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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Index

A

Acid rain

cloud stimulation and, 82, 457, 459, 832-833

forest threats, 425

fossil fuels and, 238

nitrous oxide precursor, 321

sulfur dioxide precursor, 238, 336, 457, 832

Adaptation, 706. See also Costs: adaptation

agriculture, 39, 45, 77-78, 502, 505-506, 509, 516-517, 561-566, 634, 635, 677, 685

animals, 37, 46, 503, 581, 676, 686

assumptions, 517-521

and biological diversity, 40, 78-79, 513, 579, 580-581, 690

to carbon dioxide concentration, 509, 551-555, 616

cities, 45, 85, 506, 635

classes of, 516-517

coastal settlements, 45, 505, 608-609, 626, 635, 636, 685-686

costs of, 34, 85, 505, 541, 680-681, 686

defined, 840

developed nations, 514

developing nations, 565-566, 632, 659, 688

difficulty of, 84-85, 657, 659

economic growth and, 507, 519, 626

ecosystems, 37, 39, 40, 46, 502, 504n, 505, 509, 525, 575, 577, 675, 685, 686

electric power generation, 41, 599, 601-602, 605-606, 654, 675

environmental consequences of, 504n, 659

forestry, 506, 569, 572, 634, 635

forests, 39, 40, 45, 505, 525-526, 571-575, 577, 634, 636, 677

government policies, 512, 538, 631-632

greenhouse gas effects of, 574

human activities, 36, 37, 44, 47, 502, 506, 527-530, 676, 685-686

human health, 41-42, 44, 45, 505, 615-620, 677

human settlements, 41, 608, 611-615

industry, 44, 45, 504, 606-607, 677, 685

investment in, 43, 503, 508, 512-514, 527-528, 530, 535, 537, 685

irrigation, 78, 537, 559, 562-563, 564-565

limitations on, 43-44, 502-503, 654

marine environments, 590-591

markets and, 34, 509, 512, 521-522

methods of, 36-37, 525-530

natural landscape, 39, 40, 45, 505, 551, 575, 578-582, 635, 677

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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ocean current changes, 47, 507, 521, 589, 676, 686

plants, 37, 46, 503, 564, 577, 581, 676, 686

policy options, 30, 32, 34-35, 43-44, 69-70, 77-79, 550, 574, 674, 690

population migration, 628, 631-632

recommendations, 47, 77-79, 508-514, 690

research, 77-78, 80-81, 508-509, 690

sea level change, 537, 590-591, 611-613, 635

sensitivities, 44-47, 504-507, 541, 653, 675-676, 677

technology and, 37-38, 509, 514, 516, 530-534

temperature increases, 47, 503, 613-614, 653, 655

tourism and recreation, 45, 46, 505, 506, 607-608, 677, 686

uncertainty in, 43, 534-537, 541, 561

water resources, 40-41, 45, 78, 505, 506, 529, 537, 599, 634-635, 636, 677, 690

weather forecasting and, 80, 510, 534, 691

Aerosols

chlorofluorocarbon substitution, 392, 393, 792, 793, 794

cloud stimulation, 435-436

defined, 840

halocarbon propellants, 95

hydrocarbon propellants, 392, 393, 793

sulfate, 22, 59, 121, 451, 472

Africa

agriculture, 631, 798, 799

deforestation, 11

fertility rates, 417

population growth, 415

refugee migration, 622, 626, 628

water resources, 592

work animals, 395, 804

Agriculture. See also Livestock;Rice production

adaptability to climate change, 39, 45, 502, 505-506, 509, 516-517, 561-566, 634, 635, 677, 685

adaptation costs, 505, 506, 543, 550, 675, 678, 686

adaptation policies, 77-78, 509

biomass fuel sources, 348, 393, 805

capital stock replacement, 38, 531

carbon dioxide fertilization, 38-39, 78, 558, 566

carbon sequestration (sinks), 404, 798, 799

cloud seeding, 827

deforestation, 424

energy consumption, 281, 393, 805

greenhouse gas emission, 5, 376, 393-394, 799-800

greenhouse gas emission reduction, 58, 394, 395-398, 402-403, 471, 799, 800

impacts of climate change on, 44-45, 505, 522, 550, 556-562, 599-601, 602, 603, 604, 635

land, reforestation of, 441, 700

land use, 393, 404, 798-799

mechanization, 804-805

methane emission, 376, 393, 394-395, 799-800, 805

methane emission reduction, 394, 395-401, 404, 799, 800-805

mitigation costs, 60, 400, 401, 403-404, 484, 489, 684, 802-803, 806

mitigation intervention effects, 497

mitigation policy options, 58, 157, 396-397, 399-401, 403-405, 471, 480, 800-806

nitrous oxide emission, 8, 162, 376, 393, 398, 682

nitrous oxide emission reduction, 402-404, 805, 806

precipitation changes and, 34, 39, 44-45, 557, 654

radiative forcing, 161

research, 39, 77-78, 398-399, 404, 509, 557, 690, 799

soil moisture in, 136

technological improvement, 405, 509, 799

temperature changes and, 39, 558, 559, 561

water resources and, 503, 528, 559, 560, 562-563, 602, 654

Agung, Mount, volcanic eruption, 451

Air conditioning

adaptation technology, 37, 531

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 871

automobiles, 385-386, 471, 479, 793, 795

residential and commercial buildings, 210-211, 216, 711

Aircraft

cost of efficiency improvement, 296, 298

energy consumption, 728

exhaust particulates, geoengineering, 59, 61, 453-454, 472

fuel efficiency, 56, 287, 293, 469, 478, 743

new product development, 301, 531

Air pollution

energy conservation reductions, 169, 185n, 238, 320, 321

regulatory reduction, 70, 321, 614

temperature change and, 610, 614

threat to forests, 425

Albedo

atmospheric dust, 449, 450, 453, 460

cloud feedback, 106, 108, 842

cloud geoengineering, 450, 454-455, 460, 461n.4, 824, 825, 827, 828, 831

defined, 840, 845

mitigation intervention, 157-158, 447

snow-ice feedback, 106, 113, 135

vegetation, 137

white surfaces, 447

Algae, 446, 457, 588, 832

Alternative energy supplies, 75, 76, 368-369

water heating systems, 217

Alternative transportation fuels. See Transportation energy management

Aluminum, 531

production, energy conservation in, 280, 718, 719, 722

Amazon basin, 135-136, 430, 799

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), 206, 218, 219

Ammonium sulfate, 833

Animals. See also Livestock

adaptation to climate change, 37, 46, 503, 581, 676, 686

biological diversity, 513

carbon dioxide enrichment and, 38-39, 576

carbon sequestration, 798

impacts of climate change on, 37, 39-40, 47, 576, 578, 584, 586, 587, 589

work animals, 395, 398, 799-800, 801, 804-805

Antarctica

oceanic iron fertilization, 445, 446, 459

ocean mixing, 96-97, 446

ocean nutrients, 443

precipitation, 154

stratospheric ozone, 125, 377, 450, 849

stratospheric temperature, 125

West Antarctic Ice Sheet, 25, 26, 141, 636n.4, 680

Appliances

chlorofluorocarbon substitutes, 384-385, 471, 479

conservation supply curves, 714-715

efficiency improvements, 55, 212, 216, 217, 219, 384-385, 468, 476

energy consumption, 201, 208, 209, 215-216, 218-219, 710

regulatory standards, 209n, 219, 227, 233, 240

Archimedes principle, 819, 821

Arctic Ocean, 680

oil reserves, 604-605

Asia

deforestation, 11

energy consumption, 236

land use, 798

population growth, 415, 417

precipitation, 136

refugee migration, 622

rice production, 404, 801

work animals, 395, 804

Assumptions, 21, 517-521

Atlantic Ocean, 456, 680, 831

Atmosphere. See also Atmospheric concentration; Stratosphere; Troposphere

carbon dioxide removal, 351, 681, 683

chemical reactions in, 12, 59, 81, 94, 146, 158, 161, 332, 450

chemistry, dust/aerosol geoengineering and, 435-436, 443, 450

chlorofluorocarbon photodissociation, 96

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 872

chlorofluorocarbon removal with lasers, 59, 61, 433, 457-458, 472, 482

defined, 840

energy absorption and reflection, 13, 14-17, 100-101, 102-103, 664

forests and, 66, 437

general circulation models, 20, 111

greenhouse effect, normal, 3, 91, 101

greenhouse gas accumulation, climate effects, 19, 20-21, 22, 26-27, 158, 172, 665, 666

greenhouse gas cycling, 93, 700

greenhouse gas dispersal, 5, 12

greenhouse gas removal, 30, 157-158

heat transfer, 16-17, 28, 154, 664-665

human greenhouse gas emission to, 5-6, 7-9, 27, 89, 91-92, 97n.2, 153, 158-160, 162, 171

nitrous oxide removal, 97

ocean-atmospheric system, 93, 605, 636n.5, 846

temperature

cloud feedback, 842-843

data records, 125

greenhouse warming, 4, 673

ocean heat transfer, 143

radiant energy transfer, 16, 17, 19, 664

and shoreline ecosystems, 587

and water vapor concentration, 103-104, 158

water vapor feedback, 103-106, 109, 158, 669, 673

Atmospheric circulation, 47, 657

Atmospheric concentration

carbon dioxide, 3, 13, 14, 92, 146, 153, 160, 667

adaptation to, 509, 551-555, 616

anthropogenic contribution to, 3, 27, 89, 92, 93, 94, 97n.2, 146, 330

climate models of, 3-4, 20, 29, 111-113, 124, 125, 669

doubling scenario, 3-4, 20, 37, 102-103, 105, 111-112, 148, 153-154, 330-332, 669

greenhouse warming contribution of, 3, 27, 89, 93, 663

ice core record, 91, 93, 97n.1, 443

ocean fertilization and, 444, 446

past increases, 3, 12, 27, 91, 93, 94, 153, 443, 663-665

chlorofluorocarbons, 3, 13, 27, 92, 95, 146, 153, 160, 381, 458, 663, 665, 667

greenhouse gases, 3, 12, 13, 19, 20-21, 22, 92, 146, 148, 663, 671

halocarbons, 95, 381

hydroxyl radical, 94-95

methane, 3, 12, 13, 27, 92, 94-95, 146, 153, 160, 381, 663, 665, 667

nitrous oxide, 13, 92, 96, 97, 146, 160, 161, 381, 667

sulfur dioxide, 457

trace gases, 666

Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC), 337

Atmospheric lifetime, 666, 672

carbon dioxide, 12, 13, 92, 93, 146, 160, 381, 382, 666, 667

carbon tetrachloride, 146, 381

chlorofluorocarbons, 13, 92, 146, 151, 160, 381, 666, 667

halocarbons, 96, 146, 381, 392-393

methane, 13, 92, 94, 146, 160, 381, 666, 667

methyl chloroform, 146, 381

nitrous oxide, 13, 92, 97, 146, 160, 381, 667

Atmospheric moisture, 141

Atmospheric pressure, 140

Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS), 131

Automobile industry, 309, 385, 718

Autombiles. See also Transportation energy management

air conditioning, 385-386, 471, 479, 793, 795

air pollution, 321, 614

carbon dioxide emissions, 312, 334

conservation supply curves, 751

consumer preference for, 314, 322, 473, 731

energy consumption, 286, 288, 310-311, 313, 728

fuel economy index, 287, 288, 727, 754

fuel economy technology, 33, 732, 733-735, 739-741

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page 873

infrastructure support, 314, 317n, 318, 367

invention of, 530-531

lifetime and turnover, 33-34, 301

mass transit substitution, 49, 173, 312, 314, 317n, 322, 473, 764

policy options, 75, 301-304, 315-317

vehicle miles traveled, 310, 312, 316

Auto/Oil Reformulated Gasoline Program, 307

Azolla fern, 404

B

"Backstop" technology, 51, 52, 180, 192

Balloons

stratospheric dust delivery, 452, 459, 460, 817, 819-823

sunlight reflection screen, 59, 454, 472, 482, 486, 817, 823-824

Bangladesh, 417, 609, 627, 628, 801

Barrier islands, 584, 587, 612

Benzene, 321

Biogas, 805

Biological diversity

adaptation to climate change and, 40, 78-79, 513, 579, 580-581, 690

deforestation and, 76, 430, 442

impacts of climate change on, 40, 80-81, 576-577, 590, 591

international cooperation, 67

markets and investment, 35, 686

research needs, 80-81, 370, 442

Biomass

alternative fuels from, 57, 306, 307, 308, 323, 364, 367, 370, 371, 393, 446, 470, 478

barriers to implementation, 323, 361, 364, 367

burning, greenhouse gas emission, 96, 305, 395, 700, 805

burning, reduction of, 394, 398, 401, 805

carbon dioxide enrichment and production of, 80, 81, 555, 691

carbon storage, 666, 700

cost-effectiveness of carbon dioxide reduction, 355-356, 486

costs of implementation, 348, 349, 444-445, 459, 482, 779-783

defined, 841

electric power generation, 57, 333, 349, 356, 361, 470, 479, 602, 787, 788, 789

energy supply share, 330, 333, 334, 345, 348-349, 372, 775, 779-783

ethanol fuel produced from, 305, 306, 307, 308, 323, 345

ether gasoline additive, 307

fossil-fuel plant replacement, 57, 259, 470

industrial energy supply, 8, 162, 259, 682

methane emission, 94, 395, 805

methanol fuel produced from, 57, 307, 323, 345, 470, 478

nitrous oxide emission, 8, 162, 682

oceans, growth stimulation in, 59, 61, 433, 442-446, 459, 472, 482, 486

research and development needs, 370, 371

technological improvements, 372, 799

Biosphere, 93

carbon sequestration, 80, 537, 672

defined, 841

hydrologic processes, 135, 136-137

Biotechnology, 278, 349, 565

Birds, 40, 585

Black abalone, 589

Black sea urchin, 589

Blooms, 653

Boiling water reactor (BWR), 770

Bombay Efficiency Lighting Large-scale Experiment, 241-242n.10

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), 229-230

Botanical gardens, 580

Bougainvillaea, 580

Brazil

agriculture, 798, 799

alternative transportation fuels, 304

economic development, 417, 418

electricity production, 236

orange juice industry, 556

Building codes, 75, 233, 240, 472

Buildings, residential and commercial, 166

barriers to efficiency implementation, 225-226

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page 874

building shell efficiency, 216, 219-220, 698-699

capital stock turnover, 37, 532

coastal, climate change impacts, 550

commercial cooking, 55, 212, 217, 468, 476, 714-715

commercial cooling, 55, 212, 215, 217, 468, 476, 714-715

commercial and industrial space heating, 55, 206, 212, 215, 468, 476, 714-715

commercial lighting, 55, 212, 215, 216-217, 468, 476, 714-715

commercial refrigeration, 55, 212, 468, 476, 714-715

commercial ventilation, 55, 212, 215, 468, 476, 714-715

commercial water heating, 55, 212, 215, 217, 468, 476, 714-715

conservation supply curves, 207-208, 210-211, 708-709, 711, 714-715

cost of conserved energy, 207, 211, 212, 213, 215, 221, 708-709, 711, 712

cost-effectiveness of conservation, 205, 208, 213, 483, 683, 710

costs of implementation, 60, 212, 213-214, 220-221, 240, 476, 489, 684, 713

electricity conservation potential, 75, 204-213, 224, 240

electricity consumption, 201-203, 205, 206, 215-216, 219, 220, 225, 237

electricity efficiency measures, 55, 214-216, 468, 476, 714-715

electricity prices, 208, 209-210, 213, 226, 709

energy consumption, 201, 202-203, 205, 225, 261

fuel switching, 56, 221-222, 223, 224, 241n.9, 469, 476

greenhouse gas reduction potential, 60, 203, 213, 213-214, 220-221, 223-224, 239-240, 483, 489, 713

mitigation policy options, 53-54, 55-56, 227-237, 239-240, 468-469, 476, 483, 684

national demonstration projects, 229-233

new buildings, 222-223

nongreenhouse benefits and costs, 237-238

oil and gas efficiency, 56, 220-221, 224, 240, 469, 476

research and development needs, 238-239

residential appliances, 55, 209, 212, 215, 218-219, 233, 468, 476, 710, 714-715

residential lighting, 55, 212, 215, 216-217, 468, 476, 714-715

residential space heating, 55, 206, 212, 215, 468, 476, 714-715

residential water heating, 55, 212, 215, 217, 468, 476, 714-715

solar heating, 364, 367

white surfaces, 55, 212, 216, 241n.5, 468, 476, 714-715

C

Calcium carbonate, 278

California

agriculture, 37, 531, 594, 803

alternative transportation fuels, 304

climate change and electric demand, 601

co-generation, 264

electric energy conservation, 220, 222, 232-233, 273

geothermal energy, 343

ocean temperatures, 589

population migration, 623

solar energy, 344

transportation management, 311, 322, 324

utility regulation, 213

water resources, 400, 529, 545, 594, 803

California Energy Commission (CEC), 264, 266, 306

Canada

agriculture, 564, 654

alternative transportation fuels, 304

dairy production, 803, 804

nuclear power, 768

oil reserves, 604-605

transportation management, 316

Canadian Climate Centre (CCC), 112

Canola production, 564

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 875

Capital recovery factors (CRF), 720, 786

Capital recovery rate (CRR), 708

Capital stock replacement, 37-38, 271, 531-532

Carbon

carbon dioxide equivalent, 681

deforestation release of, 424, 425

fossil-fuel burning reaction, 332

product of advanced coal burning, 353

volatile organic carbon, 386

Carbon content

fossil fuels, 330, 331, 332

gasoline, 307

soil and vegetation, 812

Carbon cycle, 93, 437, 666, 841

Carbon dioxide (CO2). See also Carbon dioxide enrichment

airborne fraction, 840

atmospheric concentration, 3, 13, 14, 92, 146, 153, 160, 667

adaptation to, 509, 551-555, 616

anthropogenic contribution to, 3, 27, 89, 92, 93, 94, 97n.2, 146, 330

climate models of, 3-4, 20, 29, 111-113, 124, 125, 669

doubling scenario, 3-4, 20, 37, 102-103, 105, 111-112, 148, 153-154, 330-332, 669

greenhouse warming contribution of, 3, 27, 89, 93, 663

ice core record, 91, 93, 97n.1, 443

ocean fertilization and, 444, 446

past increases, 3, 12, 27, 91, 93, 94, 153, 443, 663-665

atmospheric lifetime, 12, 13, 92, 93, 146, 160, 381, 382, 666, 667

carbon equivalent of, 681

conservation supply curves, 714-715

costs of mitigation, 171, 475

buildings sector, 60, 212, 213-214, 220-221, 240, 476, 489, 684, 713

carbon taxes and, 175, 176, 178, 179, 180, 184, 790-791, 836

cloud stimulation, 455-456, 457, 482, 486, 830, 831, 833

cost modeling, 174-180, 181, 836, 837, 838

deforestation prevention, 428, 813

electric power generation, 354 , 355, 477, 479, 711, 789, 790-791

industrial co-generation, 265-266, 722-723

industrial energy conservation, 258, 259, 263-264, 476-477, 478, 718, 720, 721-722, 724, 725

"negative cost," 191

nonenergy sources, 477, 479

ocean biomass stimulation, 445, 482

parking management, 759

population control, 420

reforestation, 440, 441, 480, 814, 815

sunlight screening, 447, 448, 452, 453, 454, 461n.7, 482, 486, 821, 824

transportation sector, 295, 317, 319, 324, 477, 478, 737, 738, 743, 750, 751

emission sources

agriculture, 398, 402, 404, 801

alternative transportation fuels, 307, 308

anthropogenic, 3, 8, 27, 89, 92, 93, 94, 146, 147, 158-160, 162, 668, 670, 682

automobiles, 312, 334

cement manufacturing, 165, 256

chlorofluorocarbon substitutes, 392

coal-fired plants, 158-160, 331, 332, 335, 338, 355

deforestation, 8, 11, 76, 162, 424, 428, 682, 843

ecosystems, 39

electric power plants, 256, 334, 351, 711, 789

energy use, 8, 158-160, 162, 180, 682

fossil fuels, 91-92, 93, 165, 178, 179, 256, 330-332, 341, 342, 351, 404

gasoline, 307, 332, 334, 342, 731-732

landfill gas, 405, 406, 407

land use changes, 404

national levels, 9-10

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 876

natural gas, 158-160, 308, 330-332, 335, 338-339

natural gas power plants, 355, 789

oceans, 80, 846

oil burning, 158-160, 331, 332

population growth, 418, 419, 809-811

transportation sector, 286, 287, 306, 307, 323, 334, 731-732, 760

United States, 9-11, 158-160, 164, 165, 168, 334, 688

wood burning, 5, 11

emissions reductions

buildings sector efficiency, 203, 212, 213-214, 223-224, 239-240, 261-264, 282, 354, 487, 711, 721-722

coal-fired plants, 338, 353, 355-356, 602

co-generation, 264-266, 282, 346, 476, 483, 722-723

cost-effectiveness of, 33, 49, 51, 266, 356, 467, 483, 484, 486

deforestation prevention, 428, 812-813

electric power plant collection, 58, 76, 351-353, 372, 471

electric power plant efficiency, 213-214, 221, 239-240, 354, 355-357, 711

energy efficiency, 60, 192-193, 259

energy supply systems, 356-357

fossil fuels, 76, 220-221, 240, 257-258, 351, 370, 442-443

fuel switching, 221, 256, 257-258

geothermal energy, 343

industrial energy conservation, 256, 257-258, 259, 261-266, 269, 270, 271, 279, 282-283, 717

integrated energy systems, 346, 347

nuclear power generation, 341

parking management, 760, 761

renewable energy sources, 342

solar energy, 344

transportation fuel efficiency, 298, 312, 324

United States, 177, 221, 223-224, 239-240, 356-357

feedback mechanisms, 104, 154

global warming potential, 163-164, 167, 381-383

greenhouse warming contribution, 150, 151, 153-154, 376, 378, 380

in methane generation, 94

mitigation policies

benefits and costs, 171, 473

cloud stimulation, 459, 832

cost-effectiveness of, 33, 49, 51, 266, 356, 467, 483, 484, 486

effects on developing nations, 635

energy supply systems, 368, 370

industrial sector, 272, 273, 275, 276, 277

ocean biomass stimulation, 54, 59, 61, 82, 433, 443-446, 459, 472, 481, 482, 486, 683

ocean disposal, 58, 345, 351, 353, 471

reforestation, 77, 437, 439-441, 442, 459, 487-490, 814-815

renewable energy sources, 342

sunlight screening, 450, 459, 824

ocean absorption of, natural, 12, 93, 94, 135, 442-443, 672

plant and tree uptake, 5, 40, 76, 77, 154, 437, 666

precipitation interactions, 137, 555

radiative forcing, 15, 102-103, 105, 148, 150, 668, 670, 681-683

commitment to future warming, 18, 149, 150, 163-164, 670

contribution to warming, 12-13, 158, 167, 666-667

timing of mitigation and, 193, 194

unaccounted-for emissions, 12, 93-94, 666

Carbon dioxide enrichment (fertilization)

and agricultural production, 38-39, 78, 558, 560-561, 566

and animals, 38-39, 576

and biomass production, 80, 81, 555, 691

climate model simulations, 558, 559, 560

and corn and wheat production, 551, 552, 553, 558, 559, 562

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 877

defined, 841

and evaporation, 552, 553, 555

forest adaptation to, 568, 569, 570

and photosynthesis, 39, 551-554, 555, 566, 576, 845

and plant and tree growth, 38-39, 137, 154, 551-554, 555, 569, 576, 636n.1, 841

research needs, 80-81, 691

Carbon monoxide (CO), 158, 321, 576

Carbon sinks, 93, 666, 672

agriculture, 404, 798-799

animals, 798

biosphere, 80, 537, 672

defined, 841-842

oceans, 433, 437, 443, 444, 446, 459, 666, 672, 695

ocean temperature and, 589-590

soils, 666, 798, 845-846

trees and vegetation, 77, 429, 433, 437, 439-441, 442, 537, 574-575, 666, 698, 814, 815

wetlands, 554

Carbon tax

carbon dioxide emission reduction, 176, 194

cost of carbon dioxide emission

reduction, 175, 176, 178, 179, 180, 184, 790-791, 836

and nuclear energy, 355

policy options, 180, 194, 195, 272, 310, 367, 368

transportation fuels, 303, 310

Carbon tetrachloride (CC14)

anthropogenic emissions, 146, 147, 386-387

atmospheric concentration, 95, 146, 386

global warming potential, 381, 386

London Protocol phaseout, 74, 96, 377, 386

ozone depletion, 386

radiative forcing, 148, 150, 163

Caribbean Sea, 588, 589, 628

Cement manufacturing, 160, 165, 178, 256

Chemical industry, 389

co-generation, 264

energy consumption, 248, 249

energy use reduction, 266, 269, 280

Chemical pollution, 44, 505, 509

Chemical reactions, atmospheric, 12, 59, 81, 94, 146, 158, 161, 332, 450

Chernobyl nuclear accident, 236

Chichon, E1, volcanic eruption, 451

China

chlorofluorocarbon use, 377, 390

climate change, economic effects, 604

coal-fired generating, 236, 241-242n.10, 335, 336

coal reserves, 65, 332

greenhouse gas emissions, 9, 65

land temperatures, 120, 124

refugee migration, 627

rice production, 395, 801

sea levels, 140

Chlorine

atmospheric reduction, 391, 450

ozone depletion, 377, 380, 393

stratospheric dust and, 450, 451, 460

Chlorocarbons (CC), 15, 18, 149, 376, 377, 381

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC). See also Halocarbons

anthropogenic emissions, 3, 8, 146, 147, 149, 159, 162, 377-378, 665, 681, 682

atmospheric chemistry effects, 435, 450, 460

atmospheric concentration, 3, 13, 27, 92, 95, 146, 153, 160, 381, 458, 663, 667

atmospheric lifetime, 13, 92, 146, 151, 160, 381, 666, 667

atmospheric photodissociation, 96

atmospheric rate of increase, 13, 27, 92, 95, 153, 160, 667

atmospheric removal with lasers, 59, 61, 457-458, 472, 482

barriers to emission reduction, 389-390

carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions, 8, 387, 682

defined, 842

Clean Air Act limits, 70, 377, 378

cost-effectiveness of emission

reduction, 53, 54, 173, 496, 792-796

cost of use reduction, 60, 173, 175, 387, 388, 389, 684, 792-796, 838

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 878

effects of emission reductions, 151, 383, 690

global warming potential, 167, 381, 382, 383

greenhouse warming impact, 151, 158, 159, 378, 380, 487

industrial uses, 95, 378, 379, 383, 385-386

London Protocol phaseout, 74, 96, 150, 158, 377, 390-391

mitigation policy options, 70, 73, 390-391, 392, 690, 792-796

Montreal Protocol limits, 15, 74, 96, 150, 151, 376, 377, 393

ozone depletion, 74, 151, 376-377, 381, 383, 392, 475, 842

production of, 386

radiative energy absorption, 12-13, 666-667

radiative forcing, 15, 18, 74, 148, 149, 158, 161, 163, 668, 670

recommendations, 73, 74

substitutes, 58, 150, 173, 380, 383, 384-386, 392-393, 792, 793, 794-795

U.S. emissions, 168, 376

U.S. regulations, 182, 383-384, 390, 496

Cities

adaptation to climate change, 45, 85, 506, 635

heat islands, 55, 216, 241n.5, 844

temperature measurements, 119

Clean Air Act (1990)

air pollutant regulations, 321

greenhouse gas emission reduction, 53, 70, 408

halocarbon regulations, 377, 378, 392

sulfur dioxide emission allowances, 272, 369

Clean Coal Technology Program, 336-337

Cleaning solvents, 95, 386, 387, 792, 793, 794

Climate, 22-25, 666. See also Climate change

adaptation to, 30, 38, 515-516

agricultural sensitivity to, 556

assessment of impacts, 508

cloud effects, 106-107, 108-109

data collection and monitoring, 43, 125, 129-132, 510

defined, 515, 842

ecosystem effects, 136-137

feedback mechanisms, 100, 103

in general circulation models, 19-22

geoengineering effects on, 81-82, 435, 436

greenhouse gas effects, 17, 19, 26-27

human health effects, 617

human understanding of, 81, 100, 436

natural variability, 19, 124, 513, 515

oceans and, 442-443

radiative forcing, 102-103, 105

research needs, 71, 80

risks, 512

and sea level change, 25, 141

solar radiation effects, 14-17

stabilization, 466, 467

volcanic eruptions and, 435

water resource sensitivity to, 592, 594

Climate change, 515. See also Adaptation;Greenhouse warming; Mitigation

assumptions, 517-518

cataclysmic, 46-47, 507

costs of, 188, 189, 676-677

data collection and monitoring, 79-80, 129, 131, 504, 510

defined, 842

detection, and geoengineering implementation, 481

economic activity and, 188

extremes, 635

facets of, 5, 21-22, 556

feedback mechanisms, 103, 154

general circulation models, 3-4, 19-20, 105, 111, 115

greenhouse gas causation, 29, 89, 153-154, 696

greenhouse gas proxy value, 693-695

human activity and, 171-172

human response limitations, 502-503

impacts, 502, 516, 517-518, 541, 657

agricultural pests, 561, 570

agriculture, 39, 530, 556-559, 603, 604

biological diversity, 79, 513, 557, 577, 581

categories of, 504-507, 675-676

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 879

developing nations, 635, 688-689

economic, 84, 522, 600, 603, 604-605

ecosystems, 37, 39-40, 46, 137, 576

electric power generation, 601-602

forests, 39, 568-570

human health, 41-42, 616, 618-620

human settlements, 41, 608-609, 614

hydrologic cycle, 135-136, 137, 138

industry, 41, 603, 604

ocean-atmospheric system, 605

ocean currents, 653, 655

political stability, 629, 630-631, 633

population migration, 42, 620-621, 623, 624-625, 626, 627

projection of, 675, 676

research on, 71

sea level, 141, 653, 655

seasonal events, 653, 655

temperature extremes, 653, 655

tourism and recreation, 41, 607-608

water resources, 592, 594, 595, 599, 601-602, 605, 653, 654

indices of, 80, 503, 653-656

and methane emission, 95

precipitation change in, 520-521

radiative forcing and, 145, 152

research spending, 70-71

risk assessment, 195-197

temperature change in, 21, 520

time frame, 33, 187, 194

uncertainties, 189, 501-502, 529-530, 534, 541, 672-673, 690

Climate models, 80, 105, 111-115, 117, 124, 125. See also General circulation models

Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)

acid rain effects, 82, 459, 832

costs of, 61, 457, 482, 486, 833

geoengineered cloud stimulation, 446, 454-455, 460, 825, 827-829, 831

Clouds

albedo, 108, 450, 455, 824, 827, 828, 842

climate model treatments, 21, 80, 106, 107, 108-109, 111, 112, 113, 824-825, 828

defined, 842

feedback mechanisms (radiative forcing), 106-109, 111, 113, 669, 672, 842-843

geoengineered stimulation of, 59, 61, 82, 447, 454-457, 459, 460, 472, 482, 486, 817, 824-833

geoengineering, acid rain side effect, 82, 457, 459, 832-833

physics and chemistry, 71, 459

radiation absorption and reflection, 101, 107, 669, 826, 843

temperature effects, 17, 124-125, 446, 669, 672, 824-827

water vapor content, 104, 107-108, 669

Coal. See also Coal-fired power plants carbon content, 331, 332

in carbon dioxide collection, 351

Chinese consumption, 65, 236, 241-242n.10

consumption reduction, 169, 203, 224, 357, 369, 537

cost of emission reduction, 356, 493

energy supply share, 330, 333, 334, 335, 371, 788

ethanol production uses, 342

exporting nations, 630

health effects, 32-33

industrial consumption, 249

methane emissions, 332, 369

methanol derived from, 305, 306, 307

nitrous oxide emissions, 8, 162, 682

prices, 258, 347

resource reserves, 65, 331, 332, 336

social costs, 347, 369

steel industry use, 345

synthetic fuels from, 775

U.S. consumption, 158-160, 334, 335

Coal-fired power plants

acid rain contribution, 32-33, 336

advanced coal technology, 57, 75, 336-338, 353, 371, 470, 479, 788

buildings sector use, 201, 220, 224

carbon dioxide emission, 158-160, 331, 332, 335, 338, 355

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 880

carbon dioxide emission reduction, 338, 353, 355-356, 602

costs, carbon tax and, 789, 790-791

electric power generation share, 334, 335, 336, 355

''environmental adder" cost, 709

fuel switching, 256-258

greenhouse gas emissions, 32-33, 305, 335, 336

industrial consumption, 253, 256-257, 335

less-developed countries, 236, 241-242n.10

nitrous oxide emissions, 96

service life, 605-606

substitutes, 62, 195, 357, 358, 359, 475, 487, 683-684

sulfur dioxide emission, cloud stimulation, 455, 830, 831

sulfur dioxide scrubbers, 336, 338, 347

Coal mining, 33, 169, 332, 369

Coastal environments, 40, 590-591

Coastal settlements

adaptation to climate change, 45, 505, 608-609, 626, 635, 636, 685-686

costs of adaptation, 546, 550, 611-613

Coastal wetlands, 40, 584-585, 591

Coastal zone management, 591

Co-generation, 56, 469, 724

carbon dioxide reduction, 264-266, 282, 346, 476, 483, 722-723

cost-effectiveness, 483

implementation costs, 265-266, 476, 722-723

landfill gas use, 410

regulatory and fiscal incentives, 264, 272, 273, 274, 276

Colorado River, 592-593, 594, 597, 854

Commercial energy management. See Buildings, residential and commercial

Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), 53-54, 55, 191, 192, 216-217, 218, 233, 241-242n.10

Congressional Budget Office, 187, 302

Connecticut Light and Power Company, 232

Conservation and efficiency. See Electricity conservation: Energy conservation

Conservation Foundation (CF), 426, 812

Conservation Law Foundation, Inc., 230, 237

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), 437

Conservation supply curves (CSC)

aircraft, 743

heavy-duty trucks, 742-743

industrial energy use, 261, 262, 263, 267, 717-725

light-duty vehicles, 727-742, 751, 752-753, 754-755

residential and commercial buildings, 207-208, 210-211, 708-709, 711, 714-715

Construction industry, 367

Continuously variable transmission (CVT), 291-292

Contraception. See Family planning services

Conversion tables, 847-848

Cooking, 55, 212, 217, 468, 476, 714-715

Cooling, 55, 212, 217, 468, 476, 714-715. See Air conditioning

Cool Water Facility, 337, 339

Coral reefs, 587, 588, 591

Corn Belt, 530, 558, 561

Corn production

carbon dioxide fertilization and, 551, 552, 553, 558, 559, 562

climate change and, 530, 558, 560-561, 562, 563, 564, 565

diseases, 557

ethanol feedstocks, 308, 323, 342

Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE), 54, 301-303, 325n.2, 469, 755n.2

Costa Rica, 417, 428, 588, 813

Cost-benefit analysis, 172, 186, 674, 692-693, 743, 843

modeling techniques, 174-175, 181, 183

Cost of conserved energy (CCE)

appliances, 209n

residential and commercial buildings, 207, 211, 212, 213, 215, 221, 708-709, 711, 712

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 881

Cost-effectiveness. See also Costsalternative transportation fuels, 309

appliance efficiency, 233, 683

backstop technology, 51, 52, 192

biomass energy, 355-356, 486

buildings sector efficiency, 205, 208, 213, 483, 683, 710

calculation of, 49-50, 168, 174-175, 183-184, 185, 195

carbon dioxide emission reduction, 33, 49, 51, 266, 356, 467, 483, 484, 486

chlorofluorocarbon emission reduction, 53, 54, 173, 496, 792-796

co-generation, 483

discount rates and, 49, 194, 197, 467, 732

electricity efficiency, 34, 49, 51, 205, 208, 213, 354, 483

energy conservation and efficiency, 49, 54, 173, 185, 683-684

energy supply options, 353-357, 786, 790, 791

fuel switching, 224, 258, 476, 478, 484

geoengineering options, 61, 460, 467, 486, 496, 691

greenhouse gas emission reduction, 32, 33, 53, 192, 197, 683, 731-732, 806, 839

implementation levels and, 491, 492

industrial energy management, 173, 258, 266, 283, 483, 484, 718

international intervention, 65, 67

landfill gas reduction, 410

lighting efficiency, 61-62, 191, 192, 683

mass transit, 49, 324

methane emission reduction, 410, 467, 487, 800, 805, 806

mitigation option evaluation, 32, 48, 49-52, 53, 157, 171-172, 173-174, 189-192, 197, 466-467, 473, 495, 681

mitigation option rankings, 33-34, 54, 60, 194, 195, 481-487, 496, 683

natural gas electric generation, 185, 354, 356, 487, 490, 683-684

nuclear power, 355-356, 790, 791

parking management, 759, 760-766

in policy evaluation, 32, 674, 706

renewable energy sources, 355, 369, 789-790, 791

research and development, 70, 79

solar energy, 356, 475, 789-790, 791

transportation fuel economy, 287, 295, 299-300, 319, 324, 727, 731, 732, 737, 742, 743, 750, 751, 755

transportation system management, 319, 321-322, 324, 484, 759-766

Costs. See also Cost-effectiveness;Costs and benefits, nongreenhouse; Social costs

adaptation, 34, 85, 505, 541, 680-681, 686

agriculture, 505, 506, 543, 550, 675, 678, 686

discount rates and, 512-513, 519, 535-537, 634

forestry, 543, 573, 678, 686

human settlements, 545-546, 550, 611-613, 614, 679

indirect, 502, 659

industry, 545, 679, 686

natural landscape, 544, 575-576, 678

population migration, 45, 505, 546, 677, 679

sea level change, 43, 188, 506, 535, 606, 611-612, 614

water resources, 544-545, 679

wetlands, 575-576

climate hazards

climate change, 188, 189, 676-677

drought, 542, 543, 550, 678

flooding, 542, 550, 678

heat waves, 542, 678

hurricanes, 541-550, 678

environmental externalities, 74, 272-273, 504n, 512, 709-710

full fuel cycle costs, 334-335

mitigation, 49, 171, 465, 475

agriculture, 60, 400, 401, 403-404, 484, 489, 684, 802-803, 806

aircraft efficiency, 296, 298

alternative transportation fuels, 304, 478, 484

biomass, 348, 349, 444-445, 459, 482, 779-783

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 882

buildings sector efficiency, 60, 212, 213-214, 220-221, 240, 476, 489, 684, 713

carbon taxes and, 175, 176, 178, 179, 180, 184, 790-791, 836

chlorofluorocarbon emissions, 60, 173, 175, 387, 388, 389, 458, 684, 792-796, 838

cloud stimulation, 455-456, 457, 482, 486, 830, 831, 833

cost modeling, 49-50, 174-180, 181, 836, 837, 838

deforestation prevention, 428, 813

electric power generation, 354, 355, 477, 479, 711, 789, 790-791

geothermal energy, 343, 356, 788, 789

greenhouse gas emission reduction, 33, 50, 174, 175, 177, 182, 190-193, 836-838

halocarbon emissions, 60, 479, 484, 489, 684

hydroelectric power, 356, 479, 788

of implementation, comparisons, 60, 476-480, 482, 489, 490, 684

implementation achievement levels and, 62-63

industrial co-generation, 265-266, 476, 722-723

industrial energy conservation, 60, 258, 259, 263-264, 476-477, 478, 489, 684, 718, 720, 721-722, 724, 725

landfill gas collection, 60, 409, 410, 477, 483, 489, 684, 808

methane emissions, 400, 401, 409, 410, 802-803, 804

natural gas power plants, 33-34, 355, 493, 722-723, 788, 789-790

"negative cost," 51, 180, 191-192, 487, 684

nitrous oxide emissions, 404, 467, 805, 806

nonenergy sources, 477, 479

nuclear power generation, 195-197, 354, 786-787, 788

ocean biomass stimulation, 444-445, 482

parking management, 317, 319, 759

population control, 420

reforestation, 60, 175, 440, 441, 458-459, 480, 489, 684, 814, 815, 838

solar electricity, 169, 344, 354, 372, 776, 777, 788

sunlight screening, 447, 448, 449, 452, 453-454, 459, 461n.7, 482, 486, 817-824

timing of mitigation and, 692-693, 696, 698, 703

transportation fuel efficiency, 60, 293-298, 477, 478, 489, 742-743, 756

utility efficiency improvements, 182-183, 192, 213

water heating, 212, 476, 714-715

nuclear fusion, 774

water resources, 597, 598, 803

Costs and benefits, nongreenhouse

buildings sector efficiency, 237-238

carbon dioxide reduction, 174, 175

chlorofluorocarbon alternatives, 392

deforestation reduction, 430

discount rates, 189, 191

energy efficiency, 183

energy supply systems, 368-369

landfill gas regulation, 411

mitigation options, 169, 473

population control, 421

reforestation, 442

transportation energy management, 320-322

Cotton production, 556, 564

D

Data collection, 79-80, 81, 129, 131, 142, 226, 691

Deforestation, 11, 167, 424-429, 494-495, 496

carbon dioxide effects, 8, 76, 92, 162, 424, 428, 437, 682, 812-813

defined, 843

reduction policy, 66, 76-77, 157-158, 429-430, 690, 812

research, 430-431

species loss, 76, 430

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 883

Delaware River, 544, 597, 598, 679

Demonstration projects, 229-233

Desalinization, 597, 598, 679

Developed (industrialized) nations

adaptability to climate change, 514

agricultural policies, 399, 403, 404-405

biomass technology, 799

capacity to respond to climate change, 69, 466, 688

capital stock turnover, 532

carbon dioxide reduction potential, energy supply, 357

chlorofluorocarbon emission, 376

defined, 843

gasoline prices, 303

greenhouse gas emissions, 65, 415, 495

halocarbon phaseout, 74, 390-391

immigration policies, 621, 628

industrial energy consumption, 253, 279-282

international cooperation, 65, 495

mitigation assistance to developing nations, 172, 391, 392, 431, 688

mortality rates, 616

population migration, 623, 628

sensitivity to climate change, 504, 507, 550

technology transfer to developing nations, 390, 391

vacation seasons, 534

waste management regulation, 805

Developing (industrializing) nations, 71

adaptation to climate change, 632, 659, 688

agricultural adaptability, 565-566

agricultural land use, 798, 799

agricultural policies, 399, 403, 803, 805

biomass technology, 799

capacity to respond to climate change, 69, 466, 626, 688

chlorofluorocarbon emissions, 389-390

deforestation, 425, 429

deforestation prevention, 77, 428, 431

economic development imperative, 69, 339, 418, 429, 519

electrical demand and production, 236, 237

energy consumption, 65, 279-282

greenhouse gas emissions, 9, 10-11, 65, 236, 415

greenhouse gas mitigation, 6, 48, 65-66, 172, 405, 494

halocarbon phaseout, 74, 390-391

impacts of climate change on, 550, 635, 688

industrial energy consumption, 250, 279-282

investment lending to, 187

mortality rates, 616

population growth, 65, 494, 621

population growth reduction, 6, 415, 420

population migration, 628

research and development needs, 81, 702

technological assistance to, 66, 77, 390, 391, 429

urbanization, 626

Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, 589

Diesel fuel, 305, 307, 342

Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), 446, 829, 832

Disaster relief, 633

Discount rates, 689.

See also Investment in conservation supply curves, 708, 717, 720, 721-722, 725, 732

and cost-effectiveness of mitigation, 49, 194, 197, 467, 732

and costs of adaptation, 512-513, 519, 535-537, 634

costs of carbon dioxide reduction, 177

defined, 843

electricity savings, 209-210, 235

electric power generation, 355, 786, 787

industrial energy efficiency, 263, 266, 271, 272, 273, 717, 720, 721-722, 725

low-cost mitigation options and, 32, 475

in mitigation policy evaluation, 32, 54, 173, 182, 186, 187, 189, 191, 193, 194

timing of costs and benefits, 692, 703, 706

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page 884

transportation fuel efficiency, 299, 732, 755

valuation of future outcome, 30, 31-32, 186

Diseases, 616, 618-620

Dishwashers, 219

Domestic tranquility, 505, 629-633

"Double-counting," 62, 487, 683-684

Drought

adaptation remedies, 529-530

African, 628, 631

agricultural effects, 528, 556

in climate simulations, 578

costs of, 542, 543, 550, 678

and population migration, 507, 529, 623, 628

prediction, 520

reductions in, 530

and water resources management, 40, 592, 595, 596, 598, 599

Dry ice, 829

Dust Bowl, 42, 47, 628

Dust geoengineering. See Stratospheric dust

E

Earth

albedo, 157-158, 845

average temperature

climate effects, 5, 520

equilibrium, 18, 19, 28, 519-520, 671

greenhouse effect and, 3, 91, 101, 663

greenhouse warming, projected increase, 3-4, 18, 20, 21, 27, 121, 149, 153-154, 669-671

measurement data, 117

prehistoric record, 24, 665-666

recorded increase, previous century, 4, 20-21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 117, 153, 518, 665, 669

mean temperature, 111, 121

greenhouse warming, projected increase, 145, 146-148, 521

population, 6, 7, 414, 415

radiation balance, 100-101, 664

and climatic system, 14-19, 135

cloud effects on, 828

greenhouse gas concentration and, 3, 663, 665

mitigation of changes in, 157-158, 195, 447, 460, 496

monitoring, 19

Earthquakes, 587, 773

EBR-II Idaho nuclear reactor, 773

Economic activity

climate change effects of, 188

and deforestation, 430

efficiency improvements, 30, 474-475

and environmental valuation, 521-522

and greenhouse gas emissions, 10-11, 48, 65, 82, 495, 519

greenhouse gas reductions and, 6, 177-179, 197, 475

impacts of climate change on, 29, 31, 84, 504n, 600, 602-605, 676-677

Economic growth

and adaptation to climate change, 507, 519, 626

conflict with environmental protection, 69

conflict with greenhouse gas reduction, 6, 339

deforestation and, 424-425, 429, 430

and energy consumption, 201-202

energy efficiency investment and, 238

and greenhouse gas emission, 6, 418, 496

greenhouse gas reduction and, 178-179

population control and, 416-417, 418, 496, 809

Economic modeling, 836-838

Economics, 171, 172, 183, 186

Ecosystems

adaptation to climate change, 37, 39, 40, 46, 502, 504n, 505, 509, 525, 575, 577, 675, 685, 686

carbon content, 812

carbon dioxide enrichment and, 554

defined, 843

effects of mitigation on, 497

human dependency on, 84, 504n, 575

impacts of greenhouse warming on, 37, 39-40, 136-137, 152, 503, 533, 576, 676, 689

migration, 526-527

ocean upwelling changes and, 584

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 885

policy interventions, 579

sea level change and, 586

value of, 686

Education, 227, 235, 277, 416, 417

Eemian period, 665

Electrical machinery industry, 37-38

Electricity

fuel switching to, 258

storage, 365, 370, 371, 372

transmission, 350-351, 365

Electricity conservation

appliances, 208, 209, 216, 218-219, 233

buildings sector, 55-56, 201-203, 204-213, 215-216, 219-220, 223, 233, 237, 240, 468-469, 476

carbon dioxide reduction, 213-214, 223-224, 239-240, 261-264, 282, 354, 487, 711, 721-722

commercial cooling, 217

conservation supply curves, 261, 263, 711-715, 718-723

cooking, 217

cost-effectiveness of, 34, 49, 51, 205, 208, 213, 354, 483

demonstration projects, 229-233

developing nations, 236-237

fuel switching, 221-222, 223

greenhouse gas reduction, 231

implementation barriers, 225-226

implementation costs, 212, 240, 476-477, 484, 489, 493

incentives, 228-229, 239

industrial sector, 56, 260, 261-264, 274-275, 282, 469, 476-477, 489, 717-718, 722

investment, 225, 227-228, 234, 240, 263

lighting, 216-217, 218, 237

policy options, 227-237, 239-240, 468-469, 470-471, 476-477, 479, 484, 496

research, 238-239

water heating, 217, 222, 223

white surfaces, 216

Electricity consumption

air conditioning, 216

appliances, 215-216, 218-219

buildings sector, 201-203, 205, 206, 215-216, 219, 220, 225, 237

commercial cooling, 217

developing nations, 237

industrial sector, 201, 248, 249, 250, 251, 256, 258, 260, 717-720

lighting, 216-217, 237

load management, 228

office equipment, 219

temperature extremes and, 609-610, 655

United States, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 356

Electricity prices

biomass generating, 349

and capital recovery factors, 720, 786

carbon dioxide collection and, 353

coal-fired plants, 789, 790-791

co-generation, 264, 266

and cost of conserved energy, 711, 721

efficiency improvements and, 354, 490

and efficiency investment, 208, 209-210, 213, 218, 226, 263, 282

environmental adder, 709-710

geothermal, 789

industrial, 208, 282, 709, 720, 721

integrated energy systems, 347

natural gas, 789

nuclear power, 786-787, 789, 790-791

regulation and, 226

renewable technologies, 789-790, 791

residential, 208, 209, 709

Electric power generation

acid rain precursors, 238

adaptation to climate change, 41, 599, 601-602, 605-606, 654, 675

air pollutant emissions, 238

biomass burning, 57, 333, 349, 356, 361, 470, 479, 602, 787, 789

carbon dioxide collection, 58, 76, 351-353, 471

carbon dioxide emission, 256, 334, 351, 789

carbon dioxide emission reduction, 213-214, 221, 239-240, 354, 355-357, 711

carbon taxes and, 368, 789-791

coal-fired, 33-34, 75, 236, 307, 334, 335, 336-338, 351, 355, 356, 470, 602, 605, 789, 790-791

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 886

coal replacement, 62, 358, 475, 487, 683-684

co-generation, 264-266, 273, 276, 346-347, 410

developing nations, 236-237

efficiency investment, 49

environmental externalities, 709-710

fossil fuel, 76, 236, 238, 256, 335, 349, 354, 357, 358, 791

fuel cells, 350

fuel switching, 221-222, 240

geothermal energy, 57, 343, 360, 372, 470, 789

greenhouse gas emissions, 305

heat rates, 57, 60, 337, 338, 470, 477, 483, 489

hydroelectric, 57, 342, 360, 372, 470, 601-602, 789

natural gas, 57, 62, 75, 185, 307, 335, 338-339, 354, 355, 357-358, 470, 475, 487, 789

new plant investment, 51, 191-192, 213, 357, 605-606, 675

nonfossil fuel, 305, 308, 478

nuclear power, 57, 62, 76, 238, 334, 339-341, 355, 371-372, 470, 487, 767, 786-787, 789, 790-791

plant operating costs, 213

renewable energy, 341-342, 371, 791

solar photovoltaic, 57, 343-344, 363, 371, 372, 470, 775-776, 791

solar thermal, 57, 344, 362, 470, 789

sulfur dioxide emissions, coal plants, 455, 456, 830, 831

supply mix, 57-58, 334, 356, 470-471, 477, 479, 484, 487, 489, 684

temperature extremes and, 655

U.S. capacity, 236, 334, 709

wind-generated, 58, 343, 363, 372, 471

Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

coal technology estimates, 336, 338

conservation supply curves, 208, 209, 210-211, 711

electricity conservation projection, 205, 263, 264, 722

natural gas consortium, 339

nuclear power assessments, 354, 786-787, 789

nuclear reactor development, 770

Technical Assessment Guide, 354, 786

Electric utility companies

adaptation to climate change, 601, 602, 606

advanced coal technology, 337

costs of efficiency improvements, 182-183, 192, 213

demonstration projects, 229-233

disincentives to efficiency investment, 222, 228, 357, 368, 472-473

efficiency incentives, 64, 193, 197, 224, 228-229, 273, 274, 494

efficiency investment practives, 227-228, 240

efficiency regulations, 75, 222, 227, 228, 239, 359, 494

government control requirements, 227, 235

nuclear plant construction, 340

Electric vehicles, 308-309, 323-324

Electronics industry, 386

El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), 586, 588, 589, 590, 636n.5, 655

Emission permits, 272

Employers

parking provision costs, 313-314, 316, 317, 759, 760

transportation demand management, 317, 319, 322, 760-762, 763

Energy absorption. See also Radiative forcing

atmosphere, 13, 14-17, 100-101, 102-103, 664

greenhouse gases, 3, 12-14, 17

oceans, 19, 100-101, 135, 671

Energy conservation. See also Electricity; conservation; Energy supply; Industry; Transportation energy management

air pollution benefits, 169, 185n, 238, 320, 321

barriers to implementation, 169, 176, 271, 472-473

carbon dioxide reduction potential, 60, 192-193, 259

chlorofluorocarbon substitutes and, 384-385, 387, 389, 392

conservation supply curves, 708, 709-711, 717, 724-725

cost-effectiveness of, 49, 54, 173, 185, 683-684

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 887

costs of implementation, 60

discount rates for investment, 189

economic consumption effects, 177-178

and energy demand, 185, 354, 490

energy modeling, 184

in energy policy, 690

greenhouse gas increases, short term, 700

greenhouse gas reductions, 74-75, 203, 239

implementation achievement, 53-54, 62, 494, 496

industrial co-generation, 264-266, 722-723

industrial efficiency, 56, 253-255, 259-269, 270, 272, 273, 282, 469, 717

international agreements, 67

investment incentives, 283

manufacturing, 253-254, 255, 256, 259-261, 266-269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 282

"negative cost," 51, 180, 191-192, 684

nongreenhouse benefits and costs, 169, 173-174, 182-183

oil price shocks and, 201, 254, 286

policy options, 173-174, 272, 273, 275, 279

recommendations, 74-75

research and development, 279, 702, 703

technological costing, 185

Energy consumption. See also. Electricity consumption; Energy conservation

buildings sector, 201, 202-203, 205, 225, 261

carbon dioxide emission, 8, 158-160, 162, 180, 682

developed nations, 279-282

developing nations, 65, 279-282

industrial sector, 168, 248-253, 254, 258, 261, 279-282

radiative forcing contribution, 161

temperature effects on, 603

transportation sector, 201, 261, 286, 288-289, 310-311, 320-321, 728-729, 743

United States, 158-160, 201, 203, 248

Energy intensity, 601

manufacturing, 250, 252-253, 254, 269, 271, 282

transportation, 313

Energy modeling, 49-50, 63, 174-180, 183, 184, 185, 194, 195, 302, 490-493, 836

Energy policy, 73, 74-76, 182, 690

Energy Policy and Conservation Act (1975), 301, 367

Energy prices. 235.

See also Electricity prices

and carbon dioxide reductions, 178-179, 282

in conservation supply curves, 261

efficiency implementation and, 185

and efficiency investment, 717-718, 725, 801

industrial process technology and, 282

regulations and, 182

shocks of the 1970s, 194, 201, 227, 238, 254, 286, 354

social cost inclusion, 74, 690

solar photovoltaics and, 372

Energy production, 157, 173-174

Energy security, 185n, 238, 304, 320, 368-369

Energy storage, 342, 344, 365, 372

Energy supply, 167, 690. See also Electric power generation

barriers to mitigation implementation, 357-367

biomass fuels, 330, 348-349

carbon dioxide collection and disposal, 351-353

carbon dioxide emission, 330-332, 334

cost-effectiveness comparison, 353-357, 683-684

fossil fuel share, 330, 332, 333, 335

greenhouse gas emission reduction, 335

integrated energy systems, 344-347

mitigation policy options, 367-368, 788

nongreenhouse benefits and costs, 368-369

nuclear share, 330, 333

recommendations, 75-76

reliability of, 717

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page 888

renewable share, 330, 333-334

research and development needs, 369-371

solar hydrogen, 349-350

Energy transport, 776

Engineering, 171, 238-239

Environmental degradation

benefits of mitigation policies, 238, 369

consequences of adaptation policies, 659

developing nations, 6

electric production, 238

externality costs, 74, 272-273, 504n, 512, 709-710

mining, 272

population growth, 421

Environmental protection, 346, 347, 596, 631, 632, 774

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 853

climate change assessments, 519, 559, 560, 562, 585, 599, 620

fuel economy standards, 288-289, 731, 738, 754

landfill methane regulation, 405-406, 408, 409-410, 411

Environmental quality, 522

Epidemics, 505

Erosion, 557, 585, 586, 609, 611

Ethanol fuel, 304, 305, 306, 308, 323, 342, 345

Ethical values, 522

Europe

agricultural fertilizer use, 403

agricultural land use, 799

carbon tetrachloride emissions, 386

chlorofluorocarbon substitutes, 383

deforestation, 424

economic development, 519, 604

gasoline and auto taxes, 313, 315, 316

import controls, 399, 801, 803, 804

nuclear reactor technology, 768

ocean currents, 47, 507, 676

paper industry, 606-607

population growth, 415

population migration, 511, 628

sea level data, 142

European Economic Community (EEC), 511, 628, 803, 837

Evaporation

agricultural effects, 39, 44-45, 594

air temperature and, 843

carbon dioxide fertilization and, 552, 553, 555

climate change and, 40, 114, 138, 584

in climate models, 136

energy transfer, 16, 17, 136, 664

precipitation balance, 557, 592-593, 636n.7

and soil moisture, 115, 136

vegetation and, 137, 551

Evapotranspiration, 136, 137, 216

Evolution, 46, 502, 506-507, 575, 578-579, 686

Externality costs, 173-174, 272-273, 709-710, 844

F

Family planning services, 415, 416, 417, 420, 799, 810, 811

"Fee-bate" systems, 234

Feedback mechanisms, 100, 103, 154, 434, 672

cloud, 106-109, 111, 113, 669, 672, 842-843

defined, 844

negative, 845

snow-ice, 106, 108, 113

water vapor, 103-106, 109, 669

Fertility rates, 6

climate and, 615, 619

developing countries, 415

and greenhouse gas emissions, 420, 704, 705

reduction in, 416, 417, 420, 421, 703-704

Fertilizers

mitigation options, 394, 403-404, 471, 480, 805-806

nitrous oxide emissions, 8, 97, 162, 393, 398, 402, 682

and plant carbon dioxide use, 553

production, energy consumption, 342

soil denitrification, 96

sulfate, 457, 833

Fire retardants, 95

Fisheries, 40, 46, 584, 586, 590, 591, 599, 635

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 889

Flooding, 520, 528, 628

climate change and, 559, 599, 610

costs of, 542, 550, 678

and water management, 595-596

wetlands, 585

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD), 338

Fluorescent lighting, 225

compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), 53-54, 191, 192, 216-217, 218, 233, 241-242n.10

Fluorocarbons, 378, 381, 383, 384, 387, 388, 792

Foam blowing agents, 95

Foam plastics industry, 384

Food production. See also Agriculture adaptation to climate change, 38, 561-566

energy consumption, 248, 249, 266

frozen foods, 531

impacts of climate change on, 556, 620, 631

preservatives, 530

Forest products industry, 45, 256-257, 556, 571-572, 603-604

Forestry

adaptation to climate change, 506, 569, 572, 634, 635

costs of adaptation, 543, 678, 686

natural ecosystems and, 38

radiative forcing contribution, 161

sustainable, 45, 424, 427-428, 812-813

Forests. See also Deforestation; Reforestation

adaptation to climate change, 39, 40, 45, 505, 525-526, 571-575, 577, 634, 636, 677

air pollution and, 425

and biological diversity, 76, 430, 578

carbon sequestration, 40, 429, 437, 439-441, 442, 574-575, 814

in climate models, 577, 578

diseases, 40, 577

fires, 573

greenhouse gas sinks, 695, 698, 700, 702

impacts of climate change on, 567-571, 599, 635

migration, 569, 575, 603, 686

recommendations, 73, 76-77

soil moisture and, 654

U.S. acreage, 39, 437, 567, 575

Formaldehyde, 321

Fossil fuels, 841

agricultural use, 393, 404, 801, 805

air pollutant emissions, 238

carbon content, 330, 331, 332

carbon dioxide emission, 91-92, 93, 165, 178, 179, 256, 330-332, 341, 342, 351

carbon dioxide emission reduction, 220-221, 240, 257-258, 351, 370, 442-443

carbon taxes and, 272, 791

consumption, developing nations, 65, 236

defined, 844

dependency on, 630, 635, 689

efficiency measures, 215, 220, 223, 224, 240

efficiency research and development, 239, 369, 370

electric power generation, 224, 238, 256, 334, 335, 336-339, 351, 357, 358, 791

energy supply share, 330, 333, 335, 348

fuel switching, 256-259

greenhouse gas emission, 6, 29, 332

industrial conservation policies, 274-276

in integrated energy systems, 347

manufacturing consumption, 250, 251, 253, 256, 335

replacement technologies, electric generation, 76, 77, 349, 354, 775, 791

transportation sector consumption, 286, 335

"Free riders," 495, 844

Frosts, 21-22, 34, 556, 635, 654, 655

Fuel, transportation. See Gasoline

Transportation energy management

Fuel cells, 345, 350

Fuel economy index (FEI), 287, 288, 290, 292, 727

Fuel switching, 241n.9

buildings sector, 56, 75, 222, 469, 476

carbon dioxide emission reduction, 221, 256, 257-258

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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cost-effectiveness, 224, 258, 476, 478, 484

industrial energy, 56, 221, 256-259, 469, 478, 484

water heating, 222, 223

Full social cost pricing, 32-33, 74, 844

Fundacion Neotropica (FN), 426, 812

G

Gas flaring, 160

Gasoline

barriers to alternative fuels, 310, 367

carbon dioxide emission, 307, 332, 342, 731-732

''clean" and "reformulated" gasoline, 305, 307

consumption, 302, 311

cost of greenhouse gas reduction, 493

greenhouse gas emissions, 305, 306-307, 731-732

prices, 301, 303, 310, 314, 315, 754

taxes, 272-273, 302, 303-304, 315, 324

Gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC), 339, 346, 347, 789

Gas turbine technology, 264

Gene libraries, 579

General circulation models (GCM)

agricultural projections, 39, 559

atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, 3-4, 20, 29, 111-113, 669

atmospheric water vapor, 105-106

climate change projections, 3-4, 19-22, 29, 34, 154, 559, 669, 671

cloud simulations, 21, 106, 107, 108-109, 111, 113, 828

hydrologic simulations, 136, 137, 138

ocean simulations, 25, 115, 121

variation in results, 672

Geoengineering, 167

atmospheric chlorofluorocarbon

removal, 59, 61, 457-458, 472, 482

cloud stimulation, 54, 59, 61, 82, 454-457, 459, 460, 472, 482, 486, 824-833

cost-effectiveness, 61, 460, 467, 486, 496, 691

costs of implementation, 440-441, 444-445, 447, 448, 452, 453-454, 455-456, 458, 480, 482, 817-824, 830-831, 833

evaluation of options, 59-60, 71-72, 81-82, 433-434, 436-437, 465, 467, 690

mitigation policy options, 54, 58-60, 433, 441, 466, 471-472, 481

ocean biomass stimulation, 54, 59, 61, 82, 433, 442-446, 459, 472, 481, 482, 486

potential effects of, 434-436, 450-451, 457, 459-460, 683, 691

reforestation, 58, 60, 433, 437-442, 458-459, 471, 480, 487-490

research, 59, 82, 442, 460, 481, 833

space mirrors, 54, 59, 61, 448, 461nn.7 and 9, 472, 482, 486

stratospheric bubbles (balloons), 54, 59, 61, 452, 454, 460, 472, 482, 486, 819-824

stratospheric dust, 54, 59, 61, 82, 447, 448-454, 459-460, 461nn.8 and 10, 472, 482, 486, 817-819

stratospheric soot, 54, 59, 61, 453, 454, 472, 482, 486

Geothermal energy, 57, 342, 470

barriers to implementation, 343, 360, 372

carbon dioxide emissions, 343

costs of, 343, 356, 788, 789

energy supply share, 333, 343

Glaciers, 443, 605

sea level change and, 140, 141, 583

temperature change and, 117-118, 583

Global warming. See also Greenhouse effect; Greenhouse warming natural temperature variation, 22

prehistoric temperatures, 665-666

temperature increase, previous century, 4, 22, 23, 27, 117, 121, 153, 665, 669

temperature recordings, 20-21, 119-120, 124

Global warming potential (GWP), 163-164, 167, 381-383, 390, 808

Governments, 173

adaptation policies, 512, 538, 631-632

adaptation roles, 511

agricultural mitigation, 800, 802

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page 891

and alternative energy supplies, 347

efficiency investment incentives, 70, 240, 283

efficiency subsidies, 234, 240

electric utility requirements, 227, 234-235, 240

forest policies, 428

mitigation implementation, 64, 197, 494, 687

political stability and, 633

population migration policies, 628, 631

Grasslands, 39, 567

Great Lakes, 559, 601, 608, 609, 610

Great Plains, 626

agriculture, 559, 560, 563

drought, 529, 623, 625, 628

temperature change and electrical generation, 601, 610

Greenhouse effect. See also Global warming; Greenhouse warming and climatic variations, 124

cloud feedback in, 106-107

defined, 91, 663

and earth average temperature, 3, 91, 663

radiative flux difference, 101

trace gas contributions, 846

Greenhouse gases. See also names of individual gases accumulation, 447-448

climate model projections, 26-27, 521

and precipitation variations, 129

previous century, 20-21, 27

adaptation to climate change and, 574

agricultural impacts, 577-578

animal impacts, 576

atmospheric chemical reactions, 12, 146, 158, 435

atmospheric concentrations, 12, 13, 93

anthropogenic, 3, 89, 92, 147, 153, 160

doubling of preindustrial levels, 21, 669

geoengineering changes, 59, 60

temperature impacts, 19, 22, 663, 671

atmospheric dispersal, 5, 12

atmospheric lifetimes, 13, 666, 672, 689

atmospheric removal processes, 145-146, 157, 674

carbon dioxide-equivalent conversion, 7-9, 53, 681-683

carbon dioxide-equivalent doubling in climate models. 29, 559

projected temperature increase, 3-4, 18, 19, 27, 146-148, 153-154, 518, 519

radiative forcing, 102-103

emission rates, 8, 19

emission sources

agriculture, 5, 393-394, 402

anthropogenic, 3, 5-6, 7-11, 89, 91, 146, 158, 159, 160, 162, 171, 667, 681, 682, 695

anthropogenic, projected, 147, 158, 162, 193, 668, 670

coal burning, 32-33, 305, 335, 336

deforestation, 424

developed nations, 65, 415, 495

developing nations, 9, 10-11, 65, 236, 415

economic growth, 6, 418, 496

energy use, 158, 330

fossil fuels, 6, 29, 332

full fuel cycle costs, 334-335

halocarbons, 376, 377-378, 393

industry, 5-6, 271-272, 279

natural, 158, 681

population growth, 6, 65, 414, 415, 419, 421, 494, 809-811

transportation fuels, 305, 731-732

transportation sector, 286

United States, 9-11, 65, 82, 158, 164, 168, 236, 394, 465-466

emissions reduction

agriculture, 398, 405, 799-806

alternative transportation fuels, 286, 304-309, 312, 323, 478, 484

buildings sector efficiency, 60, 203, 212, 213-214, 220-221, 223-224, 239-240, 483, 489, 713

carbon tax and, 180, 368, 390, 836

Clean Air Act requirements, 53

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page 892

cost-effectiveness, 32, 33, 53, 192, 197, 683, 731-732, 806, 839

costs of, 33, 50, 174, 175, 177, 182, 190-193, 836-838

deforestation prevention, 494-495, 496

developing nations, 6, 48, 65-66, 172, 405, 494

economic benefits, 475

energy conservation, 74-75, 203, 239

energy supply, 335

industrial energy efficiency, 173, 248, 270, 271-272, 476-477

low cost, 64, 493, 496, 684

market incentives, 70

mass transit, 173

nongreenhouse benefits, 53, 169, 537

policy options, 30, 151, 157-158, 169, 674

population control, 82, 418, 421-422, 496

recommendations, 73-75

tax incentives, 70

transportation sector, 286

transportation system management, 314-315

U.S. potential, 64, 74, 167, 493, 496, 684

vehicle fuel efficiency, 33, 298, 323, 324

energy absorption, 3, 12-14, 17

feedback mechanisms, 103-104, 669

gases comprising, 3, 91, 158, 663, 844

global warming potential (GWP), 161-164, 167, 381-383

in greenhouse effect (natural), 3, 91, 663

in greenhouse warming (induced), 27, 91, 673

climate models of, 21, 111, 121, 125, 669

previous century, 89, 663-665, 669

time lag, 19, 671, 689

infrared radiation trapping, 3, 91, 101, 306, 663, 666

international effects, 48, 495

marine impacts, 582-583

mitigation

classes of policy instruments, 696-706

economic impacts of, 197, 630

flow and stock, 693-694, 695-696

geoengineering, 433, 434, 436, 467, 683

policy options, 157-158, 166-167, 195, 196-197, 692

reforestation, 437

research needs, 81

strategy, 172

radiative balance effects, 3, 665

radiative forcing, 13-14, 15, 18, 19, 102, 103, 148, 158, 163, 665, 667-669, 670

research needs, 71, 80, 169, 691

sinks, 672

Greenhouse warming. See also Adaptation; Climate change; Global warming; Greenhouse effect; Greenhouse gases;Mitigation climate model projections, 3-4, 19-20, 111-114, 669-671

climatic effects of, 5, 19, 504n, 680

defined, 3, 91

difficulty of determining, 19, 27, 671

feedback mechanisms, 669

global nature of, 5, 48, 83, 172, 495, 496

global temperature increase

climate sensitivity and, 145, 150-151, 152, 153-154

equilibrium temperature, 19, 671

projected, 3-4, 20, 21, 27, 146-148, 153-154, 518

greenhouse gas contributions, 3, 27, 93, 158, 663-665, 673

anthropogenic emissions, 5-6, 91, 159

commitment to future warming, 18, 19, 149, 150, 163-164, 670

global warming potential (GWP), 161-164, 381-383

previous century, 89, 518, 665, 669

radiative forcing, 19, 104, 665, 667-669

impacts, 84, 85, 675

agriculture, 44-45, 603, 654

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 893

biological diversity, 80-81

economic, 29, 602-603

ecosystems, 37, 46, 84, 689

glacial melting, 141, 583, 680

human health, 41-42, 616

human settlements, 41, 610

hydrologic cycle, 137-138

natural landscape, 689

ocean circulation, 584, 680, 689

organic production, 38-39

political stability, 42

precipitation change, 113-115, 125-128, 610

sea level rise, 25, 26, 28, 40, 141, 154, 519, 583

species migration, 37

water resources, 40

indices of, 42-43, 503, 653

and nuclear reactor safety, 372

possible dramatic consequences, 26, 47, 680

responses to, 68, 69, 674, 680-681

capacities for, 69-70, 688

categories of, 71-72

cost-effectiveness of, 32, 50, 53, 674

evaluation of, 29-30, 31-32, 674

international, 65, 67, 83, 494

as investment in the future, 52, 466, 674

limitations on, 35, 43-44

recommendations, 73-83, 690

research needs, 70-71, 80-81

risk perception and, 35, 36, 681, 687

temperature extremes, 124-125, 653

time frame, 38, 184, 186

time lag, 19, 28, 151, 154

Greenland, 141, 624, 680

Gross national product (GNP), 542, 550, 678

defined, 844

and energy use, 201-202, 225, 601

manufacturing share, 253

Gross world product, 188, 542, 603

Groundwater, 97, 609, 610, 613

Gulf Stream, 655, 676

"Guzzler/sipper" tax, 303-304

H

Hadley cell, 114-115

Halocarbons, 95-96. See also Chlorofluorocarbons

atmospheric concentrations, 95, 381

atmospheric destruction, 433

atmospheric lifetimes, 96, 146, 381, 392-393

Clean Air Act regulation, 377, 392

costs of mitigation, 60, 479, 484, 489, 684

emission reduction options, 58, 73, 74, 383-389, 390-392, 467, 471

greenhouse warming effects, 376, 380, 381-383

industrial uses, 379, 384-386, 387

Montreal Protocol standards, 96, 150, 376, 377, 390-391

nonhalocarbon ("not-in-kind") substitutes, 58, 383, 388, 393, 471

radiative forcing, 150, 376

Halogenated chlorofluorocarbons, 95

Halogenated halocarbons, 96

Halons, 146, 376, 792

industrial uses, 379, 386

London Protocol restrictions, 74, 96, 377

Montreal Protocol restrictions, 377

taxes on use, 392

Health, 32-33, 411

adaptability to climate change, 41-42, 44, 45, 505, 615-620, 677

Heat islands, 55, 216, 241n.5, 844

Heat transfer

atmosphere, 16-17, 91, 136, 154, 664

oceans, 26, 154, 442-443

Heat waves, 530, 635

agricultural effects, 556

costs of, 542, 678

and electrical demand, 655

health effects, 616, 619, 620

Helium, 774

High-occupancy-vehicle lanes (HOV), 286, 310, 311, 312, 316, 317n, 320, 322, 324

High-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), 346, 769, 770, 771-772

Highways, 613

construction, 311, 312-313, 533

speed limits, 174

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 894

Hudson River, 544, 597, 598, 679

Hugo, Hurricane, 542, 550, 678

Human activity

adaptation to climate change, 36, 37, 44, 47, 502, 506, 527-530, 676, 685-686

carbon dioxide emissions, 3, 8, 27, 92, 93, 94, 97n.1, 153, 159, 160, 162, 666, 667, 682

chlorofluorocarbon emissions, 3, 8, 27, 74, 95, 153, 159, 160, 162, 667, 682

climate change consequences of, 171-172, 694-695

dependency on environment, 84-85, 504n

greenhouse gas emissions, 3, 5-6, 7-11, 89, 91, 146, 158, 159, 160, 171, 667, 681, 682, 695

greenhouse gas emissions, projected, 147, 158, 162, 193, 668, 670

halocarbon emissions, 95

methane emissions, 3, 8, 27, 95, 153, 159, 160, 162, 667, 682

nitrous oxide emissions, 8, 159, 160, 162, 667, 682

ozone emissions, 159

responses to climate change, limits on, 43-44, 502-503

sensitivity to climate change, 44-46, 504-505, 677

Human health, 32-33, 411

adaptability to climate change, 41-42, 44, 45, 505, 615-620, 677

Human settlements

adaptation to climate change, 41, 608, 611-615

costs of adaptation, 545-546, 611-612, 614, 679

sensitivity to climate change, 45, 505, 608-610, 677

Humidity, 17, 556, 615, 618, 619

Hurricanes

climate change and, 154, 673

costs of, 541-550, 678

tree damage, 568-569

Hydrocarbons, 392, 793. See also Hydrochlorofluorocarbons

Hydrofluorocarbons

Hydrochloric acid (HCl), 451, 460

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), 3, 376, 663

emissions, 146, 147, 148-150

emissions reduction, 58, 382, 391, 392, 471, 479

global warming potential, 163, 167, 380, 381, 383, 393

substitution for chlorofluorocarbons, 383, 384-385, 391, 393, 792

Hydroelectric power, 57, 470

climate change and, 601-602

cost of electricity, 789

costs of implementation, 356, 479, 788

environmental degradation, 238

limitation of potential, 33, 355-356, 360, 372, 789

U.S. energy supply, 330, 333-334, 342

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), 376

emissions, 148-150

emissions reduction, 58, 382, 471, 479

global warming potential, 163, 380, 381, 383, 393

substitution for chlorofluorocarbons, 383, 385, 390, 391, 393, 792

Hydrogen

in chlorofluorocarbon substitutes, 380

fossil fuel content, 307, 332

fuel cell generation, 350

integrated energy system production, 347, 350

oxidation in carbon, 353

solar production, 345, 349-350, 775, 776-777

in stratospheric balloons, 819, 820, 821, 823, 824

transportation fuel, 57, 169, 305, 308, 323, 350, 470, 478

Hydrogenated chlorofluorocarbons. See Hydrochlorofluorocarbons

Hydrology, 103, 135-138, 141

Hydroxyl radical (OH), 94-95

I

Ice core data, 91, 93, 96, 97, 443

Import controls, 399-400

Incentives

electrical efficiency, 228-229, 273, 494

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 895

energy supply systems, 367-368

industrial energy efficiency, 272, 273, 275-276

mitigation policy implementation, 63-64, 70, 493-494, 496, 687

revenue-neutral, 196, 227, 234, 240

Income

and adaptation to climate change, 632

agricultural, 399

climate change and, 30, 31, 522, 560, 599, 601, 603

per capita, and greenhouse gas emission, 6, 69, 82, 414, 421, 703, 704, 809-811

and population growth, 417-418, 703, 811

Independent power producers (IPP), 357

India

agriculture, 565, 798

carbon dioxide emissions, 9

chlorofluorocarbon use, 377

coal consumption, 335

electricity consumption, 236, 237

import fees, 218, 241-242n.10

population growth, 417, 798

precipitation, 128

refugee migration, 627, 628

rice production, 395, 801

Industrial cleaning, 387

Industrialization, 416, 425

Industrialized nations. See Developed nations

Industrializing nations. See Developing nations

Industrial Revolution, 3, 93, 377-378, 663

Industry, 166

adaptation to climate change, 44, 45, 504, 606-607, 677, 685

biomass fuel use, 8, 162, 259, 682

capital stock replacement, 37-38, 271, 531

chlorofluorocarbon emissions, 153

conservation supply curves, 261, 263, 267, 718-725

costs of adaptation, 545, 679, 686

electricity consumption, 201, 248, 249, 250, 251, 256, 258, 260, 717-720

electricity prices, 208, 282, 709, 720, 721

energy consumption, 168, 248-253, 254, 258, 261, 279-282

fossil fuel use, 250, 251, 253, 256, 257-259, 336

greenhouse gas emission, 5-6, 271-272, 279

macroeconomic structural changes and, 252-253, 270-271

mitigation policy options, 157, 469, 476-477, 478, 483, 484

barriers to implementation, 271-272

carbon dioxide reduction potential, 60, 256, 257-258, 259, 261-262, 265-266, 270, 282

co-generation, 56, 264-266, 272, 282, 469, 476, 722-723

cost-effectiveness, 173, 258, 266, 483, 484, 718

costs of implementation, 60, 258, 259, 263-264, 476-477, 478, 489, 684, 718, 720, 721-722, 724, 725

efficiency investment, 263-264, 266-269, 271, 273, 283, 717

electric efficiency, 56, 260, 261-264, 282, 469, 476-477, 718

energy efficiency improvements, 253-255, 259-269, 270, 272, 273, 282, 717

fuel efficiency, 56, 469

fuel switching, 56, 75, 221, 256-259, 469, 478, 484

fuel taxes, 272-273

greenhouse gas reduction potential, 173, 248, 270, 271-272, 476-477, 478, 483, 484

investment tax credits, 273-279

process technology improvements, 56, 75, 254, 269-270, 271, 279, 282, 469, 478

recycling, 269, 271, 272-273

research and development needs, 279, 280-281, 282-283

raw materials, 567

sensitivity to climate change, 41, 505, 599, 601, 602-603, 604, 654, 675

water supplies and, 41, 654

Infant mortality, 619, 631

Information programs, 197

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 896

Infrared radiation

atmospheric absorption and release, 17, 100, 101, 102

chlorofluorocarbon destruction, 457-458

in cloud feedback, 108

defined, 844

greenhouse gas trapping, 3, 91, 101, 161, 306, 393

measurement of, 19

in snow-ice feedback, 106

in water vapor feedback, 105

Infrastructure, 532-533

Insect pests, 554, 561, 570

Insulation materials, 239

Insurance, 512, 680, 689

Integral Fast Reactors (IFR), 769, 770, 772-773

Integrated energy systems (IES), 344-347, 350

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), 336, 337, 339, 353

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 89-90, 620, 850, 853, 854

agricultural impacts findings, 560

climate model assessment, 111

climate stabilization estimate, 466

economic growth assumptions, 519

electric generation assessment, 601-602

global warming potentials, 163, 382, 808

global warming temperature assessment, 20, 121, 124, 150, 520, 521

greenhouse gas emission estimates, 15, 145, 148, 149, 150, 158

methane emission estimates, 94, 808

nitrous oxide emission estimates, 402

ocean biodiversity conclusion, 590

precipitation assessment, 128

sea level rise estimates, 142, 143

temperature records, 117, 119, 122

working groups, 66, 68, 163, 520, 601-602

International agreements, 67, 83, 182, 466

International Agricultural Research Centers, 398

International cooperation, 65, 66-67, 73, 81, 494-495, 496, 688

International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), 66

International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), 66

International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), 558, 562

International law, 633

International leadership, 82-83, 691

International organizations, 687

International Rice Research Institute, 579

International trade, 272, 273

Investment. See also Discount rates adaptation, 43, 503, 508, 512-514, 527-528, 530, 535, 537, 685

agricultural methane reduction, 800

"backstop technology," 192

barriers to, 225, 522

capital recovery rates, 708

capital turnover, 531, 606-607

cost-effectiveness, 53, 173, 189-190, 466-467

cycles, 675, 685, 689

defined, 844

electrical generating equipment, 367-368, 472-473, 601, 605-606

electricity efficiency, 213, 225, 226, 227, 236, 240, 472-473, 709-710, 711

environmental adder, 709-710

industrial co-generation, 722

industrial energy efficiency, 263, 266-269, 271, 273, 283, 717-718, 724, 725

mitigation, 49, 50, 68, 78

rates of return, 186-188, 266-269, 475

reforestation, 441

research, 79, 703

responses to greenhouse warming as, 52, 186, 191, 466, 674

timing of costs and benefits, 692, 698-699, 700, 703-704

vehicle fuel efficiency, 299, 742, 743

Investment tax credits, 273-279

Iron, ocean fertilization, 59, 61, 443-446, 459, 472, 481, 482, 486

Iron and steel industry, 253, 256, 335

Irrigation

adaptation to climate change, 78, 537, 559, 562-563, 564-565

Africa, 631

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 897

costs of adaptation, 545

forest, 573

impacts of climate change on, 557, 559, 560, 594

paddy rice, 801

side effects, 509

water consumption, 594, 602

water subsidies, 400, 803

J

Jamaica Public Service Company, 237

Japan, 188, 604

capital stock turnover, 37-38, 531

electric power efficiency, 357

fuel prices, 293-295, 754

greenhouse gas emissions, 386

import restrictions, 399

mortality rates, 534

natural gas electric supply, 339

nuclear reactor technology, 768, 787

rice production, 801

sea levels, 142

Jobs/housing balance, 286, 310, 319

K

Kalina cycle, 339

L

Labor mobility, 631

Land

precipitation over, 128

surface hydrology, 103, 135-136

temperature recordings, 23, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122

vertical movement, 140, 142

Landfills

carbon dioxide emissions, 405, 406, 407

Clean Air Act requirements, 408

gas collection, 58, 407-411, 471

gas collection costs, 60, 409, 410, 477, 483, 489, 684, 808

groundwater leaching, 613

methane emissions, 8, 160-161, 162, 376, 405-407, 409, 682, 808

Land use

and adaptation to climate change, 582

changes, and greenhouse gas emission, 160, 393, 404, 798-799

distribution, 567

planning, and automobile travel reduction, 286, 310, 318-319

reforestation and, 441

Lasers, 457-458

Law of the Sea, 67, 495, 633

Lead iodide (PbI), 829

Lead pollution, 321

Legumes, 402-403, 404

Less developed countries, 844. See also Developing nations

Lighting efficiency, 237

barriers to implementation, 225, 241-242n.10

compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), 53-54, 55, 191, 192, 216-217, 218, 233, 241-242n.10

cost of conserved energy, 212, 714-715

cost-effectiveness, 61-62, 191, 192, 683

costs of implementation, 217, 218, 476

industrial, 260, 722

policy options, 55, 468

utility programs, 231, 233

Light Water Reactors (LWR), 769, 770-771

Liquefied natural gas (LNG), 305, 307, 350

Liquid petroleum, 332

Livestock

impacts of climate change on, 556

methane emissions, 5, 94, 160-161, 393, 395, 799-800

methane reduction, 394, 395, 397, 398, 400-401, 404, 471, 480, 800, 803-805

work animals, 395, 398, 799-800, 801, 804-805

London Protocol (1990), 67, 74, 96, 150

Lyme disease, 618

M

Machinery industry, 37-38, 249

Macroeconomic structural changes, 252-253, 270-271

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 898

Manufacturing. See also Industry

capital turnover rates, 271

carbon dioxide emission, 256

carbon dioxide emission reduction, 257, 269, 271

co-generation, 273

conservation supply curves, 261, 262, 720, 721

energy consumption, 248, 249, 250, 251, 257, 258, 717

energy efficiency, 252-253, 255, 269, 282, 718

fuel switching, 256-259

impacts of climate change on, 522

mitigation policy options, 272, 273, 274-278

process technology, 254, 269-270, 271

technology transfer, 391

Marginal benefits, 845

Marginal costs, 845

Marine ecosystems

adaptation to climate change, 40, 45, 505, 590-591, 677

impacts of climate change on, 40, 46, 582-590

Markets

and adaptation to climate change, 34, 509, 512, 521-522

capital, 367

defined, 845

in economic models, 837

and environmental valuation, 173, 521-522

government intervention, 399

imperfections, 172, 181, 182, 184, 195, 240, 241-242n.10, 493

incentive policies, 70, 299

Massachusetts Electric Company, 228-229

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 771-772

Mass transit, 286, 310, 311, 312

cost-effectiveness, 49, 324

disincentives to using, 173, 314, 322, 473

energy intensity, 313

greenhouse gas reduction, 173, 703

incentive policies, 316, 318

public subsidization, 75, 317n

Materials substitution, 270-271

Mauna Loa Observatory, 14, 331, 555

Mellon Institute, 293, 299

Energy Productivity Center, 732

Metals industry, 248, 249, 269

Meteorology, 510

Methane (CH4)

agricultural emission, 376, 393, 394-395, 799-800, 805

agricultural emission reduction, 394, 395-401, 404, 799, 800-805

algae decomposition, 446

anthropogenic emissions, 8, 95, 146, 147, 159, 160-161, 162, 166, 682

atmospheric concentration, 3, 12, 13, 27, 92, 94-95, 146, 153, 160, 381, 663, 665, 667

atmospheric lifetime, 13, 92, 94, 146, 160, 381, 666, 667

barriers to mitigation implementation, 398-399, 410

biomass emissions, 94, 395

biomass regulation, 398, 401, 805

Clean Air Act requirements, 408

climate change effects on, 95

coal mining release, 332, 369

cost-effectiveness of mitigation, 410, 467, 487, 800, 805, 806

costs of mitigation implementation, 400, 401, 409, 410, 802-803, 804

decomposition, products of, 164

deforestation emissions, 424

emission control methods, 395-398, 407-410

emission reduction effects, 19, 150, 151

feedback mechanisms, 95, 154

global warming potential, 164, 167, 381

greenhouse warming contribution, 18, 95, 164, 378, 380, 666

hydrogen fuel production, 308

landfill emission, 160-161, 405-408, 409

landfill emission reduction, 407-411, 808

livestock emission, 5, 94, 160-161, 393, 394-395, 799-800

livestock emission reduction, 394, 395, 397, 398, 400-401, 404, 471, 800, 801, 803-805

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 899

mitigation policy options, 396-397, 399-401, 404, 408-411, 467, 800

natural gas content, 332

natural gas leakage, 94, 160-161, 332, 369

permafrost release, 95, 151, 154

radiative energy absorption, 12-13, 15, 91, 150, 306, 407

radiative forcing, 18, 148, 149, 163, 668, 670

research needs, 80, 398-399, 404, 411

rice paddy emission, 5, 8, 94, 95, 162, 393, 394-395, 682, 799-800

rice paddy emission reduction, 395, 396, 398, 399, 400, 404, 471, 800-803

sinks, 94, 672

tundra-melting release, 26, 95

U.S. emissions, 166, 168, 394, 395, 405, 406, 408, 799-800

vehicle exhaust emissions, 306, 731

wetlands emissions, 94, 95, 158

Methane hydrates, 95, 151

Methanol fuel

California program, 304

cost-effectiveness, 478

greenhouse gas emissions, 305, 306, 307

greenhouse gas reduction, 57, 307, 323, 470

production sources, 305, 306, 307, 308, 323, 345

Methyl chloride, 95, 96

Methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3), 95, 146, 147

global warming potential, 381, 386, 387

London Protocol phaseout, 386, 387

radiative forcing, 148, 150, 163

Microbes, 580

Migration

ecosystem, 526-527

forests, 569, 575, 603, 686

human, 620-629, 631, 636, 637n.11

barriers to, 511, 626, 628, 630, 632

costs of, 45, 505, 546, 677, 679

in United States, 42, 620, 622-623, 627, 628, 654

plant and animal species, 37, 581-582, 589, 591, 653, 655

Mining, 272, 369

Missouri-Iowa-Nebraska-Kansas (MINK) study, 559, 561-562

Missouri River, 594

Mitigation, 659. See also Costs: mitigation

economic impacts of, 197, 630

ecosystem effects of, 497

goals of, 693-695, 700, 707

implementation of, 157, 166, 490-494, 687

barriers to, 467-473

costs of, 49, 60, 61, 171, 465, 475, 476-480, 482, 489, 683, 684

developing nations and, 6, 635, 688

government actions, 64, 197, 494, 687

incentives, 63-64, 70, 493-494, 496, 687

international efforts, 65-67, 494-495, 496, 688

regulations, 63, 196, 227, 272

subsidies, 493-494

taxation, 70, 493-494

investment in, 49, 50, 68, 78

nongreenhouse benefits, 169, 238, 369, 473

policy options, 30, 55-59, 169, 465-467, 468-472, 495, 674

agricultural emission reduction, 58, 157, 396-397, 399-401, 403-405, 471, 480, 800-806

assessment of, 33-34, 52-60, 157

buildings sector energy management, 53-54, 55-56, 227-237, 239-240, 468-469, 476, 483, 684

categories of, 467, 473-481, 496

chlorofluorocarbon destruction, 59, 61, 457-458, 472, 482

chlorofluorocarbon emissions, 70, 73, 390-391, 392, 690, 792-796

cloud stimulation, 54, 59, 61, 82, 454-455, 459, 472, 482, 486, 832

comparison of, 60, 61-63, 161, 166, 180-181, 481-490, 681-683

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 900

cost-effectiveness evaluation, 32, 48, 49-52, 53, 157, 171-172, 173-174, 189-192, 197, 466-467, 473, 495, 681

cost-effectiveness rankings, 33-34, 54, 60, 194, 195, 481-487, 496, 683

cost models, 49-50, 174-175

defined, 157-158

deforestation, 428, 429-430

discount rates and, 32, 54, 173, 182, 186, 187, 189, 191, 193, 194

electricity and fuel supply, 57-58, 367-368, 470-471, 477, 479

evaluation of, 171-172, 193-197, 674

evaluations, social costs and, 182-183, 185n, 197, 347

evaluations, time dimension in, 696-707

evaluations, uncertainty in, 189, 193, 194, 197

geoengineering, 54, 58-60, 61, 81-82, 434-436, 471, 481, 482, 486

halocarbon emission reduction, 58, 390-392, 471, 479

industrial energy management, 56, 271, 272-279, 283, 469, 476-477, 478

landfill gas reduction, 58, 410-411, 471, 477

low cost, 63, 64, 684

methane emissions, 396-397, 399-401, 404, 408-411, 467, 800

nitrous oxide emissions, 58, 390-392, 396-397, 399-401, 403-404, 410-411, 471, 479-480

ocean biomass stimulation, 54, 59, 61, 82, 433, 433-446, 459, 472, 481, 482, 486

population growth, 418, 420-421, 691, 703

recommendations, 73-77, 496-497, 690

reforestation, 58, 67, 77, 157-158, 433, 441, 458-459, 471, 480, 487-490, 690

sunlight screening, 54, 59, 61, 82, 433, 447-450, 459, 472, 482, 486, 824

transportation energy management, 54, 56-57, 301-304, 310, 314-320, 324, 469-470, 477, 478

research and development, 81, 169-170, 702, 703, 707

strategy, 48, 197, 494, 497

technology and, 66, 73, 270, 466, 702, 837

MOBILE3 Emission Model, 731

Modeling, 845. See also General circulation models

Modular gas-cooler reactor (MGR), 771

Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987)

chlorofluorocarbon restrictions, 74, 96, 150, 376, 377, 383, 390-391

as guide to future action, 67, 495

halocarbon restrictions, 74, 96, 150, 377, 386, 390-391

implementation and compliance, 74, 151, 377, 390-391, 393

radiative forcing effects, 15, 149, 150, 393

Mortality rates, 534, 615, 616-618, 631

N

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), 112, 113

National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (1987), 209n, 233

National Appliance Standards, 209n

National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, 228

National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), 112

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 389

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 511

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), 112, 113

weather observation, 129-132

National Park Service, 544

National Research Council, 208, 322, 371, 420, 421, 451

Alternative Energy Research and Development Committee, 239

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 901

Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, 20

Energy Engineering Board, 169-170, 340, 341, 369, 767

Forestry Research Committee, 442

Marine Algal Productivity and Carbon Dioxide Assimilation workshop, 444, 445

Panel on Water and Climate, 137

National security, 172

National Seed Storage Laboratory, 579

Natural disasters, 512, 630, 633, 636

Natural gas. See also Natural gas electric power plants

buildings sector conservation, 220, 222, 240

buildings sector consumption, 201, 220

carbon content, 331, 332

carbon dioxide emissions, 158-160, 308, 330-332, 335, 338-339

energy supply share, 75, 330, 333

energy transmission, 350

fertilizer production, 342

fuel switching, 221, 222, 240, 256-258

greenhouse gas emission, 305, 335

greenhouse gas reduction, 307

hot water heating, 222

hydrogen production from, 308

industrial consumption, 248, 249

industrial fuel switching, 221, 256-258

in integrated energy systems, 345, 346

pipeline methane leakage, 94, 160-161, 332, 369

prices, 258, 354, 490

resource reserves, 357-359, 475

transportation fuel, 307, 308

Natural gas electric power plants

advanced technology, 339, 346, 369, 470

carbon dioxide emissions, 355, 789

co-generation, 264-265, 266, 346, 722-723

cost-effectiveness, 185, 354, 356, 487, 490, 683-684

costs of implementation, 33-34, 355, 493, 722-723, 788, 789-790

electric supply share, 334, 335

mitigation options, 57, 62, 470, 479

research needs, 369

resource limitations, 357-359, 371, 475

Natural landscape

adaptation to climate change, 39, 40, 45, 505, 551, 575, 578-582, 635, 677

costs of adaptation, 544, 575-576, 678

impacts of climate change on, 39-40, 576-578, 676, 689

Natural resources, 557, 569, 604

Nature, 502, 516, 525-527, 677, 685, 686

Naval rifles

stratospheric dust delivery, 451-452, 459, 460, 817-819

Navigation, 531

New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission, 229

Newly industrialized economies (NIE), 418, 809

New York (state)

electricity efficiency, 206, 213, 230, 709

Energy Research and Development Authority, 206

Nitrate, 443

Nitrogen

carbon dioxide enrichment and, 553, 554

fertilizer production, 342

fertilizers, nitrous oxide emission, 96, 97, 393, 402

fertilizers, use reduction, 394, 402-404, 471, 480, 806

landfill gas emission, 405

soil fixing, 40, 394, 577

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 203, 231, 238, 332

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), 158, 321, 332, 351, 368, 777

Nitrous oxide (N2O), 3, 158, 663

agricultural emission, 8, 162, 376, 393, 398, 682

agricultural emission reduction, 402-404, 805, 806

anthropogenic emissions, 8, 15, 18, 97, 146, 147, 149, 150, 159, 162, 402, 682

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 902

atmospheric concentration, 13, 92, 96, 97, 146, 160, 161, 381, 667

atmospheric lifetime, 13, 92, 97, 146, 160, 381, 667

coal combustion emissions, 8, 96, 162, 682

costs of mitigation, 404, 467, 805, 806

emissions reduction effects, 19

fossil fuel combustion emission, 332

global warming potential, 167, 381

greenhouse warming contribution, 151, 378, 380, 487

nitrogen fertilizer emissions, 96, 97, 393, 398, 402

ocean releases, 96-97

ozone interactions, 151

radiative forcing, 15, 18, 148, 149, 163, 668, 670

soil releases, 96, 97

stratospheric decomposition, 97

U.S. emissions, 168

vehicle exhaust emissions, 306, 731

Nonenergy emission reduction, 167

agricultural methane, 376, 393, 394-401

agricultural nitrous oxide, 376, 393, 402-404

halocarbons, 58, 376-393, 471, 479

landfill methane, 376, 405-411, 477

mitigation options, 58, 390-392, 396-397, 399-401, 403-404, 410-411, 471, 479-480

research needs, 392-393, 404, 411

Nonfossil fuel sources, 305, 308, 323, 330

North America

climate models, 124, 128

deforestation, 424

forest adaptation, 569, 578

sea level data, 142

Northeast Utilities, 232

Northern hemisphere

cloud cover, 831

precipitation record, 128

temperature record, 20, 22, 24, 121, 122, 832

North Platte River, 597

North Sea, 140, 534, 606, 624

Northwest Power Planning Council, 229, 264

Nuclear fusion, 239, 341, 372, 767, 773-774

Nuclear power (fission)

advanced technology, 75, 76, 340, 767-773

carbon restrictions and, 602, 791

cost-effectiveness, 355-356, 790, 791

costs of implementation, 195-197, 354, 786-787, 788

electricity prices, 789, 790-791

electric supply share, 330, 333, 334, 339-340

fossil-fuel plant replacement, 57, 62, 195, 371, 470, 487, 683-684

France, 11

greenhouse gas reduction, 178, 341, 479

High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors, 769, 770, 771-772

Integral Fast Reactors, 769, 770, 772-773

in integrated energy systems, 347

Light Water Reactors, 769, 770-771

public resistance to, 54, 195-197, 236, 340, 371-372, 475

reactor safety, 75, 76, 340, 372, 475, 767-771, 773

research and development, 239, 370, 372

thermal discharge, 589

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), 357

Nuclear waste disposal, 238, 340, 372, 475, 772, 773, 774

Nuclear weapons proliferation, 340

Nutrients, 443, 554, 590, 845

O

Ocean currents

changes in, adaptation to, 47, 507, 521, 589, 676, 686

climate impacts of, 26, 503, 591, 676

greenhouse warming effects on, 5, 26, 583-584, 590, 591, 657, 680, 689

index for global warming, 42, 503, 653, 655

Ocean mixing, 845

Oceans. See also Ocean currents;Ocean upwelling; Sea level

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 903

atmospheric interaction, 93, 605, 636n.5, 846

carbon dioxide absorption, 12, 93, 94, 135, 442-443, 672

biomass stimulation, 54, 59, 61, 82, 433, 443-446, 459, 472, 481, 482, 486

carbon dioxide disposal in, 58, 345, 351, 353

carbon storage, 433, 437, 443, 444, 446, 459, 666, 695

circulation, 142-143, 583-584

climate change impacts on, 17, 145, 582-584

climate influences of, 442-443

in climate models, 25, 93, 115, 443, 584

cloud stimulation over, 454-455, 456, 457, 459, 827, 830

energy absorption, 19, 100-101, 135, 671

fisheries, 584, 591

habitats, 591

heat transfer, 19, 28, 80, 101, 154, 442-443, 671

methyl chloride release, 96

nutrous oxide release, 96-97

precipitation over, 128, 136

surface temperature, and cloud formation, 108

temperature records, 23, 115, 117, 118, 119-120, 121, 122

temperature rise in, effects of, 17, 583-584, 588-590, 591, 673

thermal energy conversion, 362

thermal expansion, 25-26, 140-141, 142, 143, 154, 583

waste drainage into, 609, 612

water vapor release, 442-443

Ocean upwelling

and carbon dioxide transfer, 845, 846

and climate patterns, 40

defined, 846

ecosystem impacts, 584, 590

heat transfer, 26

models of sea level rise, 142-143

and nitrous oxide emission, 96-97

Office equipment, 219

Office of Technology Assessment, 309, 742

Ogallala Aquifer, 562

Oil

buildings sector consumption, 201, 220

buildings sector efficiency, 56, 240, 469, 476

carbon content, 331

carbon dioxide emissions, 158-160, 331, 332

cost of emission reduction, 476, 493

electric power generation, 334, 336

energy supply share, 330-332, 333, 335

energy transport, 350

exporting nations, 630

industrial consumption, 248, 249, 336

industrial fuel switching, 256-258

OPEC embargoes and price shocks, 201, 227, 238, 286, 354

prices, 178, 225, 253, 286-287, 301, 799

resource reserves, 604-605

Strategic Petroleum Reserve, 321

transportation sector consumption, 286, 320-321, 335

Orange juice industry, 556

Organization of African States, 626

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 236, 248-250, 356-357, 400-401, 519

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 182

oil embargoes and price shocks, 201, 227, 238, 286, 354

Oxygen (O2), 39, 332, 350, 575

Ozone (O3)

Antarctic ''hole," 377, 849

chlorofluorocarbon depletion, 74, 150, 376-377, 387

chlorofluorocarbon reduction and, 53, 54, 182, 376, 377, 383, 390, 392, 475, 496

as greenhouse gas, 3, 146, 158, 159, 663

greenhouse gas depletion of, 377, 380, 381, 386, 393, 533

nitrous oxide interactions, 151

particle geoengineering and, 82, 450, 451, 453, 459-460

smog and air pollution, 321, 610, 845

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 904

stratospheric, 182, 845

and stratospheric temperature, 125

tropospheric, health effects, 411

P

Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), 222, 232-233, 343

Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (1980), 229

Pacific Northwest region, 206, 229-230

Pacific Ocean

carbon dioxide release, 846

cloud stimulation over, 456, 831

coral reef bleaching, 588

nutrients, 443

temperatures, 636n.5

tropospheric water vapor, 106

Paper industry

biomass energy, 348-349

co-generation, 264

energy conservation technology, 281

energy consumption, 248, 249

fuel switching, 259

recycling, 269

technological adaptation, 606-607

Parameterizations, 20

Para rubber tree, 580

Parking

employer-provided, 313-314

transportation demand management, 316-317, 319, 320, 759-766

Pasture, 567, 575, 576

Penicillin, 37, 531

Permafrost, 95, 151, 154

Persian Gulf War, 238

Petrochemical production, 725

Petroleum. See Oil

Petroleum refining industry

co-generation, 264

energy conservation technology, 266, 267, 269, 280, 724-725

energy consumption, 248, 249

integrated energy systems, 345

Phosphate, 443

Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC), 350

Photosynthesis

adaptation to climate change, 576-577

carbon dioxide fertilization and, 39, 551-554, 555, 566, 576

carbon fixing, 437, 439

defined, 845

ocean biomass, carbon dioxide absorption, 443, 589-590

Phytoplankton, 59, 443-444, 446, 472, 481, 845

Pine trees, 569, 572, 575

Plants, 21-22. See also Agriculture, Trees

adaptation to climate change, 37, 46, 503, 564, 577, 581, 676, 686

biological diversity, 40, 513, 557

carbon dioxide enrichment and, 38-39, 137, 154, 551-554, 555, 576, 841

carbon dioxide uptake, 76, 154, 437, 666

climate model simulation, 558

diseases, 40, 561, 577

impacts of climate change on, 37, 39-40, 47, 506-507, 557, 584, 586, 587, 589

seasonal events index of climate change, 655

Platte River, 597, 598

Pliocene period, 665, 666

Policy options

adaptation, 30, 550, 674

assessment of, 34-35

evaluation of, 43-44

recommendations, 77-79, 690

analysis, 496-497

assumptions, 21

capacities to respond, 69-70

categories of, 71-72

cost-effectiveness of, 32

costs and benefits over time, 186, 187, 473, 674, 692-706, 707

decision-making, 89, 90

economic benefits, 30

evaluation of, 29-30, 33, 35

greenhouse gas limitation, 151, 157-158

investment discount rates, 189-190, 721

limitations on responses, 35

mitigation, 30, 55-59, 169, 465-467, 468-472, 495, 674

agricultural emission reduction, 58, 157, 396-397, 399-401, 403-405, 471, 480, 800-806

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 905

assessment of, 33-34, 52-60, 157

buildings sector energy management, 53-54, 55-56, 227-237, 239-240, 468-469, 476, 483, 684

categories of, 467, 473-481, 496

chlorofluorocarbon destruction, 59, 61, 457-458, 472, 482

chlorofluorocarbon emissions, 70, 73, 390-391, 392, 690, 792-796

cloud stimulation, 54, 59, 61, 82, 454-455, 459, 472, 482, 486, 832

comparison of, 60, 61-63, 161, 166, 180-181, 481-490, 681-683

cost-effectiveness evaluation, 32, 48, 49-52, 53, 157, 171-172, 173-174, 189-192, 197, 466-467, 473, 495, 681

cost-effectiveness rankings, 33-34, 54, 60, 194, 195, 481-487, 496, 683

cost models, 49-50, 174-175

defined, 157-158

deforestation, 428, 429-430

discount rates and, 32, 54, 173, 182, 186, 187, 189, 191, 193, 194

electricity and fuel supply, 57-58, 367-368, 470-471, 477, 479

evaluation of, 171-172, 193-197, 674

evaluations, social costs and, 182-183, 185n, 197, 347

evaluations, time dimension in, 696-707

evaluations, uncertainty in, 189, 193, 194, 197

geoengineering, 54, 58-60, 61, 81-82, 434-436, 471, 481, 482, 486

halocarbon emission reduction, 58, 390-392, 471, 479

industrial energy management, 56, 271, 272-279, 283, 469, 476-477, 478

landfill gas reduction, 58, 410-411, 471, 477

low cost, 63, 64, 684

methane emissions, 396-397, 399-401, 404, 408-411, 467, 800

nitrous oxide emissions, 58, 390-392, 396-397, 399-401, 403-404, 410-411, 471, 479-480

ocean biomass stimulation, 54, 59, 61, 82, 433, 443-446, 459, 472, 481, 482, 486

population growth, 418, 420-421, 691, 703

recommendations, 73-77, 496-497, 690

reforestation, 58, 67, 77, 157-158, 433, 441, 458-459, 471, 480, 487-490, 690

sunlight screening, 54, 59, 61, 82, 433, 447-450, 459, 472, 482, 486, 824

transportation energy management, 54, 56-57, 301-304, 310, 314-320, 324, 469-470, 477, 478

research and development, 70-71, 79-81, 707

risk perception and, 35

taxes and incentives, 70

Political stability, 42, 45, 523-626, 630, 633, 677

Pollution, 6. See also Air pollution

animal waste management, 805

chemical, 44, 505, 509

water pollution, 596, 610

Population, 167

control, greenhouse gas reduction, 6, 421-422, 496, 703-704, 811

control programs, 82, 416-420, 632, 691, 703

deforestation effects, 424-425, 430

growth, greenhouse gas effects, 6, 65, 414, 419, 494, 519, 809-811

growth, nongreenhouse effects, 44, 421, 505, 507, 556, 798, 799

growth rates, 6, 414-415, 473, 621, 799, 809

mitigation policy options, 420-421, 691, 703

world, 6, 7, 414, 415

Power plants. See Electric power generation

Precipitation

Antarctic, 154

carbon dioxide interaction, 137, 555

changes, adaptation to, 530, 634

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 906

changes, agricultural effects, 34, 39, 44-45, 556, 558, 633, 654

changes, climate effects, 584, 615

changes, coastal settlement effects, 41, 608, 609, 610

climate model simulation, 80, 113-115, 125-129, 135-136, 138, 605

cloud stimulation and, 829

data collection, 128, 129, 130, 636n.7

evaporation and runoff of, 592-593, 636n.7

impacts of climate change on, 40, 113-115, 135-136, 138, 672, 673, 680

prediction, 520-521, 523n.2, 557, 605, 672

soil moisture effects, 115, 136

Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), 336-337

Pressurized water reactor (PWR), 770

Pricing

full social cost, 32-33, 74, 844

transportation demand management, 315-316, 323

Process inherent ultimately safe (PIUS) reactor, 770-771

Process technologies

costs of implementation, 478, 484

industrial energy conservation, 56, 75, 254, 269-270, 282, 469

mitigation policy options, 56, 271, 272, 469

research and development, 279

Property damage, 591, 609

Public goods, 845

Public relations campaign, 697

Public utilities. See Electric utility companies

Public utility commissions (PUC), 222, 274, 283, 357

Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA, 1978), 264, 273, 357, 359

R

Radiation balance. See Earth

Radiative energy. See Solar radiation

Radiative feedback. See Feedback mechanisms

Radiative forcing, 100, 665

carbon dioxide, 15, 18, 148, 149, 150, 158, 163, 167, 667, 668, 670

carbon dioxide-equivalent doubling, 102-103

carbon tetrachloride, 163

chlorocarbons, 15, 18, 149, 668, 670

chlorofluorocarbons, 15, 18, 74, 148, 149, 150, 158, 161, 163, 167, 668, 670

chlorofluorocarbon substitutes, 163, 167

costs of mitigation, 173

defined, 13-14

feedback mechanisms and, 104, 107

geoengineering mitigation, 81, 450

greenhouse gas emissions, 15, 18, 19, 146, 148, 149, 150, 158, 164, 167, 668, 670, 681

human interventions, 672, 674

impacts of increases in, 152

methane, 15, 18, 148, 149, 150, 163, 167, 407, 668, 670

methyl chloride, 163

nitrous oxide, 15, 18, 148, 149, 150, 163, 167, 668, 670

research needs, 71

sources of contribution to, 158, 161

temperature increase estimation, 145

Railroads, 289, 533, 729

Raw materials, 567

Recommendations, 4

adaptation to climate change, 47, 77-79, 508-514, 690

adaptation research, 77-78, 80-81, 508-509

biological diversity, 78-79, 80-81, 513

climate assessment, 508

data collection, 79-80, 691

deforestation reduction, 76-77

energy policy, 73, 74-76

geoengineering evaluation, 81-82, 691

government institutions, 511

greenhouse gas reduction, 73-77, 690

halocarbon elimination, 73, 74

international leadership, 81, 82-83, 691

investment, 512-514

markets, 511-512

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page 907

policy evaluation, 496-497

population control, 82

reforestation, 77

weather forecasting, 80, 510

Recreation. See Tourism and recreation

Recycling, 494

chlorofluorocarbon, 383, 792-793, 794

landfill gas reduction, 411

manufacturing, 256, 269, 271

policy options, 272-273, 274

Red Sea, 588

Reforestation, 437-439

carbon dioxide mitigation, 437, 439-441, 442, 459, 487-490, 814-815

cost-effectiveness, 484

costs of implementation, 60, 175, 440, 441, 458-459, 480, 489, 684, 814, 815, 838

funding, 427

greenhouse gas reduction, 60, 77, 437

mitigation policy options, 58, 67, 77, 157-158, 433, 441, 471, 480, 487-490, 690

research and development, 430, 442

Refrigeration

chlorofluorocarbon emission reduction, 385, 471, 479, 793, 794, 795

conservation supply curves, 714-715

energy efficiency, 55, 212, 468, 476

invention of, 531

Refrigerators, residential

chlorofluorocarbon substitutes, 384-385, 390, 793, 795-796

energy consumption, 209, 218-219, 710

energy efficiency, 208, 209, 219, 384, 390

Regional climate changes, 47, 114-115, 117

Regulations

agricultural methane reduction, 398, 800, 805

air pollution, 70

biomass burning, 398, 401

chlorofluorocarbon emission, 70, 182

costs of, 176

energy efficiency investment, 233, 234, 240

and energy prices, 182, 226, 228

greenhouse gas mitigation, 196, 227, 272

industrial energy conservation, 272, 274, 277

and market imperfections, 182, 299

policy implementation, 63, 70, 493, 687

public utilities, 75, 228, 240, 359

rate of return on investment, 186-187, 368

renewable energy constraints, 359-367

state, landfill resource recovery, 410

transportation fuel economy, 287, 299

waste management, 398, 805

water resources, 596

Relative sea level, 25, 140

Renewable energy

barriers to implementation, 359-367

biomass utilization, 333-334, 361

carbon dioxide mitigation, 342

cost-effectiveness, 355, 369, 789-790, 791

geothermal utilization, 343, 360

hydroelectric utilization, 333-334, 342, 360

research needs, 370, 371

solar utilization, 343-344, 362, 363, 364

transportation fuels, 364

in U.S. energy supply, 333-334, 341-342

wind utilization, 343, 363, 365-366

Rental buildings, 225

Reproduction, 619

Research and development

adaptation to climate change, 508-509, 690

agricultural, 39, 77-78, 557, 799

agricultural methane reduction, 398-399, 404, 405

alternative energy sources, 75, 370-371

alternative transportation fuels, 310, 322-323, 324

biological diversity, 80-81

buildings sector efficiency, 238-239

carbon dioxide enrichment, 80-81

chlorofluorocarbon substitutes, 392-393

and cost of conservation, 193

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page 908

cost-effectiveness of, 70, 79

deforestation, 430-431

energy supply systems, 369-371, 372

federal spending, 70, 239

geoengineering, 81, 82, 460, 481

government sponsorship, 538

hydrology, 138

impacts of global warming, 70-71, 81, 691

industrial energy efficiency, 272, 277-278, 279, 280-281, 282-283

international cooperation, 83

landfill methane reduction, 411

mitigation policy options, 169-170, 702, 703, 707

population growth, 421

reforestation, 442

Reservoirs, 529, 598

Residential energy management. See Buildings, residential and commercial

Revenue-neutral incentives, 196, 227, 234, 240

Rhode Island, 228, 229, 231

Rice production

adaptation to climate change, 528, 579

cost of methane mitigation, 400, 480, 800, 802-803

methane emission, 5, 8, 94, 95, 162, 393, 394-395, 682, 799-800

methane emission reduction, 395, 396, 398, 399, 400, 404, 471, 801-803

Ridesharing programs, 322

Risk perception, 35

Rivers, 596, 597

Rocket-launched dust, 452, 459

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, 618

Ruminant animals. See Livestock

Runoff. See Water runoff

S

Sacramento River, 544, 597, 679

Sahel region, 128, 625, 628

Satellite data collection, 71, 104, 105, 106, 125, 531, 669

Scrubbers, sulfur dioxide, 336, 338, 347

Sea level

adaptation policy options, 537, 590-591, 611-613, 635

agricultural impacts, 602

coastal habitat impacts, 584, 585, 586, 587, 590-591

coastal settlement adaptation, 506, 590-591, 611-613, 614, 685-686

coastal settlement impacts, 602, 609, 610, 626-627

costs of adaptation options, 43, 188, 506, 535, 606, 611-612, 614

data record, 25, 140-142, 583

glacial melting rise, 25, 141, 583, 680

groundwater effects, 609, 610, 613

impacts of climate change on, 25-26, 141, 550, 583, 672

index of climate change, 43, 118, 503, 653, 655

industrial impacts, 606, 607

mitigation options and, 497

population migration effects, 627, 628, 630

potential rise from global warming, 26, 28, 142-143, 154, 519, 583, 680

relative, 25, 140

shoreline impacts, 585-586, 609, 611

thermal expansion rise, 25-26, 141, 142, 143, 583

wetlands impacts, 40, 585, 591

Seasonal events, 653, 655

Seed banks, 579-580

Shoreline, 591, 635

ecosystems, 584, 586-587, 589

erosion, 585-586, 609, 611

Short Rotation Woody Crops Program, 779-784

Silicon cells, 775-776

Silver iodide (AgI), 829-830

Sinks, 672, 695. See also Carbon sinks

methane, 94, 672

Ski industry, 608

Smog, 238, 241n.5, 307, 321, 392, 845

Snow-ice feedback, 106, 108, 113

Social costs

coal burning, 32-33

energy production, 74, 173, 347, 372

full social cost pricing, 32-33, 74, 844

market neglect of, 173

in mitigation option evaluation, 182-183, 185n, 197, 347

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 909

transportation fuel use, 33, 312, 315, 321, 324

Soil moisture, 21-22

agricultural effects, 557, 569

climate change effects, 592

in climate models, 80, 136, 137, 138

in climate system, 135, 136, 137

index of climate change, 653, 654

and methane emission, 95

regional changes, 114, 115

Soils

carbon sink, 76, 666, 798, 799, 812, 845-846

climate change effects, 557

deforestation and, 76, 812

methane sink, 94

nitrogen fixing, 40

nitrous oxide emission, 96, 97

Solar energy, 342.

See also Solar photovoltaics

buildings sector technologies, 220, 364, 367

cost-effectiveness, 475, 789-790, 791

hydrogen production, 345, 349-350, 775-777

storage, 348

thermal electricity, 57, 344, 362, 371, 470, 479, 788

thermal-gas hybrid, 344, 356, 789, 790

Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), 220, 342, 343

Solar photovoltaics

barriers to implementation, 169, 363

carbon dioxide reduction potential, 344, 479

cost-effectiveness, 356, 790, 791

cost of electricity, 169, 344, 354, 372, 776, 777, 788

energy storage, 344, 372

energy supply potential, 57, 169, 372, 470, 775-776

hydrogen generation, 349-350, 775, 776, 777

research and development needs, 370, 371

technology improvements, 343-344

Solar radiation

agricultural effects, 556

albedo reflection, 840, 845

atmospheric absorption and reflection, 14-17, 91, 100, 101, 664-665

cloud absorption and reflection, 101, 107, 669, 826, 843

cloud albedo, 108, 450, 455, 824, 827, 828, 842

earth absorption, 16, 100-101, 106, 664

as energy source, 775, 776

geoengineered blocking, 30, 82, 157, 433, 447-457, 459, 472, 674

geoengineering, costs of, 447, 448, 449, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 482, 486

greenhouse gas absorption, 3, 12-14, 17

urban absorption, 216

variations in, 665, 672

water vapor absorption, 104

white surfaces reflection, 216, 241n.5, 447

winter reduction, 241n.5

Solid waste, 160-161

Solvents, 95, 386, 387, 792, 793, 794

Sorghum, 560-561, 563, 564

Southeastern U.S., 559, 560, 601, 779

Southern California Edison Company, 222, 337, 339, 776

Southern corn leaf blight, 557

Southern hemisphere, 22, 121, 125, 128

South Platte River, 598

Southwestern U.S., 350, 654, 776, 777

Soviet Union

capital stock turnover, 531, 532

coal reserves, 65, 332, 336

industrial energy consumption, 250

land surface temperatures, 120, 124, 126

nuclear reactor technology, 769

oil reserves, 604-605

population growth, 415

precipitation measurements, 128, 130

Soybean production, 559, 560-561, 564

Space dust, 448.

See also Stratospheric dust

Space heating, 55

cost of energy conservation, 212, 476, 714-715

energy consumption, 203, 206, 219

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page 910

energy efficiency measures, 55, 219-220, 222-223, 468

impact of climate change on, 601

Space mirrors, 59, 61, 448, 461n.9, 472, 482, 486

Space transportation, 461n.5

Species extinction, 503.

See also Biological diversity

Spillover benefits, 846

Spillover costs, 846

States

building codes, 233

landfill regulations, 410

utility regulation, 64, 240, 273, 274, 283, 472-473, 494, 687

Steam reformer, 346

Steel industry

coal consumption, 253, 256, 335

energy conservation technology, 266, 267, 280, 724

integrated energy systems, 345

Stirling gas refrigeration cycle, 385-386

Stone, clay, and glass industry, 248, 249

Storms, 520, 528, 530, 673, 678

Strategic Petroleum Reserve, 321

Stratosphere. See also Ozone

halocarbon photodissociation, 96, 457

nitrous oxide decomposition, 97

radiative energy transfer, 102

temperature, greenhouse gases and, 125

Stratospheric bubbles, 59, 61, 472, 482, 486

Stratospheric dust

aircraft-exhaust delivery, 59, 61, 453-454, 459, 472

balloon delivery, 59, 61, 452, 459, 460, 472, 819-823

costs of implementation, 447, 449, 452, 453-454, 459, 482, 486, 817-823

gun delivery, 59, 61, 451-452, 459, 460, 472, 817-819

ozone depletion, 82, 450, 451, 459-460

side effects, 435-436, 450-451, 459-460

sulfur dioxide emission, 435, 449

sunlight reflection mitigation, 447, 448-450, 459, 461n.8 and 10

Stratospheric soot, 59, 61, 472, 482, 486

Subsidies

automobile use, 314

efficiency investment encouragement, 227, 234, 240, 276

irrigation water, 400, 803

mitigation implementation, 493-494

rice production, 400, 801-802

Sulfates, 451

cloud condensation nuclei, 59, 457, 472, 832, 833

cooling effect, 22, 121

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

acid rain production, 238, 336, 457, 832

Clean Air Act allowances, 272, 369

cloud condensation nuclei, 454, 455, 456, 457, 825, 830-832, 833

emission standards, 368

energy efficiency emission reduction, 203, 231, 238

fuel switching reduction, 349

geoengineering dust, 435, 449

power plant emission reduction, 336, 338, 349, 351

smokestack scrubbers, 336, 338, 347

Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)

cloud condensation nuclei, 450-451, 455

geoengineering dust, 449, 829, 830, 833

Summer

adaptation to climate, 615

crop yields, 559-560

electrical demand, 609-610, 655

land drying, 154, 654, 672

mortality rates, 534, 616-618, 619

precipitation, 128, 129, 136, 558, 654

snowpack evaporation, 138

temperature extremes, 124, 534, 558

urban heat islands, 216, 241n.5

Sunlight screening.

See Geoengineering

Superconducting cables, 345, 350-351

Supply, 846

Supply curves, 846.

See also Conservation supply curves

Surface waters, 141

Sweden, 837

climate change in, 624

fuel prices, 295, 315, 754

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 911

nuclear reactor technology, 768

Synthetic fuels, 775

T

Taxation, 318. See also Carbon tax

chlorofluorocarbon, 383-384, 390, 392

depreciation, 786

efficiency investment credits, 227, 273-279

electricity production, 709

European gasoline and automobile, 313, 315, 316

"fee-bate" efficiency incentives, 234

free-parking benefit, 314

gasoline, 303, 315, 324

gasoline "guzzler/sipper," 303-304

greenhouse-gas emission, 367, 368

industrial fossil fuel use, 272

methane-emitting agriculture, 401, 800, 802, 804

mitigation policy options, 70, 493-494

nitrogen fertilizer, 403-404, 805-806

revenue-neutral efficiency incentives, 234, 240

rice production, 802, 803

ruminant livestock, 401, 804

Technological costing, 49-50, 63, 180-181, 183, 185-186, 194, 195, 302, 490-493

Technology

adaptation to climate change, 37-38, 509, 514, 516, 530-534

agricultural, 394, 405, 509, 799

aircraft efficiency, 293, 743

air pollutant reduction, regulations and, 70

alternative energy, 75, 76

"backstop" technology, 51, 52, 180, 192

barriers to implementation, 367

capital stock replacement, 37-38, 533, 606-607

carbon dioxide emission reduction, 269, 270

carbon dioxide removal, 178

coal-fired power generation, 336-337

cost-effectiveness, 295, 298, 299-300, 732, 737, 738, 755

costs of implementation, 183, 354

defined, 846

deforestation prevention, 77

and economic growth, 188

efficiency investment, 240, 299

electric efficiency, buildings sector, 205, 219, 225, 238-239, 240

electric power generation, cost-effectiveness, 786-791

electric vehicles, 323-324

energy efficiency, industrial processes, 254, 269-270, 271, 279, 280-281, 722

geoengineering, 458, 460

greenhouse gas mitigation, 66, 73, 270, 466, 702, 837

halocarbon substitutes, 392

and health improvements, 41, 44, 505

human-environment buffer, 84

integrated energy systems, 344, 347

investment, capital recovery, 708

"maximum" technology, 295, 325n.2, 755

nuclear reactor, 75, 76, 195-197, 340, 767-773

policy incentives, 75, 76, 271, 368

renewable energy sources, 367

research and development needs, 238-239, 279, 280-281, 392, 405

solar hydrogen production, 777

transportation fuel efficiency, 286, 291-293, 295, 298, 299-300, 727, 730, 732-742, 744-749, 751, 752-753, 754-755

Technology transfer, 390, 391-392, 429

Telecommunications industry, 37-38

Temperature

atmosphere

cloud feedback, 842-843

data records, 125

greenhouse warming, 4, 673

ocean heat transfer, 143

radiant energy transfer, 16, 17, 19, 664

and shoreline ecosystems, 587

and water vapor concentration, 103-104, 158

in climate models, 138

cloud interactions, 672

of clouds, 827

data collection, 129, 131

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 912

northern hemisphere, 20, 22, 23, 24, 121, 122, 832

southern hemisphere, 22, 23, 121, 125

earth-atmosphere heat transfer, 16, 17, 664

equator-to-pole differential, 26, 673

extremes, 124-125, 126, 137, 503, 653, 655

glacial effects, 117-118

global average

climatic effects, 5, 520

cloud cover and, 669, 824, 826, 831

equilibrium, 18, 19, 28, 519-520, 671

greenhouse effect (natural) and, 3, 91, 101, 663

greenhouse warming (induced), projected increase, 3-4, 18, 20, 21, 27, 121, 149, 153-154, 669-671

prehistoric records, 24, 665-666

recorded increase, previous century, 4, 20-21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 117, 153, 518, 665, 669

global mean, 111, 121

greenhouse warming, projected increase, 145, 146-148, 521

greenhouse gas reduction and, 164

greenhouse warming increase

adaptation to, 47, 503, 613-614, 653, 655

and air pollution, 610, 614

climate model projections, 3-4, 19-20, 21, 111-114, 124, 518, 669-671

climate sensitivity range, 145, 150-151, 152, 153-154

climatic effects, 26

and electrical demand, 609-610, 655

geoengineering and, 433, 436

and sea level rise, 118

land surface measurements, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122

ocean

atmospheric interaction, 636n.5

in climate models, 115

climatic effects, 17

and cloud cover, 108

greenhouse warming effects on, 583-584

heat transfer in, 26, 28, 154

marine organism impacts, 588-590, 591

surface measurements, 117, 118, 119-120, 121, 122

thermal expansion, 25-26, 140-141, 142, 583

typhoon and hurricane formation, 673

ocean current disruption and, 680

in radiative feedback mechanisms, 103

radiative forcing, 102

sensitivities

agriculture, 39, 556, 558, 559, 561, 654

animal species, 40

forests, 570, 603-604, 676

human health and mortality, 615, 616, 619

human settlements, 41, 608

industry, 607, 675

stratosphere, 125

troposphere, 125

uncertainties, 119-121

variation in, 22, 124, 128

Textile industry, 37-38, 249

Thermal expansion, 25-26, 140-141, 142, 143, 154, 583

Third World, 389-390, 429, 628

Tobacco production, 556

Tornados, 542, 678

Tourism and recreation, 567, 637n.9

adaptation to climate change, 45, 46, 505, 506, 607-608, 677, 686

impacts of climate change on, 41, 607-608

Trace gases, 22, 91, 107, 163-164, 666, 846

Tractors, 37, 398, 801, 804-805

Trade, 272, 273, 277, 320

Transportation demand management (TDM), 57, 317-319, 320, 324, 470

Transportation energy management, 167

air pollution reduction, 321

alternative fuels

barriers to implementation, 309-310, 314, 323-324, 364, 367

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 913

carbon dioxide reduction potential, 478

cost-effectiveness of emission reduction, 309

costs of implementation, 304, 478, 484

electricity, 57, 307, 308-309, 323-324, 470, 478

ethanol, 304, 306, 307, 308, 323

greenhouse gas emissions, 304-307

greenhouse gas reductions, 286, 304-309, 312, 478, 484

hydrogen, 57, 169, 308, 323, 350, 470, 478

methanol, 57, 304, 306, 307, 323, 470, 478

policy options, 57, 310, 322-323, 324, 470

research and development needs, 322-323, 324

energy consumption, 201, 261, 286, 288-289, 310-311, 313, 320-321, 335, 728-729, 743

fuel efficiency, 286-291

aircraft, 56, 287, 293, 296, 469, 478, 743

barriers to implementation, 298-301, 324-325

carbon dioxide reduction potential, 60, 312, 323, 478, 483, 489, 737, 738, 750, 751

Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE), 54, 301-303, 325n.2, 469, 755n.2

cost-effectiveness of emission reduction, 287, 295, 298, 299-300, 483, 727-755

costs of implementation, 60, 293-298, 477, 478, 489

heavy trucks, 56, 287, 296, 469, 477, 742-743, 744-751

light vehicles, 56, 75, 287, 296, 297, 310-311, 469, 477, 478, 727-742, 752-753

policy options, 301-304

technological improvements, 291-293, 730, 732-742

mitigation policy options, 56-57, 75, 157, 324, 469-470, 477, 478, 684

research and development needs, 169, 322-323

social costs and benefits, 185n, 321-322

transportation system management, 310-312

barriers to implementation, 312-314

carbon dioxide reduction potential, 60, 312, 317, 319, 324, 478, 484, 489, 684, 759, 760, 761

cost-effectiveness of emission reduction, 319, 321-322, 324, 484, 759-766

costs of implementation, 60, 478, 489, 684

high-occupancy-vehicle lanes, 286, 310, 311, 312, 316, 320, 322, 324

jobs/housing balance, 286, 310, 319

land use planning, 286, 310, 318-319

mass transit, 286, 310, 311, 312, 314, 316, 318, 322, 324

nongreenhouse benefits, 320-322

parking management, 57, 316-317, 319, 320, 470, 759-766

policy options, 314-320

research and development needs, 323, 324

transportation demand management (TDM), 57, 317-319, 320, 324, 470

vehicle miles traveled, 310, 311, 312

Transportation equipment industry, 249

Trans-Tasman Agreement, 628

Trees. See also Forests; Wood

adaptation to climate change, 37, 39, 46, 506, 525-526, 569-570, 636

biomass fuel, 348, 349, 779-783

burning, carbon dioxide emission, 11

carbon dioxide enrichment and growth of, 555, 569

carbon dioxide uptake, 5, 40, 77

carbon storage, 77, 437, 439-441, 537, 574-575, 814, 815

diseases, 40, 570

evapotranspiration cooling, 216

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 914

hurricane damage, 568-569

migration, 37, 569, 676, 686

moisture sensitivity, 569, 572-573

planting programs, 437-439, 572, 581, 636, 779, 815

urban, 216, 537, 714-715

Tritium, 774

Tropical forests

deforestation, 424, 425, 427, 430

preservation, 426, 429, 430

Troposphere

chlorofluorocarbons in, 96, 457

hydroxyl radical concentrations, 95

ozone in, 150, 159, 411, 845

radiative forcing, 149, 150

temperature measures, 125

water vapor concentrations, 106

Trucks

air pollutant emissions, 321

carbon dioxide emissions, 312

cost of efficiency improvement, 296, 477, 742-743

fuel consumption, 287, 288, 293, 310-311, 728

fuel efficiency measures, 469, 731, 732, 733-735, 742-743, 744-751

Tundra melting, 26

Typhoons, 673

U

Ultraviolet radiation, 457, 617, 845

Uncertainty

in adaptation measures, 43, 534-537, 541, 561

in climate predictions, 21, 541, 672

of geoengineering policies, 465

in mitigation policy evaluation, 189, 193, 194, 197

research and, 193

temperature records, 119-121

United Kingdom

African irrigation projects, 631

fuel prices, 295, 754

nuclear reactor technology, 768, 787

United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO), 112

United Nations, 335, 415, 421, 626

Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951), 621

Environment Programme, 66, 429, 511

Food and Agriculture Organization, 425, 427

High Commissioner for Refugees, 621

Population Fund, 415, 420-421

World Conference on Environment and Development (1992), 67, 83

United States

adaptation costs, 542-546, 550, 678-679

adaptation policy options, 44, 69-70, 77-79, 574

adaptive capability, 38, 47, 71, 507, 511-512, 530, 541, 676, 685

agricultural adaptability, 39, 534

agricultural crop varieties, 38, 531, 557

agricultural crop yields, 553, 556, 559

agricultural land use, 799

agricultural methane emission, 394, 395, 799-800

agricultural methane reduction, 401, 800, 801-804

agricultural nitrous oxide emission, 402

agricultural nitrous oxide reduction, 404, 806

agricultural production policies, 399, 801-802

air pollutant emissions, 238, 321

air pollution reductions, 70

alternative transportation fuels, 304, 309

appliance efficiency standards, 209n, 219, 233

automobile dependency, 173, 314, 315, 316, 318, 319, 759

automobile subsidization, 314

biomass fuel use, 348, 779

buildings sector, energy conservation, 204, 207, 220, 221-222, 236, 239-240

buildings sector, energy consumption, 201, 202, 203, 205, 206

carbon dioxide emission, 9-11, 158-160, 164, 165, 168, 688

carbon dioxide emission reduction, 177, 221, 223-224, 239-240, 356-357

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 915

chlorofluorocarbon consumption, 376, 385, 386

chlorofluorocarbon emission limits, 70, 74, 182, 377, 385, 496

chlorofluorocarbon phaseout, costs of, 387, 388, 389, 792-797

chlorofluorocarbon taxes, 383-384, 390

climate range, 38, 39

cloud cover, 832

coal-burning technology, 336-337

coal reserves, 332, 336

deforestation, 76

deforestation prevention, 428, 429, 431

drought of 1988, 542, 556, 678

economic consumption, 177-178

economic impacts of climate change, 604, 676

electrical generating capacity, 236-237, 709

electrical generation sources, 334, 336, 789-790, 791

electricity consumption, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 356

electricity demand, 203, 601-602, 610

electricity prices, 213, 709

electric power plant lifespan, 605-606

energy policy, 74-76

energy security, 368-369

energy supply sources, 75-76, 333-334, 335

environmental laws, 631, 632

forest and grassland cover, 39, 76, 437, 567, 568, 575

forest management, 429-430, 572

fossil fuel consumption, 335

greenhouse gas emission, 9-11, 65, 82, 158, 164, 168, 394, 465-466

greenhouse gas emission reduction, 64, 74, 167, 493, 496, 684

gross national product, 678

highway expenditures, 312-313

human health, 41, 618-619, 620

hydroelectric power generation, 342

income, impact of climate change on, 560, 601

industrial adaptability, 41, 44

industrial energy conservation, 261, 271, 282, 717-718

industrial energy consumption, 248, 250-252, 253

infant mortality, 619

international cooperation, 48, 65, 67, 73, 82-83, 494, 495, 496, 691

investment rate of return, 186-187, 189, 689

irrigated acreage, 562

landfill methane emission, 405, 406

landfill methane reduction, 408, 411

mass transit systems, 314

methane emissions, 166, 168, 394, 395, 405, 406, 408, 799-800

mitigation, cost-effectiveness of, 467, 483-486, 488

mitigation implementation costs, 60, 172-173, 476-480, 482, 489, 493, 684

mitigation option evaluation, 473-490

mitigation policy options, 55-59, 69-70, 73-77, 465-472

mitigation strategy, 48, 197, 494, 497

nuclear power supply, 339-340, 787

nuclear reactor technology, 768, 771

oil imports, 320-321

oil reserves, 604-605

paper industry technology, 606-607

paved surface area, 314

policy recommendations, 4, 71-72, 73-83, 511

political stability, 629, 631

population control programs, 82, 420-421, 691

population migration, 42, 620, 622-623, 626, 627, 628, 654

precipitation measurements, 128, 129-131

reforestation, 77, 433, 437-439, 440, 814, 815

research needs, 81, 509

research funding, 71, 239, 324

rice production, 400, 799-800, 801-802

ruminant livestock production, 799, 803, 804

shoreline erosion, 585

solar photovoltaic potential, 775

sulfur dioxide emissions, 831

temperature measurements, 120, 124-125, 126

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 916

transportation energy consumption, 286, 311, 320, 335

transportation fuel economy standards, 287-289, 301-303

transportation fuel efficiency, costs of, 300, 755

transportation fuel prices, 295, 314, 315, 754, 755

transportation infrastructure, 533

tree species, 572

tourism and recreation, 41

vehicle miles traveled (VMT), 310, 311, 316

water allocation, 512, 528, 529, 538, 596

water consumption, 602

water resources, vulnerability to climate change, 595, 654

wealth, 35, 38, 69

weather forecasting, 510

wetlands area, 585, 591

wind-generated electricity, 343

United States Department of Agriculture, 511

United States Department of Energy (DOE)

agricultural yield study, 559

and chlorofluorocarbon phaseout, 387, 389

Clean Coal Technology Program, 336-337

electric demand projections, 203

electric efficiency estimates, 206

energy efficiency data collection, 226

energy efficiency research, 239

energy supply assessments, 357, 601

industrial adaptability assessment, 606

industrial energy efficiency estimates, 252, 253, 254, 257, 264, 266

mitigation policy options, 169, 606

nuclear reactor technology program, 771

Residential Conservation Survey, 222

transportation fuel economy estimates, 293, 300, 737, 738, 739, 742

United States Forest Service, 442, 511, 568

Uranium, 340, 341

Urban heat islands, 55, 216, 241n.5, 844

Urbanization, 120, 416, 626

Utilities. See Electric utility companies

V

Variable-speed motors, 191, 192, 260-261, 722

Vegetation. See also Forests; Plants; Trees

carbon dioxide enrichment and, 673

carbon storage, 433, 798, 812

electricity use reduction, 55, 210-211, 212, 216, 468, 476

migration, 582

water supply effects, 137, 654

Vehicle efficiency. See Transportation energy management

Vehicle miles traveled (VMT), 310, 311, 312

Ventilation, 55, 212, 468, 476, 714-715

Viruses, 618

Volatile organic carbon (VOC), 386

Volatile organic compounds, 307

Volcanic eruptions, 435-436, 449, 460

W

Waste heat recovery, 260, 266, 722

Waste management, 398, 401, 805

Water heating

cost of energy conservation, 212, 476, 714-715

electricity efficiency potential, 55, 217, 222, 223, 468

natural gas, 222, 223

Water pollution, 596, 610

Water resources. See also Evaporation, Oceans, Precipitation

adaptation to climate change, 40-41, 45, 78, 505, 506, 529, 537, 599, 634-635, 636, 677, 690

adaptation costs, 544-545, 679

allocation policies, 512, 538, 596

as climate determinant, 135

in climate models, 136, 137-138

''consumption" of, 594, 607, 636n.7

costs of, 597, 598, 803

drinking water and sanitation, 619-620, 631

electric power generation uses, 602, 606, 654

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 917

forest watersheds, 567

hydroelectric power use, 601-602

hydrologic cycle, 135-136, 137, 592

hydrologic simulation models, 138

impacts of climate change on, 40, 137, 506, 513, 559, 560, 563, 592-595, 605

index of climate change, 42, 43, 503, 653, 654

industrial uses, 607, 654

irrigation consumption, 557, 560, 563, 594, 602

irrigation subsidies, 400, 803

limitation on human adaptation, 43-44, 502-503, 654

management systems, 40-41, 78, 506, 529, 595-598, 599

photosynthesis use, 551, 552

storm and flood control, 528, 559

tourism and recreation, dependence on, 607

transport of, 43-44, 503, 605

Water runoff, 636n.7

adaptation of use, 512, 607

climate change effects, 26, 40, 538, 592-593, 594, 680

in climate models, 80, 137, 138

industrial water consumption, 607

precipitation changes and, 605

sea level effects, 25, 140, 609

soil moisture effects, 115, 135, 136

Water vapor

atmospheric concentration, 158

atmospheric heat transport, 101

cloud content, 107-108

emission in landfill gas collection, 407

as greenhouse gas, 3, 91, 103-104, 135, 158, 663

ocean releases, 442-443

radiative feedback, 103-106, 109, 669

storm energy, 673

stratospheric, 146, 150

Weather

agricultural sensitivity to, 556, 558

data records, 504, 636

effects of climate change on, 26, 673

ocean circulation and, 26, 584, 591, 676

variability, 513, 515, 537

Weather forecasting, 129

and adaptation to climate change, 80, 510, 534, 691

government provision of, 538

satellites, 531

West Antarctic Ice Sheet, 25, 26, 141, 636n.4, 680

Western Massachusetts Electric Company, 232

Western U.S.

fuel taxes and, 303

irrigated area, 564-565, 594

ocean currents and weather, 676

water supplies, 563, 596

West Germany

capital stock turnover, 531-532

fuel prices, 295, 754, 755

nuclear reactor technology, 768, 771, 772

Wetlands

adaptation to climate change, 40, 636n.6

costs of adaptation, 575-576

impacts of climate change on, 584-585, 591

methane emission, 94, 95, 158

Wheat production

adaptation to climate change, 562, 564

carbon dioxide fertilization and, 551, 552, 553

impacts of climate change on, 559, 560-561, 562, 563

White surfaces

cost of conserved electricity, 210-211, 212, 476, 714-715

electricity use reduction, 55, 216, 241n.5, 447, 468

Wind, 615

climate change and, 556, 584

Wind energy

barriers to implementation, 363, 365-366, 367

cost-effectiveness, 356

cost of implementation, 479, 788, 790

energy supply potential, 58, 343, 372, 471

research and development needs, 371

Winter

antarctic stratosphere, chemical reactions, 450

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
×

Page 918

cold acclimatization, 615

electrical demand, 655

mortality rates, 534, 616, 618

precipitation, 128, 129, 138, 154, 654

soil moisture, trees and, 654

solar absorption and reflection, 241n.5

storms, 550

temperature warming, 672

Women, 415, 416, 417, 420, 703

Wood. See also Trees

Vegetation

biomass fuel, 323, 348, 349, 779-783

burning, carbon dioxide emission, 5, 11

burning, greenhouse gas emission, 700

carbon storage, 575

cookstove burning, 172

energy production, buildings sector, 220

fuel, nitrous oxide emission, 8, 162, 682

methanol produced from, 305, 306, 307, 323

timber products, 424, 426, 556, 571-572

World Bank

development loans, 187, 237, 392

economic growth projections, 236, 418, 809, 811

population projections, 415, 421, 809

World Development Report, 418, 809

World Climate Conference (1990), 66-67, 68

World Climate Program (WCP), 66, 511

World Climate Research Program (WCRP), 66

World Development Report (World Bank), 418, 809

World Health Organization, 619

World Meteorological Organization, 66, 129, 382, 511

World Resources Institute (WRI), 427, 812

World Wildlife Fund (WWF), 426, 428, 812

Y

Yellowstone National Park, 607

forest fires, 573

Z

Zoning, 537, 611

Zoos, 580

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page885
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page886
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page887
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page888
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page889
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page890
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page891
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page892
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page893
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page894
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page895
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page896
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page897
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page898
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page899
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page900
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page901
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page902
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page903
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page904
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page907
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page909
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1605.
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Page918
Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base Get This Book
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Global warming continues to gain importance on the international agenda and calls for action are heightening. Yet, there is still controversy over what must be done and what is needed to proceed.

Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming describes the information necessary to make decisions about global warming resulting from atmospheric releases of radiatively active trace gases. The conclusions and recommendations include some unexpected results. The distinguished authoring committee provides specific advice for U.S. policy and addresses the need for an international response to potential greenhouse warming.

It offers a realistic view of gaps in the scientific understanding of greenhouse warming and how much effort and expense might be required to produce definitive answers.

The book presents methods for assessing options to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, offset emissions, and assist humans and unmanaged systems of plants and animals to adjust to the consequences of global warming.

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