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CARLETON STEVENS COON Tune 23, 1904June 3, 1981 BY W. W. HOWELLS CARL COON was born June 23, 1904, in Wakefield, Mas- sachusetts, a typical melange of Yankee stock, though the Coons were originally Cornish. At least two of Carl's forebears were Civil War veterans. His grandfather Coon blinc} by Carl's time was a great teller of tales, all calculated to make Car! very American in- cleed. The old man talked not only about the war, but also about his travels in the Miclclle East and his readings on Af- rica. With his cotton broker father, the young Car} made a number of trips abroad, especially to Egypt. His mother was solicitous of his education, anct the family maid (also Yankee) taught him to react before he went to school. When he was young, Carl's only apparent awareness of ethnicity came through fracases with Irish boys of the neighborhood. Pugnacious as well as scholarly, he managed throughout his early school years to avoid both distinction and opprobrium. But not entirely. His clays at Wakefielc! High were numbered when, macle fractious by boredom, he descender! into the school's basement and swung from over- heac! pipes until they broke and flooded! the place. As a cure he was sent to Phillips Andover Academy. Actually, Car! Coon had strong intellectual tastes. His love of Egyptology began early, and he learned to read hiero- 109
110 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS glyphic writing before going to Andover. Once there, he be- came enamored of Greek, in which he took the prize at grad- uation. He learner! Arabic at Harvard; but mathematics was not in him either then or later. At Harvard his affection for Egyptology continued, and his knowledge of hieroglyphs got him into a graduate course uncier G. A. Reisner. Under the great Charles Townsend CopelancI, he took English composition a subject in which he was an apt student anc! eventually a master. But his first exposure to E. A. Hooton causect him to veer off into an- thropology. Despite a somewhat laconic delivery, Hooton was a com- pelling lecturer. ~ myself know of at last three instances when an unclergracluate, fired up by some idea in Hooton's dis- course, clecicled to become an anthropologist then anc} thereHooton the while all unwitting of the conversion going on in front of him. Coon was one of those three. Hear- ing about the Berbers of the Rif in North Africa with their occasional blonc! hair and light eyes, he determined on the spot that his first goal wouIct be to study the lancis he hacT long dreamer! of. (Hooton himself never got nearer to Africa than the Canary Islands.) Graduating magna cum laude a half year aheac! of his cIass- mates in 1925, Coon went straight into graduate school. In 1924 he had visited Morocco to sneak a look at the Riffians, who, le(1 by Abel el-Krim, were in revolt against Spain. It was dangerous ground ant! therefore all the more appetizing to Carl. Reconnoitering once again in 1925, he took his plucky new bridle to the just-pacifiecl Rif to begin research for his dissertation. Hooton, keeping the Harvard community in touch with his hypera(lventurous stuclent, wrote an article for the Alumni Bulletin entitlect "An Untamed Anthropologist among the Wilcler Whites." Earning his doctorate from Harvard in 1928' he stayer!
CARLETON STEVENS COON 111 on in the anthropology department as an instructor. At the sudden death of Roland B. Dixon, the great ethnographer, Car} took over all his courses on the cultures of the regions of the worm. Africa he knew personally. His course on Oceania, which he clicl not know, was one of his most absorb- ing. To inform himself on the peoples of Asia and Siberia, he traveled in the USSR. He was to teach anthropology at Harvard for twenty years, with time out for service in the Army in WorIc] War Il. A ,1 1 · ~ . '~ . . . . ~llc~l~-~ology In one lY~US, ootn physical and historical, was still a relatively young science. It was intrinsically colorful, even romantic, ant! not nearly so methodical and specialized as it wouIcl become. This freedom of approach suited Coon's temperament, giving his originality wicle scope anct allowing him to explore peoples with gusto. With his natural flair and engaging writing style, he soon became well known to the public. That he was colorful, anct that he macle his material so, does not mean to say that he was unsystematic. Rather, un- trammelecI by a plethora of guidelines, his modes of orga- nization set the example for others. With great mental energy and insatiable curiosity, he was a prodigious reader and notetaker. He was lefthanclecI, anct ~ always saw him at meet- ings writing on a pad of foolscap, his left arm curled over the page. More important, he was an outstanding firsthand ob- serverthe prime qualification for anyone in his kinc! of work. It is ctiflicult to see how he manager! to file and organize the great body of information he dealt with but, despite his flamboyant image and uncloubteclly mercurial temperament, he was a careful organizer. An enormous intellectual vigor allowed him to follow up hypotheses without becoming wocI- decl to them. Never a writer of small papers, he Coked for the larger significance. It may be said that Coon's major con-
112 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS tributions to science were the fruitful formulations that fol- lowec! from his assimilation and organization of massive ,~ . ~ . amounts ot 1ntormatlon. PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: RACIAL ADAPTATIONS Carleton Coon's The Races of Europe (1939) began as a re- vision of W. Z. Ripley's 1900 work but endecl as a new opus that used every scrap of published information on living pop- ulations and prehistoric human remains and much re- cordecl history besicles. Though some of Coon's hypotheses seem dubious today, they allowed him to structure a mass of material in a way that remains impressive. This book was reprinted some years later ant! is still regarclec! as a valuable source of ciata. In 1933 he publishecl a novel, The Riffian, a product of his precloctoral studies in North Africa. In the late 1930s he col- laboratect with Harvar(l's E. P. Chapple on Principles of An- thropology (1942), an ambitious quantification of the inter- actions of speech and action among human indivicluals and groups. Coon's desire was to use Darwinian adaptation to explain the physical characteristics of race. He defined these as the physical features that distinguish modern populations and in 1950 published, with S. M. Garn and J. B. Birdsell, Races: A Study of the Problems of Race Formation in Man. He was exas- perated by what he called the "hide-race" attitude of people who, from social or philosophical motives, seemed to deny the existence of obvious biological differences. He became indignant at any suggestion that his interest in race derives! from racist motives. Although a good many articles had been written about environmental adaptation for such traits, this book was the first to address the problem as a whole. In 1962 he brought out his magnum opus, The Origin of Races (1962), based primarily on human fossil ~naterial
CARLETON STEVENS COON 113 a synthesis that remains unmatched today, even by Franz Weidenrich. Yet his much criticized hypothesis that five sub- species of Homo erectus evolved separately and in parallel into Homo sapiens adversely affected appreciation of the book. Coon later wrote that the stark wording of this theory had resulted from a misunderstanding with his editor, and in later editions the passage was rewritten. Yet it is the first ver- sion that is still widely quoted in discussions of hypotheses of human evolution. Coon developed objective criteria for dis- tinguishing his two species, or grades, of Homo. He applied these systematically and successfully, and they have not been materially improved upon. His original interpretation incor- porated the evidence of virtually all fossil material then known, which the book presents with exemplary complete- ness. The work remains both readable to the layman and useful to the specialist nearly thirty years later. In 1965, he published a companion and sequel to The Origin of Races with E. E. Hunt, fir., The Living Races of Man. Coon's last book, published posthumously in 1982, Racial Adaptations, was a culmination of his efforts to marshal! the evidence now including biochemical data and to suggest explanations for physical variation in man. CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY Coon learned Greek early, he profited from good teachers (including Hooton) and had a natural ear for English, which he wrote wonderfully well. His correspondence blossomed with fresh metaphors, but the hallmark of his style was its simplicity. He turned out book after book, ranging from the technical to the popular, from site reports, to texts, to trav- ellogues, to novels. In addition to The Riffian (1934), he pro- duced Fiesh of the Wild Ox, a fictional account of his life in the Rif. Measuring Ethiopia is his exuberant account of his 1935
4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS adventures gathering ethnographic data in that country one step ahead of Mussolini's troops. More important was his 1945 The Story of Man, a high- level popular book on human evolution and development. His vast store of knowledge and his writing ability combined to make this book both lucid and authoritative. Yet his knowledge was not confined to physical anthro- pology alone. In 1948 he became curator of ethnology at the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia, a post that he held until the early 1960s. His 1948 A Reader in Gen- eral Anthropology, an anthology of firsthand descriptions of various peoples, proved as successful as his Story of Man. In 1951, his Caravan: The Story of the Middle East introduced the layman to the peoples of Islam. He described present-day hunting and gathering societies in The Hunting Peoples ~ ~ 97 ~ ). In the early days of television, he appeared on "What in the World," an educational program dealing with various ob- jects in the collections of the University of Pennsylvania Mu- seum. Froelich Rainey, the museum's director, would present objects to a panel of anthropologists who undertook to iden- tify them without previous knowledge of their provenance. Car! was apt to recognize them on sight, but as a born show- man and teacher, he held back. Instead of blurting out, "Of course, a Fiji cannibal fork!" he would take note of the wood, speak of stylistic resemblances, and talk of other clues that might give away the object's area of origin before giving the answer. EXCAVATIONS AND FIELDWORK The opposite of a museum-bound scientist, Carl's first love was the field. With competence in archaeology and eth- nology as well as physical anthropology, he excavated (while on sabbatical leave in ~ 939) a cave in Tangier, where he founcI deposits going back to Mousterian times. Recovering part
CARLETON STEVENS COON 115 of a maxillary bone with Neanderthal-like morphology, he returned after the war with a Harvard team led by Hugh Hencken to complete the excavation. In 1948 he began ex- ploring caves in Afghanistan and northern Iran, working with the University of Pennsylvania Museum. This led to an- other book, The Seven Caves, in 1952. He later investigated a cave in Sierra Leone, finding Lower Paleolithic implements but no fossils. On one occasion, when being shown around excavations at rebel Irhoud in Morocco that had produced an important premodern skull, he spotted a second skull of the same type a find never credited to him in print by the · . excavation c erector. Still more than studying ancient man, however, Carl loved to observe remote and seldom-visited living peoples. His pre- doctoral expedition among the Riffians was only the first of many. In 1929 he went to northern Albania to observe the Cheghs, undoubtedly the most isolated people in Europe, who became the subjects of The Mountains of Giants, in 1950. In 1959, he joined a team of physiologists travelling to Tierra de! Fuego to study the few remaining Alakaluf Indians' bod- ily adaptation to a cold, wet environment, which they endure with very little clothing. His posthumously published, auto- biographical Adventures and Discoveries gives firsthand ac- counts of these and many other expeditions. WORLD WAR II During World War IT, Car! Coon's knowledge of remote peoples involved him in a number of adventures well-suited both to his abilities and his tastes. As he recorded in A North Africa Story: The Anthropologist as OSS Agent (1980), he was recruited in deepest secrecy before the 1942 Allied landing in North Africa to stimulate an uprising against Spain among the Rif tribes, if Spain should decide to join the Axis powers. A plan to send him to Albania was later scrapped when the
116 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Allies landed in Italy and southern France. While still a civil- ian, Car] performed many special undercover errancls, often posing in uniforms of his own devising as a British officer. He also invented an explosive designed to to look like mule dung that would blow the treacis oh German tanks. He was later commissioned with the rank of major, and was invaliclec! home after being hit on the hea(1 by a roof tile clisIocigecl in a bombing attack. TEACHER, COLLEAGUE, FRIEND Throughout his life, Car] Coon remained} a great teacher. He welcomed anthropologists of every level, from senior to the most junior, to his home in West Gloucester, Massachu- setts, on the edge of the Ipswich marshes. He discussect with them whatever he was working on. He gave out his icleas on recent discoveries anti publications, praising and disputing with equal warmth. He die! not trouble himself with the rel- atone s~gn~hcance ot his own discoveries, concentrating rather on solidly demonstrating specific finctings. Although pleased with his major books, he may have failer! to appreciate their elect (not, however, lost on his colleagues) as models of con- struction and formulation. Despite the constant theme in his work of human variation as the result of adaptation to envi- ronment and his voluminous memory for information, he was ever one to complete a task and move on. Reflective though he certainly was, Carl's temperament was not calm. His thought and speech both carried an ecige of urgency. An entertaining if sometimes extravagant con- versationalist, he brought to speech the same gift for phras- ing that he so amply ctisplayed in writing. Listener as well as raconteur, he was moclest despite his flamboyance and totally devoid of self-importance. He was also honest and cancTict with his opinions whether they were popular or not. He was a constant, generous, and enormously rewarding friend,
CARLETON STEVENS COON 117 and remembered over fifty years his kaleicloscopic style brings me vivid mental pictures and inward! smiles. Carleton Coon was often honored. He won the Legion of Merit in 1945 for his war service, and was made a membre d'honneur of the Association de [a liberation fran~aise du ~ no- vembre, 1942. He won the Viking Fund Mecial and Award in Physical Anthropology (1952) and the Gold Medal of the Philadelphia Athenaeum (1962) for The Origin of Races. He was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1955. He was president of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists for 1962 and 1963. He was a member of Sigma Xi and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa in 1950 at the time of his twenty-fifth class reunion, repairing a small omis- sion indubitably caused by his eagerness twenty-five years earlier to get busy with the Riffians. In 1926, Car} married Mary Goodale. Their children are Carleton Stevens Coon, Jr., and Charles Aclams Coon. Car- leton, fir., entered the U.S. Foreign Service ancT, when his father died, tract just been appointed ambassador to Nepal at the same time that his wife became ambassador to Bangla- desh. Charles Coon is a real estate broker in Gloucester and a bridge player of international stature. Carleton Coon, clivorcecI, marriec! Lisa Dougherty GecIdes in 1945, the cartographer who cirew the maps for many of his books. She became the companion of all his post- war work anct travel. From first to last he travelled beyond the calls of his fielcl work, to see and inform himself about areas and people. Despite deteriorating eyesight, he never stopped writing which he called his only hobby. After hoIcl- ing several serious ailments at bay for some years, Car] cried on June 3, 1981, at his West Gloucester home, shortly before his seventy-seventh birthday. His brilliance left a lasting mark on a generation of anthropologists.
118 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS FURTHER READINGS 1940 The angel: Scientists at Harvard measure unique specimen of Homo sapiens. Life, 8( 1 0~: 38, 4 1 . 1945 C. Ford and A. MacBain. Cloak and dagger. Collier's, 116~14~: 12- 13, 88-90. L. Huot. Toys of hell. Collier's, 116~26) :28. 1951 Diggers. Time, 57~19~:46-47. 1952 S. L. Washburn. Viking Medalist for 1951. Am. I. Phys. Anthropol., 10:227-28. 1963 L. Oschinsky. A critique of The Origin of Races. Anthropologica, 5~1~: 109-16. Dobzhansky, T. A review of The Origin of Races. Sci. Am., 208~2~: 169-72. 1964 D. R. Hughes. Review of The Origin of Races. Man, 64:58. Y. Rofinszkii. Review of The Origin of Races. Ch. Sov. Anth. Arch., 3(2):43-50. 1965 B. G. Toeffs. Review of The Origin of Races. Anthropologica, 7~21: 179-87. A. Montagu. Review of The Origin of Races. In: The Concept of Race, ed. A. Montagu, pp. 228-41. New York: The Free Press. 1966 G. T. Bowles. Review of The Living Races of Man. Identifying spaces: Geography and genetics. Science, 154~3749) :628-29.
CARLETON STEVENS COON 119 1967 T. Shawl Review of Yengema Cave. West African Archaeol. Newsl., 6:25-27. A. A. Abbie, et al. Reviews of The Living Races of Man. Curr. An- thropol., 8~1-2~:1 12-26. 1974 T. Dobzhansky. Review of The Origin of Races. In: Biological Anthro- polog:y, pp. 244-47. New York: W. H. Freeman & Co.
120 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1928 A study of the fundamental racial and cultural characteristics of the Berbers of North Africa as exemplified by the Riffians. Ph.D. dies., Harvard University. 1930 With E. A. Hooton. An untamed anthropologist among the wilder whites. Harv. Alumni Bull., 33~2~:34-45. 1931 Tribes of the Rif. Harvard African Studies, 9. 1932 Flesh of the Wild Ox: A Ri;ffian Chronicle of High Valleys and Long Ripes. New York: Wm. Morrow and Company. With F. T. Hubbard. On the identity of kirsanna. Bot. Mus. Leaf. Harv. Univ., 2~81. 1933 The Riffian. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Review of C. I. Warden, The Evolution of Human Behavior. Am. An- thropol., 35:350-53. Review of T. E. Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom. The Atlantic Bookshelf, 156:14. 1934 A pasture of thorns. Story Magazine, 4~21~:68-80. 1935 Review of T. E. Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom. Booklist, 32~3~:60. With F. Johnson and C. Kluckhohn. Map and sources for the In- dian languages of North America. Peabody Mus. Pap., 6. The man in the purple suit. Story Magazine, 7~39~:5-34. People of the Rif. Nat. Hist., 35~2) :92-106. Measuring Ethiopia and Flight into Arabia. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
CARLETON STEVENS COON 121 With C. C. Seltzer. The racial characteristics of Syrians and Ar- menians. Peabody Mus. Pap., 13~3~. Review of H. Field, Arabs of Central Iraq. Am. Anthropol., 38:668- 69. 1937 Review of R. Storrs, The Memoirs of Sir Ronald Storrs. Booklist, 34~7~: 127. Review of L. S. B. Leakey, Stone Age Africa. Am. Anthropol., 39:344-45. Racial analysis of Somalis and Ethiopians. Am. I. Phys. Anthropol., 22(Suppl.~: 11. 1938 Review of H. Sonnabend, L'Espansione degli Slavi. Rural Soc., 3:351-52. 1939 The Races of Europe. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1940 Review of Akiga's Story (The Tiv Tribe as seen by one of its members>, trans. R. East, Am. Anthropol., 42:511. Introduction. In: Fossil man in Tangier, by M. S. Senyurek. Pea- body Mus. Pap., 16~3~. Review of I. Barzun, Race, A Study in Modern Superstition. Antiquity, 14~1~: 109-11. The composite Irishman. The Irish Digest, 6: 10-15. With E. D. Chapple. The function of religion in primitive and modern society. Pamphlet, Harvard Peabody Museum Library. 1941 Introduction. In: Native African Medicine, G. Harley. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. With G. Taylor. Races of the world; a discussion of recent classifi- cations. Hum. Biol., 13 :390-97.
122 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1942 Technology and human relations. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 75~11:23-27. Have the Jews a racial identity? In: Jews in a Christian World, ed. I Graeber, pp. 20-37. New York: The Macmillan Company. With E. D. Chapple and C. M. needed now. E1 Palacio, 49:226-27. Arensber~. World peace plans With E. D. Chapple. Principles of Anthropology. New York: Henry Holt and Company. 1943 Ed. C. S. Coon and I. M. Andrews. Studies in the anthropology of Oceania and Asia. Peabody Mus. Pap., 20. With A. M. Tozzer. Obituary of Roland Burrage Dixon. Peabody Mus. Pap., 20:)x-xi. Southern Arabia, a problem for the future. Peabody Mus. Pap., 20: 187-220. 1946 The universality of natural groupings in human societies. I. Educ. Soc., 20:163-68. Review of G. Wysner, The Kabyle People. Am. Anthropol., 48~3~: 454-55. With P. Johnson. Racial contexts of prehistory. Antiquity, 20: 154- 57. 1947 With E. D. Chapple. Technological change and cultural integra- tion. In: Conflicts of Power in Modern Culture, ed. L. Bryson et al., pp. 258-66. New York: Harper and Brothers. With E. D. Chapple. Anthropology and world planning. Conf. on science, philosophy and religion in their relations to the dem- ocratic way of life. Approaches to Group Understanding, Sixth Symp., pp. 411 - 23. New York: Harper & Row. Editor. A Reader in General Anthropology. New York: Henry Holt and Company. Review of A. L. Kroeber, Anthropology. Am. I. Phys..Anthropol., 6~3~:381-85.
CARLETON STEVENS COON 123 Review of F. Taillard, Le Nationalasme Marocain. The Middle East I., 2~4~:484-86. With R. W. Ehrich. Occipital flattening among the Dinarics. Am Phys. Anthropol., 6~2~: 181-86. 1949 A. Review of G. Welch, North African Prelude. Saturday Rev., 32(10): 15-16. North Africa. In: Most of the World: The Peoples of Africa, Latin Amer- ica and the East Today, ed. R. Linton, pp. 405-60. New York: Columbia University Press. Human origins. In: Patterns for Modern Living, no. 2, pp. 331-76. Chicago: Delphian Society. Racial history. In: Yugoslavia, ed. R. i- Kerner, pp.24-33. Berkeley: University of California Press. The Eridu crania, a preliminary report. Sumer, 5:103-104. 1950 Human races in relation to environment and culture. In: Origin and Evolution of Man. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 5:247-58. Review of H. Terrasse, Hastoire du Maroc, Vol. I, The Muslim World, 40(3):217-19. Review of P. Koller, Essai sur l'Espr~t du Berbers Marocain. The Middle East J., 4(3):365-67. Anthropological possibilities in Iran. Iran and the U.S.A., 4(1): 48-51. Point Four and the Middle East. Ann. Am. Acad. Poli. Soc. Sci., 270:83-94. The eastern cave at Hazer Merd. Sumer, 6:91-92. The mountains of giants: A racial and cultural study of the North Albanian Mountain Ghegs. Peabody Mus. Pap., 23~3~. With l. B. Birdsell and S. M. Garn. Races, A Study of the Problems of Race Formation in Man. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas, Pub- lisher. Report on the second Iran expedition; archaeology. Phila. Anthro- pol. Soc. Bull., 4~2~:2-3. 1 Three skulls from Tel Hasuna. Sumer, 6:93-96. The races of Europe. In: This as Race' ed. E. W. Count, pp. 576- 92. New York: Schuman.
124 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1951 Caravan: The Story of the Middle East. New York: Henry Holt and Co. Cave explorations in Iran, 1949. Museum Monographs. Philadel- phia: University of Pennsylvania. Review of W. O. Douglas, Strange Lands and Friendly Peoples. The Nation, 173~22~:476-78. University museum excavations in Iran, 1949. Archaeology, 4: 116-18. Recent stone age discoveries in Iran, chaeol. Newsl., 3:164-65. 1952 reported by W. Cornwall. Ar- Review of H. Terrasse, Histoire du Maroc, vol.2. The Muslim World. 42~11:66-69. The impact of the West on Middle Eastern social institutions. Proc. Acad. Poli. Sci., 24~4~:443-66. The excavations at Hotu Cave. Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci., ser. 2' 14~4~: 179-80. Excavations in Hotu Cave, Iran, 1951, a preliminary report. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 96~3~:231-49. Review of H. Miner, The Primitive City of Timbuctoo. Ann. Am. Acad. Poli. Soc. Sci., 289:196-97. 1953 Review of L. Woolley, Spadework in Archaeology. Sci. Mon., 77~4~: 220-21. Walter Buchanan Cline, a memoir. Kroeber Anthropological Soci- ety Papers, nos. 8 and 9, pp. ix-xii. Carleton S. Coon on Lebanon. Saturday Rev., 36~431:50. Social evolution in the Middle East. In: Evolution in the Middle East. (Symposium.) Washington, D.C.: Middle East Institute. Our Mediterranean heritage- Islamic tradition. Saturday Rev., 36(431: 18-19. Comments. In: Did man once live by beer alone? Am. Anthropol., 55:515. Climate and race. In: Climate Change, ed. H. Shapley, pp. 13-34. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Iran. In: Catalogue des hommes fossiles, ed. H. V. Vallois and H. L.
CARLETON STEVENS COON 125 Movius, pp. 267-270. (Comptes rendus de la XIX session du Congres Geologique International.) Alger: Macon. In a room 34 x 56 feet . . . the totality of human experience. Penna. Gazette, 52~3~:10-15. 1954 Review of R. Fajans, Alerte en Afr~que du Nord. The Middle East I. 8~4~:471. Review of B. Newmann, Morocco Today. The Middle East I., 8~4~:472. Review of G. V. R. Lowe, The Pleistocene Geology and Prehistory of Uganda, Part II, Prehastory. Am. Anthropol., 56~1~: 144 - 46. The Story of Man: From the First Human to Primitive Culture and Be- yond. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Review of I. Huxley, From an Antique Land. Saturday Rev., 37~4) :27- 28. Review of G. G. Simpson, The Major Features of Evolution. Sci. Mon., 78~6~:390. Review of R. Williams, Free and Unequal. Southwest. Soc. Sci. Q., 34~4~:76-77. With I. L. Angel. La Cotte de St. Brelade II: Present status. Man, 54:53-55. 1955 Review of Studies in Islamic Culture History, ed. G.E. von Grune- baum. Am. Anthropol., 57~21:393-95. With S. M. Garn and i. B. Birdsell. Adaptive changes in the human body. In: Readings in Anthropology, ed. E. A. Hoebel et al., pp. 99 - 104. New York: McGraw-Hill. Civilization. In: The American Educator. Chicago: The United Edu- cators, Inc. With H. H. Kidder and L. C. Briggs. Contribution a l'anthropolo- gie des Kabyles. L'Anthropologie, 59:62 - 79. The nomads. In: Social Forces in the Middle East, ed. S. N. Fisher, pp. 23-42. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. With S. M. Garn. On the number of races of mankind. Am. An- thropol., 57~5~:996-1001. With E. K. Ralph. Radiocarbon dates for Kara Kamar, Afghani- stan, Univ. of Penna. I I. Science, 122~3176) :921-22.
126 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Some problems of human variability and natural selection in cli- mate and culture. Am. Nat., 89~848~:257-79. Operation Bultiste, promoting industrial development in Saudi Arabia. In: Hands Across Frontiers, ed. H. M. Teaf and P. G. Franck, pp. 307-61. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 1956 Antrubulujiyya lid Arab (Anthropology for Arabs). In: al-thakafat al-islamiyyat wa al-Hayat al-Mu'asirat, pp. 289-301. New York: Franklin Publications. Review of C. Sandford, The Lion of Judah Hath Prevailed. Saturday Rev., 39:43-44. The desert and the land. In: Mid-East: World-Center, ed. R. N. An- shen, pp. 76-89. New York: Harper and Brothers. Review of T. Dobzhansky, Evolution, Genetics and Man. Hum. Biol., 28(3):376-78. Review of A. Senet, Man in Search of His Ancestors. Saturday Rev.. 39(28): 19. Review of R. Mukherjee, C. R. Rao, and I. C. Trevor, The Ancient Inhabitants of Jebel Moya. Antiquity, 30(118~: 122-24. Review of A. Paul, A History of the Beja Tribes of the Sudan. Am. Anthropol., 58(2~:385-86. Review of J. D. Davies, Phrenology, Fad and Science. Am. Q., 8:286- 89. 1957 Review of H. Wendt, I Looked for Adam. Man, 57:43. Introduction: In: African Negro sculpture: A walk through the gallery, M. Plass, Univ. Mus. Bull., 21~4~:3-76. The Seven Caves; Archaeological Explorations in the Middle East. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. What is race? Atlantic Monthly, 200~4~:103-108. 1958 Review of K. Broste, Prehistoric Man in Denmark. Antiquity, 32~127~:207-208. An anthropogeographic excursion around the world. Hum. Biol., 30:29-42. Caravan: The Story of The Middle East, 2d ea., rev. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
CARLETON STEVENS COON 127 Faces of Asia. Pa. Univ. Mus. Bull., 22: 1-48. South across the Sahara. Nat. Hist., 67:246-57. Review of E. C. Bovill, The Golden Trade of the Moors. New York Times Book Review, 6 April: 18-19. Review of O. G. S. 127~3304~:982. Crawford, The 1959 Eye Goddess. Science, Review of W. Howells, Mankind in the Making. Science. 130(3386): 1399-400. Clever people, these Armenians. Expedition, 1(3):23. Race and ecology in man. In: Genetics and 20th Century Danvinism. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 24: 153 -59. Appendix. In: Hair from a Kadar woman of India, O. Duggins and M. Trotter, p. 98. Am. J. Phys. Anthronol.. 17(21 Q.~-~R Review of L. A. White, The Evolution 129(3356): 1128. 1960 -r---7 -- ~~~ of Culture. Science, Appendix. In: Thermal and Metabolic Responses of the Alacaluf Indians to Moderate Cold Exposure, H. T. Hammel, pp. 60-63. WADC Technical Report. Cold adaptation among the Alakaluf. Phil. Anthropol. Soc. Bull.. 13~3~:32-33. Response to cold by the Alacaluf Indians: A first report on a 1959 expedition. Curr. Anthropol., 1:146. Review of W. Thesiger, Arabian Sands. Nat. His., 69~9) :4-9. Badw. In: Encyclopedia of Islam, new ea., vol. 1, pp. 872-74. Leiden: E. J. Brill, N. V. ~1 1961 Review of P. Graziosi, Paleolithic Art. Science, 133~3455~:748-50. here are Neanderthals among us. New York Times Magazine, 12 March:32:84-86. Review of G. Lipsky et al., Sandi Arabia: Its People, Its Society, Its Culture. Am. Anthropol., 63~41:859-60. Photographs. In: The American Kalmyis, F. Adelman. Expedition, 3~4~:26-33. Man against the cold. Nat. Hist., 70~11:56-69.
128 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1962 Review of F. Barth, Nomads of South Persia. Am. Anthropol., 64~3~:636-38. Review of I. Sanderson, Abominable Snowman: Legend Come to Life. Nat. Hist., 71 ~ 1 ~ :4-5. Review of M. Bates, Man in Nature. Am. Anthropol., 64( 1 ): 1 78-79. Comment on an article, Racial analysis of human populations in relation to their ethnogenesis, A. Wiercinski. Curr. Anthropol., 3~1~:26. Review of P. B. Medawar, The Future of Man, BBC Reith lectures, 1959. Hum. Biol., 34(1 ~ :73 -75. Review of D. Yaukey, Fertility Differences in a Modernizing Country. The Middle East J., 16~2~:250-51. New findings on the origin of races. Harper's, 225~13511:66-68; 71-74. The Origin of Races. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. The Story of Man, 2d ea., rev. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1963 Review of P. Fuchs, Die Volker der Sudost-Sahara: Tibesti, Borku, En- nedi. Am. Anthropol., 65~2~:476-78. Rev. of Social Life of Early Man, ed. S. Washburn, Ann. Am. Acad. Poli. Soc. Sci., 345: 191-92. Addendum. In: Obituary of Biraja Sankar Guha, D. P. Sinka. Am. Anthropol., 65~2~:386. Ed. Carleton S. Coon and E. E. Hunt, Jr. Anthropology A to Z. New -210rk: Grosset and Dunlap, Inc. Growth and development of social groups. In: Man and His Future, ed. G. Wolstenholme, pp. 120-31. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Comment on an article, What is remarkable about varieties of man is likenesses, not differences, A. Montagu. Curr. Anthropol., 4~4~:363. 1964 Review of D. Ferembach et al., La Necropole Epipaleolithique de Ta- foralt (Maroc Oriental). Am. Anthropol., 66~61: 1454-55. Review of A. H. Broderick, Father of Prehistory: The Abbe Henri Breuil: His Life and Times. Am. Anthropol., 66~41:947-48.
CARLETON STEVENS COON 1965 129 The problem of human convergence. Int. Soc. Sci. J., 17(1):104- 105. Review of B. Campbell, The Nomenclature of the Hominidal, including a definition list of named taxa. Occasional Paper no. 22, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain. With E. E. Hunt, in The Living Races of Man. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. The taxonomy of human variation. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 134(art. 2):516-23. 1967 Die Yengema-Hohle. Bild Wiss., 12~41:1006-13. Review of D. Rodnick, An Introduction to Man and His Development. Am. Anthropol, 69~3-41:385-86. Yengema Cave. Expedition, 9~3):8-18. Yengema Cave, Sierra Leone. Etud. Doc. Tcadiens, 1:125-28. 1968 With H. M. Bricker, F. Johnson, and C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky. Yengema Cave report. Univ. Pa. Mus. Monogr., no. 31. Excavations of Yengema Cave, Sierra Leone. Expedition, 11~1~: 46-47. 1969 The Story of Man. 3d ea., rev. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. The camp in the desert. In: Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East, ed. A. Shiloh, pp. 119-35. New York: Random House. 1971 A fossilized human mandibular fragment from Kangatotha, Kenya, East Africa. Am. ]. Phys. Anthropol., 34~2~: 157-63. The Hunting Peoples. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. 1973 An archaeological field trip to Chad and Libya, 1966-67. In: National Geographic Society President's Reports: 1966 Projects, pp. 21-24.
130 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1974 Populations, human. In: Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 15th ea., vol. 14, pp. 839-48. Chicago: Encyclopedia Brittanica, Inc. 1975 Review of H. Orison, Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence. Curr. Anthropol., 16~3) :406. 1977 Overview. Annul Rev. Anthropol., 6:1-10. 1978 L'adaptation humaine. La Recherche, 89~9~:438-48. 1980 A North African Story: The Anthropologist as OSS Agent, 1941 - 1943. Ipswich, Mass.: Gambit. 1981 Adventures and Discoveries: The Autobiography of Carleton S. Coon. Englewood Cliffs, N.~.: Prentice-Hall. 1982 Racial Adaptations. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.