diversity conservation or resource development will ~qqire new and expanded programs and increased levels of Ending Lon~- term content of lands is nece~ssa~ to assure He continuance off efforts that can extend over many years Encased sctivi~^ will create need far more trained pro~ssiona~l,technical.and support staff. -e ~} ~ ~f/~Z ~ ~7 i~sf~f~f~s fig ~\ fat /~f? En, Bind /~ Aces ~,f lags ~ s ^ 3~ ~) pus ~ Elf ~ {~ ~ ~i~&d~ ~.F~n~f ~ ~e~f<~z pan S>O~) ~ >~ZSza) ~) f~) S~ ~f~o~Z >~ Or #muff, h/~!o&~Zifre~fiy/~ offer ~r~.,s ~ &~fi~&~f With the cant crisisin the availability of genetic ~natedal at alI

1281 Forest Trees these levels of use and management, a more secure global system is needed to ensure future access to the extant genetic resource. Nationally based organizations must take responsibility for any populations that originate entirely within the country's borders and for which the uses and benefits are also contained therein. They may require support and assistance to do so, but for their own local benefit. If the benefits and uses extend beyond national boundaries, however, then international interest in conserving and using those resources exists, and direct cooperative support is warranted. The benefits may be realized in terms of global health and ecosystem support, and more direct products and services, in which case the assistance of international agencies as well as cooperation may be needed to ensure that all appropriate technologies are used.

Next: 6 Organizing a Global System of Cooperation »
Forest Trees Get This Book
×
Buy Hardback | $50.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

News reports concerning decline of the world's forests are becoming sadly familiar. Most losses are measured in square kilometers, but a more profound loss cannot be measured. As forests disappear, so do their genetic resources. The genes they possess can no longer aid in their adaptation to a changing environment, nor can they be used to develop improved varieties or products.

This book assesses the status of the world's tree genetic resources and management efforts. Strategies for meeting future needs and alternatives to harvesting natural forests are presented. The book also outlines methods and technologies for management, evaluates activities now under way, and makes specific recommendations for a global strategy for forest management.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!