GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS
Levels set to provide regulatory guidance to FDA field personnel to determine whether or not a product should be deemed adulterated and an appropriate enforcement action imposed.
Acceptable daily intake.
Association of Food and Drug Officials, York, Pa.
Association of Food and Drug Officials of Southern States, Knoxville, Tenn.
Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase.
Administrative Procedures Act, administered by Food and Drug Administration.
Aerobic plate count (for microorganisms).
American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.
Acceptable quality level (quality that has a 95% chance of acceptance).
Amnesic shellfish poisoning.
Benzene hexachloride (a mixture of the α, β, γ-isomers of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane, depending on the manufacturer).
Boston Harbor in Boston, Mass.
Controlled atmosphere packaging.
Critical control points.
Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service, Atlanta, Ga.
Code of Federal Regulations.
Colony forming unit.
Presence of significant levels of undesirable (usually toxic) chemicals derived from natural environment or of anthropogenic origin.
Canadian Health Protection Board, Ottawa.
Community Nutrition Institute, Washington, D.C.
Central nervous system.
Mechanisms to reduce or eliminate risk from hazards by government, industry, or individual action.
Compliance policy guidelines relating to seafood safety.
Conference of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, Albany, N.Y.
Clean Water Act, administered by Environmental Protection Agency.
Delaware Bay in Delaware.
Division of Contaminants Chemistry of Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Washington, D.C.
Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (a metabolite of DDT).
Aspects of control systems that reduce their effectiveness.
A procedure to remove pathogens from molluscan shellfish.
Department of Fish and Oceans of Canada, Ottawa.
U.S. Department of Commerce.
U.S. Department of Defense.
Department of Social and Health Services in Washington state.
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning.
The number of minutes at the indicated temperature necessary to reduce a microbial population by 90%.
Median effective dose; the dosage required to produce a response in 50% of a population.
European Economic Community, headquartered in Brussels, Belgium.
Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake levels set by National Academy of Sciences.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
U.S. food and Drug Administration, Public Health Service.
Frank effect level for blood.
Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin.
Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, administered by Food and Drug Administration.
Food Marketing Institute, Washington, D.C.
Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences.
Equivalent in minutes, at given temperature, of heat considered necessary to destroy spores or vegetative cells of a particular microorganism.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C.
Good manufacturing practices.
Gross national product.
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point.
Hepatitis type A virus.
An organism, substance, or condition having the potential to cause disease.
High: may cause disability, extended sequelae, and in some cases, death. Moderate: may require medical intervention to avoid debilitating or life-threatening effects; rarely self-resolving. Mild: symptoms transitory, rarely lasting more than a few days, no sequelae; not life threatening, usually self-resolving.
Fish or shellfish, the consumption of which can lead to disease.
The fully aromatic form of benzene with six chlorine molecules.
Hawaii Department of Health, Honolulu.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
High-performance liquid chromatography.
Hudson/Raritan Estuary in New York.
International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians, Ames, Iowa.
International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods.
Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences.
Indifference quality level (quality that has a 50% chance of acceptance).
Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference; the organization that implements the National Shellfish Sanitation Program.
γ-isomer of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane, also known as BHC.
Limiting quality level (quality that has a 10% chance of acceptance).
Modified atmosphere packaging (a process in which air is replaced by other gases, usually CO2).
Median acceptable toxicant concentration for blood.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Published by Centers for Disease Control.
Memorandum of understanding.
Most probable number, a means for estimating bacterial densities.
Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act, administered by Environmental Protection Agency.
National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Food.
Non-A, non-B enteral hepatitis and unspecified hepatitis.
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.
National Blue Crab Industry Association, Division of National Fisheries Institute, Arlington, Va.
National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Northeast Technical Support Unit of Food and Drug Administration, Davisville, R.I.
National Fisheries Institute, Inc., Arlington, Va.
National Food Processors Association, Seattle, Wash.
National Fish and Seafood Promotional Council of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, or ANHMRC.
National Marine Fisheries Service of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
National Purchase Dairy Panel, Inc., Schaumburg, Ill.
National Pesticide Monitoring Program of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences.
Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.
National Shellfish Sanitation Program carried out by states under supervision of Food and Drug Administration.
National Status and Trends Program of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
New York Bight in New Jersey.
Ocean Assessment Division of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Affecting or relating to qualities such as appearance, color, odor, and texture.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Puffer fish poisoning.
U.S. Public Health Service.
Public Health Service Act, administered by Food and Drug Administration.
Number of standard deviations from the median of a lognormal distribution of tolerances plus five.
Paralytic shellfish poisoning.
Provisional tolerance daily intake limits set by Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization.
Provisional tolerance weekly intake limits set by Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization.
Packed under federal inspection.
Refers to palatability and organoleptic characteristics such as tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, based on the maturity, marbling, color, firmness, and texture of the product.
Retinol binding protein.
Probability that a person will become ill from a hazard.
Probability that harm will not occur under specified conditions (the reciprocal of risk).
Southeastern Fisheries Association, Tallahassee, Fla.
Small round virus.
Thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose selective agar medium.
The Catfish Institute, Belzoni, Miss.
Lifetime dose estimated to produce cancer in 25% of exposed people.
Or DDD [(diphenylethanedichlorophenyl(ethane), a metabolite of DDT].
Agent causing congenital defect(s).
Limit above which the product is deemed to be injurious.
Tuna Research Foundation, Washington, D.C.
Upper confidence limit.
U.S. Department of Agriculture.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
World Health Organization of the United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland.
The general term used to imply that the product is processed in a sanitary and healthful manner and is safe to eat.
Number of standard deviations above or below the midpoint of a standard normal or lognormal distribution; inferred from the work of a specific individual value in a data set.
The temperature difference associated with a tenfold difference in the killing rate of microorganisms.