PRIORITIES FOR RESEARCH TO REDUCE THE THREAT OF
Committee on Priorities for a Public Health Research Agenda to Reduce
the Threat of Firearm-Related Violence
Institute of Medicine
Committee on Law and Justice
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Alan I. Leshner, Bruce M. Altevogt, Arlene F. Lee, Margaret A. McCoy,
and Patrick W. Kelley, Editors
INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE AND
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
This project was supported by awards between the National Academy of Sciences and both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (#200-2011-38807) and the CDC Foundation with the Foundation’s support originating from The Annie E. Casey Foundation, The California Endowment, The California Wellness Foundation, The Joyce Foundation, Kaiser Permanente, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and one anonymous donor. The views presented in this publication are those of the editors and attributing authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.
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International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-28438-4
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Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine) and NRC (National Research Council). 2013. Priorities for research to reduce the threat of firearm-related violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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COMMITTEE ON PRIORITIES FOR A PUBLIC HEALTH RESEARCH AGENDA TO REDUCE THE THREAT OF FIREARM-RELATED VIOLENCE
ALAN I. LESHNER (Chair), American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC
LOUIS ARCANGELI, Georgia State University, Atlanta
ALFRED BLUMSTEIN, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA
C. HENDRICKS BROWN, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL
DONALD CARLUCCI, Picatinny Arsenal, Rockaway Township, NJ
BG (Ret.) RHONDA CORNUM, TechWerks, North Middletown, KY
PAUL K. HALVERSON, Indiana University Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indianapolis
STEPHEN W. HARGARTEN, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
RONALD C. KESSLER, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
GARY KLECK, Florida State University, Tallahassee
JOHN A. RICH, Drexel University School of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA
JEFFREY W. RUNGE, Biologue, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC
SUSAN B. SORENSON, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
DAVID VLAHOV, University of California, San Francisco
IOM and NRC Staff
BRUCE M. ALTEVOGT, Senior Program Officer, Board on Health Sciences Policy
MARGARET A. MCCOY, Program Officer, Board on Health Sciences Policy
JULIA K. HOGLUND, Research Associate, Food and Nutrition Board
KATHERINE M. BLAKESLEE, Global Program Advisor, Board on Global Health
MORGAN E. HELLER, Assistant to the IOM President for Special Projects
BRADLEY A. ECKERT, Research Assistant, IOM Executive Office
PATRICK W. KELLEY, Senior Board Director, Boards on Global Health and African Science Academy Development
ARLENE F. LEE, Board Director, Committee on Law and Justice
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
Jeremiah A. Barondess, New York Academy of Medicine
Carl C. Bell, Community Mental Health Council, Inc.
Paul Blackman, Criminal Justice Independence Institute
Charles Branas, University of Pennsylvania
John Donohue, Stanford University
Jeffrey Gunzenhauser, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health
L. Rowell Huesmann, University of Michigan
Nadine Kaslow, Emory University School of Medicine
Arthur L. Kellermann, RAND Corporation
Hyla S. Napadensky, Napadensky Energetics, Inc.
Charles H. Ramsey, Philadelphia Police Department
Robert J. Sampson, Harvard University
Donald Sebastian, New Jersey Institute of Technology
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Enriqueta C. Bond, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, and Johanna T. Dwyer, Tufts Medical Center. Appointed by the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the editors and the institution.
Scope of the Public Health Problem
Firearm-Related Violence as a Public Health Issue
Applying Public Health Strategies to Reducing Firearm Violence
Study Goals, Methods, and Organization of the Report
AN OVERARCHING ISSUE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND DATA
Impact of Existing Federal Restrictions on Firearm Violence Research
Data Quality, Accessibility, and Aggregation
Data to Assess Gun Acquisition and Storage
Data Fragmentation and Standardization
Research Methods and Challenges
CHARACTERISTICS OF FIREARM VIOLENCE
RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH FIREARM-RELATED VIOLENCE
FIREARM VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND OTHER INTERVENTIONS
Targeting Unauthorized Gun Possession or Use
Individual Risk and Protective Factors
Social, Physical, and Virtual Environmental Interventions
IMPACT OF GUN SAFETY TECHNOLOGY
Gun Technology Safety Features
Overview of Past and Ongoing Research on Gun Safety Technology
Challenges to Developing Gun Safety Technologies
Overview of Past and Ongoing Research on Media Violence and Violent Acts
Longer-Term Longitudinal Studies in Youth on Exposure to Media Violence
B Public Meeting and Workshop Agenda