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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18358.
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Index

[Page numbers followed by b, f, t, and n refer to boxed text, figures, tables, and footnotes, respectively.]

A

Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act, 146

Administration for Children and Families, 382, 394b

Adverse Childhood Experiences Study, 67-68, 91

Affordable Care Act, 167

Allegation of harm, 238-239

American Bar Association, 162, 214

Amtrak, 329-330

Anxiety disorders, 118, 119

Area Health Education Centers, 376

Arrest records, 44

Asian Health Services, 277-278, 283, 284, 287b, 308

Awareness and understanding of CSE

among health care providers, 102-103, 273-274, 276, 290-291

among support service providers, 261-262

among victims and at-risk children, 2, 20, 49, 52-53, 64, 124, 202, 376-377

barriers to interagency or multisector collaborations, 358

in child welfare services, 239-240

commercial sector initiatives to increase, 328-330

current shortcomings in, 6, 16, 19, 20, 374, 376, 386-387b

in education system, 103-104

efforts by nongovernmental

organizations to improve, 247-248

fact sheet for schools to enhance, 152-153, 310-311

federal programs for increasing, 152-153

objectives of, 7-8, 376

obstacles to, 2, 20

recommendations for increasing, 6, 374, 386-387b

role of commercial sector in promoting, 15b

role of nongovernmental organizations in promoting, 15b

stereotypes and misperceptions in, 275-276

See also Identification of CSE victims; Training

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18358.
×

B

Bar associations, 14b, 395b

Boys as victims of CSE, 10, 92-93, 110, 123, 144, 246-247, 261, 264, 380

Building Child Welfare Response to Child Trafficking Handbook, 240

Bullying, 300-302

Bureau of Justice Assistance, 45, 348-349, 376

C

Case management, 101, 238-239, 257-258, 258f, 264

Center for the Human Rights of the Children, 240

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 63, 382

Chicago Alliance Against Sexual

Exploitation, 248-249, 263, 310-311

Child abuse and maltreatment

in childhood histories of CSE offenders, 109, 110

CSE and, 32, 32f

as CSE risk factor, 80-84, 86, 91, 92, 93, 124, 381-382

data collection on, 68-69

health care system model of care for, 281

mandated reporting of CSE as, 278

mental health consequences of, 118

multisector and interagency approaches to intervention with, 341-344

physical health consequences, 117

public health approach to, 283-284

role of education sector in addressing, 299-305

state child welfare systems, 168-169

Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, 68, 151, 165

Child advocacy centers, 283, 342-344, 345b

Child Maltreatment Research, Policy, and Practice for the Next Decade, 72

Child Protection Act, 146

Child protection system, 99-101. See also

Child protective services; Child

welfare services

Child protective services, 239. See also Child protection system; Child welfare services

Child welfare services, 237-240, 278-279.

See also Child protection system;

Child protective services Children’s Health Care of Atlanta, 286

Children’s Health Insurance Program, 167-168

Civil lawsuits, 151-152, 190, 388b, 390b

Code of Conduct for the Protection of

Children from Sexual Exploitation

Travel and Tourism, 328, 329

Cognitive-behavioral therapy, 256

Cognitive impairment, 78-80, 89-90

Collaboration, interagency and multisector, 38, 338, 363-364

barriers to communication in, 360-361

child advocacy center model, 341-344, 345b

communication among support service providers, 262

family justice center model for, 345

federal efforts and investments in, 154-155, 346-351

funding for, 359-360

guidelines and technical assistance for, 11, 383-384

incentives for, 359

information sharing among law

enforcement agencies, 327-328

information-sharing tools for, 12, 362-363, 384-385, 392-393b

national strategy for, 187

Operation Cross Country, 201b

opportunities for improving current efforts, 357-363

outcomes research, 342-343, 346, 364

President’s Interagency Task Force to

Monitor and Combat Trafficking, 240-241

private sector in, 329

in prosecution of sex trafficking cases, 214, 218

range of potential participants in, 337, 339-340, 340b

rationale for, 5, 11, 337-339, 364, 373, 383

recommendations for, 11-12, 383-385, 391-393b

in rural and tribal community areas, 362

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18358.
×

sexual assault response team model, 346

shared understanding of CSE issues for, 358

state and local efforts, 351-357

structure and process for, 339, 340-341, 355f

for training, 357-358

Collective efficacy, 97

Colorado Network to End Human

Trafficking, 250

Commerce Clause, 144

Commercial sector

CSE offenders in, 324-326, 333

current efforts to combat CSE in, 323-324

definition, 323

laws to combat CSE applicable to, 330-333

research needs, 333

role in combating CSE, 15b, 37-38, 323, 326-330, 333-334, 396b

Commercial sexual exploitation of minors (CSE)

conceptual approach to study of, 3, 25-28, 371

consequences of, 1, 5, 19, 36-37, 77, 115-123, 372

crimes associated with, 1-2, 31

data sources on, 28-29, 41-47, 57-69, 72-73, 371-372, 372n

definitions and terminology for study of, 29-35, 48-49, 73

revenue generated by, 324-325

salient issues in study of, 4b

See also Awareness and understanding of CSE; Offenders, CSE; Prevalence and incidence; Prevention of CSE; Response to CSE; Sex trafficking of minors; Victims and survivors

Community-level risk factors, 96-99

Community Preventive Services Task Force, 298

Confidentiality, 166-167, 168

barriers to interagency or multisector collaboration, 358-359

challenges to CSE interventions in schools, 311-312

Congress, recommendations for, 13b, 394b

Consent

medical, 168

for sex, 145-146, 164

Continuum of care, 263

Cook County Human Trafficking Task Force, 347-348

Coordinated community response, 346

Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 11, 383-384, 391-392b

County-based interventions, 353-356

Courtney’s House, 245-246, 250

Crime statistics, 49-51, 56-63, 73, 210

Crimes Against Children Unit, FBI, 199

Criminal justice system

allegation of harm for CSE in child welfare services, 238-239

barriers to prosecution of trafficking cases, 214-215

challenges for law enforcement responding to CSE, 205-207

civil remedy provisions, 151-152, 388b, 390b

collaborative partnerships to prosecute CSE, 352-353

CSE case law, 215

current efforts for CSE prevention and response, 37

current law enforcement practices with offenders, 210-213, 227-228

data on CSE, 44, 56-63

deterrents to solicitation, 115

evolution of CSE law enforcement in, 208-209

evolution of CSE law in, 37, 144-146

federal law enforcement interaction with victims in, 198-201

federal law enforcement practices with offenders in, 210-212

federal laws and regulations addressing CSE, 143, 144-145, 146-155, 183-184, 185, 332-333

frequency of CSE prosecutions, 214, 215

identification of CSE victims in, 216

information-sharing tools, 362-363

interpretation and use of CSE laws, 172-183

judiciary programs for juveniles arrested for prostitution, 224-226

juvenile justice system, 162-163, 197, 221-223

law enforcement in commercial sector, 330-333

legal consequences of CSE, 122-123

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18358.
×

legal dependency, 168-169

legal representation for victims/survivors, 214-216

mandatory reporting laws, 25, 26-27b, 173-182, 278-279

“mistake of age” defense, 215-216

mistreatment of CSE victims in, 2, 8, 20, 24, 101-102, 120, 170, 184, 190, 202-203, 206-207

national strategy for CSE, 187

need for comprehensive resource for

CSE laws and programs, 149-150, 182-183, 188

obstacles to effective prevention and intervention in, 101

opportunities for improving interactions with CSE victims, 207-209

origins of CSE investigations, 205

promising interventions in, 186-187

prosecution of CSE crimes, 8-9, 216-221, 220b, 348, 378-379

prosecution of minors under prostitution laws, 8, 161-162, 190, 202, 206-207, 222-223, 224, 377-378, 387-388

recommendations for, 8-9, 13b, 377-379, 387-389b

review of CSE laws and policies in, 14b

role of, in responding to CSE, 143, 189, 197

scope of, 197

sources of evidence in CSE prosecutions, 206-207, 213, 218, 348, 378-379

specialized units for CSE investigation, 207-204

state law enforcement interaction with victims in, 202-205

state laws and regulations addressing CSE, 143, 145-146, 155-172

strengths and limitations of current legal framework, 183-186, 187-190

training of personnel in, 101, 185, 204, 207-208, 212, 216, 217b, 228

CSE. See Commercial sexual exploitation of minors

Cultural and societal norms, 104-105, 112-113

sexualization of young girls, 325-326

Cyber Tipline, 200b

D

Dallas High-Risk Victims Working Group, 345b, 360

Data collection and information management, 13b, 14-15b

barriers to interagency or multisector collaboration, 12, 358-359, 384

complications of mandated reporting, 278-279

current shortcomings, 12, 184-185, 380, 384

evaluation of support services, 253-254

on federal training efforts, 185

to identify financial behavior of offenders, 327

Innocence Lost database, 200-201

mandatory reporting, 25, 26-27b, 165-167, 173-182, 239

offender database for law enforcement agencies, 327-328

private efforts to help anti-trafficking organizations, 251

recommendations for information-sharing platform, 12, 384-385, 392-393b

tools for multisector collaboration, 362-363

See also Prevalence and incidence

Dating violence, 302-305

Definitions of key terms, 29-35

Demand for CSE, 5, 9, 10, 14b, 373, 378, 382

Department of Agriculture, 240

Department of Defense, 154, 240

Department of Education, 154, 240, 310

recommendations for, 6, 9, 374, 380, 386b, 389b

research activities in, 9

role in training and increasing awareness, 7, 152-153, 375, 376, 377

Department of Health and Human Services, 9, 240, 289, 382

recommendations for, 6, 9, 374, 380, 386b, 389b

role in training and increasing awareness, 7, 8, 152, 375, 376, 377

support programs of, 150, 151, 153-154, 241, 242, 249

Department of Homeland Security, 154, 208, 240, 329-330, 363, 382

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18358.
×

Department of Interior, 240

Department of Justice, 152, 154-155, 211-212, 240, 252, 339, 376, 382

Office for Victims of Crime, 150, 184, 242, 254, 339, 348-350, 376

Office of Justice Programs, 348-349

recommendations for, 6, 9, 374, 380, 386b, 389b

research activities in, 9

task forces funded by, 347-350

See also Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

Department of Labor, 154, 240, 243

Department of State, 152, 154, 240

Department of Transportation, 240, 329-330

Dependency, legal, 168-169

Depression, 89, 118

Deterrence, 9, 226-227, 229, 378, 388b

Development, child and adolescent

adversity experiences in, 91-92

cognitive, 89-90

consequences of CSE in, 119

considerations of, in juvenile justice system, 162-163

cultural and societal influences in, 104-105

early pubertal maturation, 90-91

effects of trauma exposure, 255-256

life course approach to CSE interventions in schools, 312

onset of sexual activity, 82

risk factors for CSE in, 78, 84-85, 124

sexualization of young girls, 104-105, 124, 325-326

Directory of Technical Assistance for Anti-Human Trafficking Task Forces and Service Providers, 376

Disability, 90

Disrupted transitions/development, 84-85

Domestic Minor Demonstration Project, 350

Domestic Trafficking in Persons, 13b

Domestic violence, 94, 109, 121, 208-209, 255-256, 277-278, 281, 345

E

ECPAT-USA, 248. See also End Child Prostitution and Trafficking-United States of America

Education sector

alternative schools and programs, 314-316

challenges in addressing CSE in, 311-312

CSE training for employees of, 104, 312-314, 317

current programs for CSE recognition and intervention in, 103-104, 157, 298, 307-311

health care delivery in, 298, 313-314

opportunities for CSE prevention and intervention in, 297-298, 312-316

prevention of CSE in, 306, 307b role in combating CSE, 14b, 37, 305-306, 317

role in preventing and addressing child abuse and violence, 299-305

safe practice in, 104

school policies and protocols to combat CSE, 306

sexual health education programs, 311

student role in CSE intervention in, 316

Empowering Young Men to End Sexual Exploitation, 310-311

End Child Prostitution and Trafficking-United States of America, 328. See also ECPAT-USA

Enhanced Collaborative Model to Combat Human Trafficking, 348

Evidence-based Mental Health Treatment for Victims of Human Trafficking, 289

Executive Orders regarding CSE, 146, 153, 155, 332

F

Facilitators of CSE, 35

Family and Youth Services Bureau, 154

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, 358-359

Family justice centers, 345

Family-level risk factors, 93-95, 109

Family Planning Program, 166-167, 168

Federal Bureau of Investigation, 44, 45, 58, 198-201

Federal Education Records Protection Act, 311-312

Federal Trade Commission, 154

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18358.
×

Financial sector interventions, 327, 329

Foster care, 86, 87-88, 100, 167, 169. See also Systems-involved youth

Foundations and philanthropic organizations, 251-252, 396b

G

Gangs, 96, 97, 109, 325

Georgia Care Connection, 243, 357

Georgia Demand Study, 114

Girls Educational and Mentoring Services (GEMS), 225, 245, 249, 259

Global Business Coalition Against Trafficking, 330

Global Oversight Analysis Linking Systems, 308

Google, 251

Grossmont Union High School District, 307-308, 309f

H

Health care professionals

barriers to CSE training for, 276-277

barriers to reporting of CSE by, 274-275

current training programs for, 285-286, 376

mandatory reporting laws for, 166-167, 278-279

misperceptions of CSE victims by, 275-276

opportunities for intervention with CSE victims, 271-273

recognition of CSE in health care

settings, 103, 273-277

in school system, 298, 313-314

tools for CSE victim identification, 287-288, 287b

training needs of, 273-275, 290-291

See also Health care system

Health care system, 37

barriers to access and utilization, 120, 166, 167

confidentiality in, 166-167, 168

current CSE victim utilization of, 272

medical consequences of CSE, 116-118, 288, 289

minor consent considerations in, 168

models of care relevant to CSE in, 281-285, 291

nondisclosure by CSE victims in, 277-278

policies and protocols for responding to CSE, 279-280

research needs, 291

risk factors for CSE victims in, 102-103

screening for CSE in, 279-280, 282, 287b, 288

shortcomings of current CSE response in, 290-291

telemedicine technology, 285

trauma-informed approaches, 255-257, 288, 289

treatment of CSE victims in, 288-290

See also Health care professionals

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, 168, 358-359

Health Resources and Services Administration, 376

H.E.A.T. (Human Exploitation and Trafficking) Watch Program, 218, 352-353, 360-361

Helping Women Recover, 256-257

HIV, 117-118

Homeless youth, 10, 66-67, 78, 85-87, 88, 120, 121-122, 153-154, 164, 380.

See also Vulnerable populations

Hotels, 323, 325, 328

Hotlines, 249-251, 329

Houston Rescue and Restore Coalition, 286

Human trafficking

data collection on, 58, 60

specialized law enforcement units for investigating, 203-204

state laws against, 157-160

Human Trafficking Initiative (Chicago), 218

Human Trafficking Reporting System, 45-46

I

Identification of CSE victims, 44-45

avoidance of harm in, 3, 26

in health care system, 273-276, 279-280

lack of disclosure by CSE victims and, 277-278

law enforcement practices in, 206, 208

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18358.
×

opportunities in education sector for, 297

research needs, 382

screening policies and protocols for, 279-280, 287b, 288

shortcomings of current efforts, 5, 372

software for identifying pornography, 326-327

stereotyped thinking as barrier to, 275-276

tools for health care professionals, 287-288, 287b

training of school nurses for, 313-314

Illinois Safe Children Act, 238, 240, 348, 378

Information management. See Data collection and information management

Innocence Lost National Initiative, 45, 199-201, 201b

Innocent Images National Initiative Unit, 199

Innovation Awards to Stop Human Trafficking, 252

Institute of Education Sciences, 14b, 395b

Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility, 329

International Organization for Adolescents, 240, 287b, 347

International sex trafficking, 24

Internet. See Online and digital technologies

Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force Program, 153, 199, 211-212

Interpersonal relationships, consequences of CSE in, 119

Intervention. See Response to CSE

J

Johns, 34

JPMorgan Chase, 327

Justice Appropriations Act, 211

Juvenile delinquency laws, 162-163

Juvenile justice system, 162-163, 197, 221-223, 223b

K

Kristi House, 344, 360

L

La Strada International, 251

Labor trafficking, 24

Larkin Street Youth Services, 246-247

Law enforcement. See Criminal justice system

Learning disabilities, 90

LexisNexis, 327-328

LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth, 10, 78, 88-89, 246-247, 380. See also Vulnerable populations

Liberty Asia, 251

LIFESKILLS, 253

Locus of control, 89

Los Angeles County STAR Court, 225-226

M

Mail order bride trade, 31

Mandatory reporting, 25, 26-27b, 165-167, 173-182, 239

complications of, 278-279

Mann Act. See White Slave Traffic (Mann) Act

Measurement, 47-55, 70-71, 73, 380

Measuring Rape and Sexual Assault in Bureau of Justice Statistics Household Surveys, 72

Media portrayals of sex and violence, 105, 323, 325-326, 330

Medicaid, 167-168

Memorandum on Steps to Combat Violence against Women and Trafficking in Women and Girls, 144

Mental health

consequences of adolescent dating violence, 303

consequences of CSE, 116, 118-119, 288, 289-290

risk factors for CSE, 81-82, 89-90

trauma-informed approaches to care, 255-257

Microsoft, 326-327

Midtown Community Court Services to Access Resources and Safety (STARS) Program, 224-225

Minority youth, 10, 105, 206, 380. See also Vulnerable populations

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18358.
×

Motivating, Inspiring, Supporting, and Serving Sexually Exploited Youth, 245

Mount Sinai Sexual Assault and Violence Intervention, 259-260, 282

Multnomah County, Oregon, 353-354, 354f, 360

My Life, My Choice, 244, 249

N

National Association of Attorneys General, 214

National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, 104, 199, 200b, 327

National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, 68-69

National Crime Survey, 52

National Crime Victimization Survey, 50, 51, 52, 56, 62-63, 73

National District Attorneys Association, 214

National Human Trafficking Resource Center, 153, 247-248, 249-250, 287b, 329

National ICAC Task Force Program, 211-212

National Incident-Based Reporting System, 50n, 59-60, 61-62, 73

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 13b, 382, 394b

National Institute of Justice, 14b, 253, 395b National Institute of Mental Health, 13b, 382, 394b

National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 64-66

National Strategy for Child Exploitation Prevention and Interdiction, 155, 185, 187

Native Americans, 156, 361-362

Neighborhood-level risk factors for CSE, 96-99

Nongovernmental organizations, 15b, 243-251, 396b

O

Oakland High School Wellness Center, 308-310

Offenders, CSE, 5

characteristics of solicitors, 111-115

civil lawsuits against, 151-152, 190

in commercial sector, 324-326

criminal statues targeting, 147-149

current law enforcement practice with, 210-213

definitions and terminology for study of, 34-35

demographic characteristics, 108

deterrence, 226-227, 229

facilitators and, 35

financial footprints of, 327

frequency of prosecution of, 214

peer relationships among, 96

penalties, 1, 145, 147, 158-159, 161, 165, 186, 210, 219-220, 226, 331, 379

percentage of men purchasing sex, 111

preventive interventions with, 111

prosecution of, 216-221, 220b

recommendations for legal treatment of, 8-9, 378-379, 388-389b

research needs, 190

review of laws and policies applicable to, 14b, 389b

sources of evidence against, 213, 378-379

wiretapping of, 213

women as, 108

See also Risk factors for offenders

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 3, 15b, 21, 185, 211, 382, 385, 392-393b

role in information management, 12, 385

role in training and increasing awareness, 7, 245, 375, 377

Office of Safe and Healthy Schools, 14b, 395b

Office of Safe and Healthy Students, 310

Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking, 152

Online and digital technologies

Internet-facilitated CSE, 47, 106b

law enforcement efforts in, 199, 200b, 210, 211-212

risk and protective factors in, 105, 106-107b, 125, 325

software for identifying pornography, 326-327

training for law enforcement on, 208

Operation Cross Country, 201 b

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18358.
×

P

Partnership for Freedom, 252

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 167

Peer relationships as risk factors for CSE, 95-96

Phoenix Project, 362

PhotoDNA, 326-327

Pimp, 34, 109-110

Polaris Project, 153, 208, 245, 247-248, 251, 286

Pornography, 24, 145

software for identifying, 326-327

Postal Inspection Office, 154

Posttraumatic stress disorder, 81, 118

Poverty, 97-98

President’s Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking, 240-242, 350-351

President’s Interagency Trafficking Task Force, 155

Prevalence and incidence, 25, 36

challenges in estimating, 2, 41, 47-57, 71

current data on, 41-47, 57-69, 72-73, 184-185

need for data on, 10, 71-72, 74, 380

percentage of men purchasing sex, 111

perceptions of police agencies on, 203, 206

strategies for working with current data on, 70-71

Prevention of CSE

adaptation of child advocacy center model for, 345b

current efforts for, 37, 147, 188

current shortcomings of efforts for, 5, 372

curriculum for at-risk individuals, 244

federal programs for, 152-154

intervention with potential offenders for, 111, 113-114, 115

monitoring of effectiveness of efforts for, 14-15b

multiagency and interagency coordination for, 5, 154-155

nongovernmental organizations in, 248-249

opportunities in health care settings for, 271-273

recommendations for research on, 9, 13b

research needs in, 9, 10

rewards for innovation in, 252

role of commercial sector in, 326

role of education system in, 306, 307b

role of legal system in, 143

state laws and programs for, 155-172

See also Deterrence

Private sector. See Commercial sector

Project Safe Childhood Initiative, 199, 211-212

Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to End the Exploitation of Children Today Act, 146

Prostitution and sex work, 24, 31, 34, 41

characteristics of solicitors, 111-113

health consequences of, 116, 120

judiciary programs for juveniles arrested for, 224-226

prosecution of minors for, 8, 33-34, 146, 161-162, 190, 202, 206-207, 222-223, 224, 377-378, 387-388b

risk factors for, 80, 83, 93, 95, 99

state laws on, 145, 146, 160-162, 189

Protective factors, 10, 83-84

family-level, 94

neighborhood-level, 96, 97, 98

online and digital technologies as, 107b

peer-level, 95

in schools, 103

Providing Resources, Officers, and Technology to Eradicate Cyber Threats (PROTECT) Our Children Act, 145, 146, 155, 211-212

Psychosocial functioning. See Mental health

Public health approach to CSE, 283-284

Q

Queens County Prostitution Diversion Court, 225

R

Race/ethnicity. See Minority youth Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization (RICO) Act, 219-220

Rape, 25, 145-146, 164-165, 303

Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools, 310

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18358.
×

Recommendations

for collaboration in response to CSE, 11-12, 383-385, 391-393b

goals of, 5, 373

implementation strategies for, 13-15b, 394-396b

to increase awareness and understanding of CSE, 6, 374

for information-sharing platform, 12, 385, 393b

for legal treatment of offenders, 8-9, 378-379, 388-389b

for research, 9, 380-382, 389-391b

resources for implementation of, 5-6, 373-374

scope of, 4b, 22b, 38, 372

for treatment of victims and survivors, 8, 387-388b

Reconnecting Homeless Youth Act, 66

Regional Information Sharing systems Program, 363

Reproductive health, 117-118

Rescue and Restore Campaign, 152, 185, 287b

Research

on causes and prevention of CSE, 13b

on commercial-sector initiatives, 333

with CSE offenders, 108, 111, 113, 115

on CSE reporting laws, 173-182

on current prevention and response system, 189

current shortcomings in CSE knowledge base, 9, 10, 20-21, 28, 29, 123, 371

on demand reduction, 14b

on deterrents to CSE offenders, 227, 229

goals for, 2-3, 19-20, 21, 22b

on health care role in CSE prevention and treatment, 291

on health consequences of CSE, 288-290

institutional support for, 395b

priority areas for, 10, 381

publication and dissemination of, 10, 382

recommendations for, 9, 380-382, 389-391b

on risk factors for minority youth, 105

on safe harbor laws, 186-187

on support services, 189, 265

terminology for, 29-35

on training initiatives, 185

on vulnerable populations, 10, 380

Reservations and tribal lands, 156

Response to CSE

complications of mandated reporting, 278-279

current shortcomings in, 5, 372, 373

federal programs for early intervention, 153

in health care system, 102-103, 281-291

monitoring of effectiveness of, 14-15b, 185

national strategy for, 187

need for collaborative approaches in, 5, 11-12, 154-155, 373

need for information-sharing platforms in, 12

promising legal interventions, 186-187

recommendations for research on, 9, 10, 380, 381

research needs in, 9, 10, 20-21, 189, 380, 381-382

strategies for implementing recommendations to enhance, 13b

underserved areas, 361-362

See also Collaboration, interagency and multisector; Criminal justice system; Education sector; Support services

Risk factors for offenders

characteristics of solicitors, 111-115

in cultural and societal norms, 112-113

purchasers/solicitors, 107-108, 111-115

research challenges, 108

traffickers, 106-107, 108-111

Risk factors for victims, 123-125

chronic CSE involvement, 120-122

in cultural and societal norms, 104-105

early adversity experiences as, 91-92

ecological model of, 78, 79f

family-level, 93-95

individual-level, 78-93

interaction among, 78

minority status as, 105

neighborhood-level, 96-99

online and digital technologies as, 106-107b

peer-and extrafamilial-level, 95-96

research needs on, 381-382

scope of, 77-78

socioeconomic, 94-95, 97-98

systems-level, 99-103

See also Vulnerable populations

Risk-taking behavior, 81

Role models, 96

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18358.
×

Runaway and Homeless Youth Management Information System, 66-67, 71

Runaway youth, 81, 85-86, 93, 96, 121, 163-164

Rural youth, 10, 361-362, 380. See also Vulnerable populations

S

Safe harbor laws, 146, 170-172, 174-183t, 184, 186-187

Safe Horizon, 350

Safer Choices, 316

Salvation Army, 212-213, 246, 250, 347, 350

Sampling, 53-55

Screening for CSE, 279-280, 282, 287b, 288

Self-esteem, 89, 118

Series victimization, 51

Services to Access Resources and Safety (STARS) program, 224-225

Sex tourism, 31, 144, 328

Sex trafficking of minors

data sources, 58-59, 60

terminology for study of, 30

See also Commercial sexual exploitation of minors

Sexual assault interagency councils, 346

Sexual assault multidisciplinary response teams, 346

Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner, 281-282

Sexual assault response teams, 283, 346

Sexual Exploitation of Children Community Intervention Project, 245

Sexual health education, 311

Sexualization of young girls, 104-105, 124, 325-326

Sexually-transmitted disease, 103, 117-118, 122

Shared Hope International, 245, 247

Social-ecological approach, 78, 79f, 381

Socially responsible investing, 329

Socioeconomic status, 94-95, 97-98

Standing Against Global Exploitation, 245, 350

States, U.S.

anti-human trafficking laws of, 157-160

anti-prostitution laws of, 160-162

child welfare agencies in, 168-169, 237-240

collaborative partnerships sponsored by, 356-357

data collection on CSE by, 46-47

federal support for law enforcement efforts of, 211-212

health care provisions for CSE youth in, 167-168

juvenile delinquency laws of, 162-163

law enforcement practices with CSE offenders, 212-213

law enforcement practices with CSE victims, 202-205

laws and regulations addressing CSE, 143, 145-146, 155-156, 188-189

mandatory reporting laws, 165-167, 174-183t

model antitrafficking law, 155

prosecution of cross-border CSE, 173

recommendations for, 13b, 394b

safe harbor provisions in CSE laws, 170-172, 174-183t, 184, 186-187

status offenses, 163-164

strengths and limitations of current legal framework, 184, 185-186

victim and support services in, 243

Status offenses, 163-164

Statutory rape, 145-146, 164-165

Stereotyped thinking, 275-276

Stockholm syndrome, 288

STOP-IT Program, 212-213, 246, 250, 347

Street Outreach Program, 153-154

Stripping, 31

Substance use and abuse, 82, 86, 89, 92, 118, 119, 124

Succeed Through Achievement and Resilience (STAR) Court, 225-226

Suffolk County, Massachusetts, 354-356, 355f

Suicidal ideation and behavior, 118-119

Summary Reporting System, 57

Supplemental Homicide Reports, 59, 61

Support services, 37

awareness of CSE among providers of, 261-262

case management, 101, 238-239, 257-258, 258f, 264

challenges for professionals in, 235-236

challenges in conducting research in, 253-254

challenges in delivery of, 185

child welfare, 237-240

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18358.
×

comprehensive continuum of care, 263

comprehensive listing of resources for, 12, 149-150, 182-183, 188, 241, 384

CSE risk factors in, 99-101

current performance evaluations, 253-254

data sources, 237

effects of CSE on access and utilization of, 120

federal requirements and resources for, 149-152, 240-243

foundations and philanthropic organizations in, 251-252, 396b

hotlines and help lines, 249-251

information sharing and communication among providers of, 262

lessons from related fields, 259-260

monitoring of effectiveness of, 14-15b, 185

needs of special populations, 261

nongovernmental organizations providing, 243-251

provisions in state CSE laws for, 159-160

research needs, 189, 265, 390-391b

research on approaches to service delivery, 254-260

risk of vicarious victimization among providers of, 262, 265

scope of providers and programs, 235, 236

shelter and housing, 260-261, 264

shortcomings of current system of, 183-186, 188-189, 260-263, 264, 265

social welfare services for CSE youth, 170, 245-247

state child welfare agencies, 168-169

statewide coordinated care approach to, 243

survivor-led/-informed approaches, 258-259

training programs for professionals in, 245, 261-262

trauma-informed care, 255-257, 264

underserved areas, 361-362

Support to End Exploitation Now (SEEN) Coalition, 216, 218, 354-356, 355f, 360-361

Survival sex, 31-32, 86, 120

Survivor-led/-informed approaches to service delivery, 258-259

Systems-involved youth, 10, 78, 87-88, 380

systems-level risk factors for CSE, 99-102

See also Vulnerable populations

T

Telehealth, 285

Tourism Child-Protection Code of Conduct, 248

Tourism industry, 328

Trafficking in Persons Report, 152

Trafficking Victims Protection Act, 42, 122, 144-145, 146, 151, 155, 172, 211, 219, 226, 228, 240, 242, 243, 346, 389b

Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act, 57, 60, 332-333, 350, 351

Training

audiences for, 7, 375

for child welfare professionals, 240

current efforts at, 6, 187, 374

current health care system, 285-286

for health care professionals, 273-275, 276-277, 290-291, 376

implementation strategies for, 7, 375-376

interagency or multisector collaboration for, 357-358

for law enforcement and criminal justice personnel, 101, 185, 204, 207-208, 212, 216, 217b, 228

leadership and oversight of, 7

opportunities for improving, in law enforcement, 207-208

rationale, 6, 374

to recognize victims of CSE, 216

recommendations for, 6, 374

research needs, 185

resources for, in health care system, 276-277

for school personnel, 104, 312-314, 317

for support service professionals, 245, 261-262

Transparency in Supply Chains Act (California), 331

Transportation industry, 329-330, 331-332

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18358.
×

Trauma-informed care, 255, 264, 288, 289

Truckers Against Human Trafficking, 329

Trucking industry, 329

U

Undocumented residents, 23, 149

Uniform Crime Reporting, 44, 50-51, 57-59, 61, 73

U.S. Domestic Notification Pilot Program, 150

U.S. Probation Office, 154

V

Vicarious trauma/victimization, 262, 265

Victim, Survivor, Leader, 245

Victim services. See Support services

Victims and survivors

age classification in research on, 23-24, 33, 64

boys as, 10, 92-93, 110, 123, 144, 246-247, 261, 264, 380

citizenship classification in research on, 21-23

civil remedies available to, 151-152

cooperation with authorities, 49, 56-57, 101, 202, 204, 206

fear of disclosure in health care settings, 277-278

federal protection of and assistance to, 149-152

hotlines and help lines for, 249-251

legal representation for, in prosecution of offenders, 214-216

opportunities for improving law enforcement interaction with, 207-209

perception and treatment of, in criminal justice system, 2, 8, 20, 24, 101-102, 120, 170, 186, 188, 190, 202-203

protections in state laws for, 159-160

recommendations for treatment of, 8, 377-378, 386b, 387b

self-awareness of, as victim, 2, 20, 49, 52-53, 64, 124, 202, 376-377

special challenges for, 2

terminology in study of, 30, 33-34, 49

trauma research with, 20

treatment in juvenile justice system, 164, 387-388b

See also Prevalence and incidence; Risk factors for victims; Support services

Violence Against Women Act, 122

Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, 144

Vulnerable populations, 13b

estimates of, 42-43

federal programs for intervention with, 153-154

research needs, 10, 380

supportive service providers for, 246-247

types of, 2, 10, 20, 78-80, 124

W

Washington State Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking protocol, 356-357

White Slave Traffic (Mann) Act, 144, 148, 149, 219

William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act. See Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act

Wiretapping, 213, 378

Women’s Foundation of Minnesota, 251-252

World Congress Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, 115

Y

Youth Risk Behavior Study, 63-64, 71

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18358.
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Every day in the United States, children and adolescents are victims of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking. Despite the serious and long-term consequences for victims as well as their families, communities, and society, efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to these crimes are largely under supported, inefficient, uncoordinated, and unevaluated.

Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States examines commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents of the United States under age 18. According to this report, efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to these crimes require better collaborative approaches that build upon the capabilities of people and entities from a range of sectors. In addition, such efforts need to confront demand and the individuals who commit and benefit from these crimes. The report recommends increased awareness and understanding, strengthening of the law's response, strengthening of research to advance understanding and to support the development of prevention and intervention strategies, support for multi-sector and interagency collaboration, and creation of a digital information-sharing platform.

A nation that is unaware of these problems or disengaged from solutions unwittingly contributes to the ongoing abuse of minors. If acted upon in a coordinated and comprehensive manner, the recommendations of Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States can help advance and strengthen the nation's emerging efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States.

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