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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1991. Hurricane Elena, Gulf Coast: August 29 - September 2, 1985. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1765.
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References

American Concrete Institute-American Society of Civil Engineers (ACI-ASCE). 1988. Joint Committee Report on Proposed Standards: Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures and Specifications for Masonry Structures. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI). 1972. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. New York: American National Standards Institute.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI). 1982. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. New York: American National Standards Institute.


Baker, E. J. 1986. What People Really Do In Hurricanes. Prepared for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, State and Local Programs Office. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.

Baker, E. J. 1987. Warning and Evacuation in Hurricanes Elena and Kate. Sea Grant Project No. IR-85-11. Tallahassee: Florida State University.

Batts, M. E., R. C. Martin, L. R. Russell, J. R. Sharer, and E. Simiu. 1980. Hurricane Wind Speeds in the United States. National Bureau of Standards, Building Science Series No. 124. Washington, D.C.: National Bureau of Standards (currently National Institute of Standards and Technology).


Council of American Building Officials (CABO). 1986. One-and Two-Family Dwelling Code. Falls Church, Va: Council of Building Officials.


Dade County Board of County Commissioners. 1959. South Florida Building Code (SFBC). Miami, Fla.: Metropolitan Dade County.

Davenport, A. G., D. Surry, and T. Stathopoulos. 1977. Wind Loads on Low-Rise Buildings: Final Report of Phases 1 and 2. Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory Report, BLWT-228-1977. London, Ontario, Canada: University of Western Ontario.

Davenport, A. G., D. Surry, and T. Stathopoulos. 1978. Wind Loads on Low-Rise Buildings: Final Report of Phase 3. Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1991. Hurricane Elena, Gulf Coast: August 29 - September 2, 1985. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1765.
×

Report, BLWT-224-1978. London, Ontario, Canada: University of Western Ontario.

Ellifritt, D. 1984. Performance of metal buildings. Pp. 117–123 in Proceedings: Alicia One Year Later, A. Kareem, ed. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.


Haag Engineering, personal communication, 1985.

Hessig, M. L. 1986. A Wind Tunnel Study of Roof Loads on Common Residential Structures. M.S. thesis. Clemson University, South Carolina.

Kareem, A. 1984. Wind speed-damage correlation in Hurricane Alicia. Pp. 81–97 in Proceedings: Alicia One Year Later, A. Kareem, ed. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.


Leland, K. 1988. Strength of Roof Anchorage in Concrete Masonry. M.S. thesis. Clemson University, South Carolina.

Leyden, K.R. 1985. Recovery and Construction After Hurricane Camille: Post-Stom Hazard Mitigation on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Center for Urban and Regional Studies Report No. 85-14. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina.


Marshall, R. D. 1984. Fastest-Mile Wind Speeds in Hurricane Alicia. National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 1197. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. National Bureau of Standards (currently National Institute of Standards and Technology).

Marshall, R. D. 1985. Personal communication.

Marshall, R. D., R. D. Dikkers, and H. C. S. Thom. 1971. Hurricane Camille, August 1969. National Bureau of Standards Report 10393. Washington, D.C.: National Bureau of Standards (currently National Institute of Standards and Technology).

Metal Building Manufacturers Association (MBMA). 1981. Metal Building Systems Manual Design Practices. Cleveland, Ohio: Metal Building Manufacturers Association.

Metal Building Manufacturers Association (MBMA). 1986. Low-Rise Building Systems Manual. Cleveland, Ohio: Metal Building Manufacturers Association.

McDonald, J. R., and W. Pennington Vann. 1986. Hurricane Damage to Manufactured Homes. Proceedings: ASCE Structures Congress (New Orleans, Louisiana). New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Mehta, K. C., J. E. Minor, and T. A. Reinhold. 1983. Wind speed-damage correlation in Hurricane Frederic. Journal of the Structural Engineering Division , ASCE 109(ST1).

Minor, J. E., and K. C. Mehta. 1979. Wind damage observations and implications. Journal of the Structural Engineering Division, ASCE 105(ST11).


Neumann, C. J., and J. M. Pelissier. 1981. Models for the prediction of tropical cyclone motion over the North Atlantic: an operational evaluation. Monthly Weather Review 109(3):522-538.


Reinhold, T. A. 1984. Surface winds from Frederic: an engineering viewpoint. Pp. 96–114 in National Bureau of Standards Publication No. 665. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. National Bureau of Standards (currently National Institute of Standards and Technology).

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1991. Hurricane Elena, Gulf Coast: August 29 - September 2, 1985. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1765.
×

Reinhold, T. A., and K. C. Mehta. 1981. Wind damage in Hurricane Frederic. Pp. 532–546 in Proceedings: Second Specialty Conference on Dynamic Response of Structures: Experimentation, Observation, Prediction, and Control; G. Hart, ed. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). 1969. Southern Building Code. Birmingham, Alabama: Southern Building Code Congress International.

Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). 1974. Southern Standard Building Code: Amendments to 1973 Edition. Birmingham, Alabama: Southern Building Code Congress International.

Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). 1982. Standard Building Code. Birmingham, Alabama: Southern Building Code Congress International.

Sparks, P. R. 1987a. The risk of progressive collapse of single-story buildings in severe storms. Pp. 577–583 in Dynamics of Structures: Proceedings of the Sessions at the Structures Congress '87, J. Roesset, ed. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Sparks, P. R. 1987b. An assessment of the effectiveness of the Standard Building Code in preventing wind damage to low-rise buildings. High Wind and Building Codes: Proceedings of the WERC/NSF Wind Engineering Symposium. Columbia: University of Missouri, Engineering Extension.

Sparks, P. R., M. L. Hessig, J. A. Murden, and B. L. Sill. 1988. On the failure of single-story wood-framed houses in severe storms. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 29:245-252.

Sparks, P. R., and Y. B. Singh. 1989. A micro-computer-based expert system for the design of wood-framed houses to resist wind loads. Proceedings: Sixth United States National Conference on Wind Engineering, H. Kareem, ed. University of Houston, Texas.

Sparks, P. R., and H. S. Saffir. 1989. Mitigation of wind damage to non-engineered and marginally engineered buildings. Proceedings: Sixth United States National Conference on Wind Engineering, H. Kareem, ed. University of Houston, Texas.


Underwriters Laboratory. 1980. Tests for Wind-Uplift Resistance of Roof Assemblies (UL-588). Northbrook, Illinois: Underwriters Laboratory.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 1981. Hurricane Frederic: Post-Disaster Report; 30 August – 14 September, 1979. Mobile, Alabama: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District.


Vickery, B. J., A. G. Davenport, and D. Surry. 1984. Internal pressures on low-rise buildings. Program and workshop notes, Fourth Canadian Workshop on Wind Engineering. Ottawa, Ontario: National Research Council of Canada.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1991. Hurricane Elena, Gulf Coast: August 29 - September 2, 1985. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1765.
×
Page102
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1991. Hurricane Elena, Gulf Coast: August 29 - September 2, 1985. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1765.
×
Page103
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1991. Hurricane Elena, Gulf Coast: August 29 - September 2, 1985. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1765.
×
Page104
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Hurricane Elena, following an erratic and difficult-to-forecast course along an unusually large section of the Gulf Coast, posed special problems from New Orleans, Louisiana, to Sarasota, Florida, well before it came ashore on September 2, 1985.

Considerable wind damage occurred in this area to structures that were ostensibly designed to resist such extreme wind conditions. Because similar design conditions and building control procedures exist along other U.S. hurricane-prone coasts, the conclusions drawn in this detailed book catalog the structural damage caused by the hurricane and emergency response actions, establish the wind conditions of the storm, review in-depth the building control process used in the area, and conduct necessary structural and wind tunnel tests relevant to a large number of communities along the coastal areas.

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