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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18398.
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Establishing Transdisciplinary
Professionalism for Improving
Health Outcomes

Workshop Summary

Patricia A. Cuff, Rapporteur

Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education

Board on Global Health

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE

                OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18398.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The workshop that is the subject of this workshop summary was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This activity was supported by contracts between the Academic Consortium for Complementary and Alternative Health Care, the Academic Council of the American Physical Therapy Association, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Accreditation Council Graduate for Medical Education, the Aetna Foundation, the Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American Academy of Nursing, the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, the American Board of Family Medicine, the American Board of Internal Medicine, the American College of Nurse-Midwives, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists/American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the American Dental Education Association, the American Medical Association, the American Occupational Therapy Association, the American Psychological Association, the American Society for Nutrition, the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, the Association of American Medical Colleges, the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, the Association of Schools of the Allied Health Professions, the Atlantic Philanthropies, the China Medical Board, the Council of Academic Programs in Communication Sciences and Disorders, Ghent University/European Forum for Primary Care, the John A. Hartford Foundation, the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation, Kaiser Permanente, the National Academies of Practice, the National Association of Social Workers, the National Board for Certified Counselors, Inc. and Affiliates, the National League for Nursing, the National Organization of Associate Degree Nursing, the Physician Assistant Education Association, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Society for Simulation in Healthcare, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and the Veterans Health Administration. The views presented in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the activity.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-28901-6
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-28901-7

Additional copies of this workshop summary are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu.

Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2014. Establishing transdisciplinary professionalism for improving health outcomes: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18398.
×

“Knowing is not enough; we must apply.
Willing is not enough; we must do.”

—Goethe

image

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE

                  OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advising the Nation. Improving Health.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18398.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18398.
×

PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR ESTABLISHING TRANSDISCIPLINARY PROFESSIONALISM FOR HEALTH1

CYNTHIA D. BELAR (Co-Chair), American Psychological Association

MATTHEW K. WYNIA (Co-Chair), American Medical Association

ELIZABETH (LIZA) GOLDBLATT, Academic Consortium for Complementary and Alternative Health Care

NANCY P. HANRAHAN, University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing

SANDEEP KISHORE, Weill Cornell Medical College and Harvard Medical School

SALLY OKUN, PatientsLikeMe

RICHARD (RICK) TALBOTT, Association of Schools of the Allied Health Professions

RICHARD (RICK) W. VALACHOVIC, American Dental Education Association

________________

1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18398.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18398.
×

GLOBAL FORUM ON INNOVATION IN HEALTH PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION1

JORDAN COHEN (Co-Chair), George Washington University

AFAF MELEIS (Co-Chair), University of Pennsylvania

KENN APEL, Council of Academic Programs in Communication Sciences and Disorders

CAROL ASCSCHENBRENER, Association of American Medical Colleges

GILLIAN BARCLAY, Aetna Foundation

MARY BARGER, American College of Nurse-Midwives

TIMI AGAR BARWICK, Physician Assistant Education Association

GERALDINE BEDNASH, American Association of Colleges of Nursing

CYNTHIA BELAR, American Psychological Association

JOANNA CAIN, University of Massachusetts School of Medicine

LINDA CASSER, Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry

LINCOLN CHEN, China Medical Board

YUANFANG CHEN, Peking Union Medical College

MARILYN CHOW, Kaiser Permanente

ELIZABETH CLARK, National Association of Social Workers

THOMAS CLAWSON, National Board for Certified Counselors, Inc. and Affiliates

DARLA SPENCE COFFEY, Council on Social Work Education

MALCOLM COX, Veterans Health Administration

JAN DE MAESENEER, Ghent University

MARIETJIE DE VILLIERS, Stellenbosch University

JAMES G. FOX, Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges

ROGER GLASS, John E. Fogarty International Center

ELIZABETH (LIZA) GOLDBLATT, Academic Consortium for Complementary and Alternative Health Care

YUANZHI GUAN, Peking Union Medical College

NEIL HARVISON, American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

DOUGLAS HEIMBURGER, American Society for Nutrition

JOHN HERBOLD, National Academies of Practice

ERIC HOLMBOE, American Board of Internal Medicine

PAMELA JEFFRIES, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing

RICK KELLERMAN, American Academy of Family Physicians

KATHRYN KOLASA, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

JOHN (JACK) KUES, Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions

MARYJOAN LADDEN, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

________________

1 Institute of Medicine forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18398.
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LUCINDA MAINE, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy

BEVERLY MALONE, National League for Nursing

MARY E. (BETH) MANCINI, Society for Simulation in Healthcare

DAMON MARQUIS, Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions (until July 2013)

LEMMIETTA G. MCNEILLY, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

DONNA MEYER, National Organization of Associate Degree Nursing

FITZHUGH MULLAN, George Washington University

THOMAS NASCA, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education

ANDRE-JACQUES NEUSY, THEnet

WARREN NEWTON, American Board of Family Medicine

KELLY WILTSE NICELY, American Association of Nurse Anesthetists

LIANA ORSOLINI, Bon Secours Health System, Inc.

RAJATA RAJATANAVIN, Mahidol University

SCOTT REEVES, University of California, San Francisco

EDWARD SALSBERG, Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (until September 2013)

MADELINE SCHMITT, American Academy of Nursing

NELSON SEWANKAMBO, Makerere University College of Health Sciences

STEPHEN SHANNON, American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine

SUSAN SKOCHELAK, American Medical Association

HARRISON SPENCER, Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health

RICHARD (RICK) TALBOTT, Association of Schools of the Allied Health Professions

GEORGE THIBAULT, Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation

JAN TOWERS, American Academy of Nurse Practitioners

RICHARD (RICKCK) W. VALACHOVIC, American Dental Education Association

SARITA VERMA, University of Toronto

PATRICIA HINTON WALKER, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

SHANITA WILLIAMS, Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

HOLLY WISE, Academic Council of the American Physical Therapy Association

BRENDA ZIERLER, University of Washington

SANJAY ZODPEY, Public Health Foundation of India

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18398.
×

IOM Staff

PATRICIA A. CUFF, Senior Program Officer

RACHEL M. TAYLOR, Associate Program Officer

MEGAN M. PEREZ, Research Associate

AUDREY AVILA, Intern

NIKITA SRINIVASAN, Intern

CHRISTEN WOODS, Intern

JULIE WILTSHIRE, Financial Officer

PATRICK W. KELLEY, Senior Board Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18398.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18398.
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Reviewers

This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published workshop summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop summary:

MARTHA N. HILL, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing

MAXINE PAPADAKIS, University of California, San Francisco

JOHN WEEKS, Academic Consortium for Complementary and Alternative Health Care

CHRISTINE S. ZAMBRICKI, American Association of Nurse Anesthetists

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by CAROL PEARL HERBERT, University of Western Ontario. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this workshop summary rests entirely with the rapporteur and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18398.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18398.
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Acknowledgments

A landmark event for the Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education took place in Washington, DC, with the first gathering of the forum members in early 2012. At this meeting, members discussed how they might begin to consider addressing some of the challenges highlighted in the two reports that laid the foundation for the work of the forum. One of these was an independent Lancet Commission report led by Julio Frenk and Lincoln Chen titled Health Professionals for a New Century: Transforming Education to Strengthen Health Systems in an Interdependent World. The other was a report of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) titled The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. Both the Lancet Commission and the IOM reports provide a high-level vision for the health professions around the world.

Some of the discussions at that first forum meeting were to consider how this group, made up of multiple health professionals representing education and practice from different sectors and drawn from four continents, might come together in deciding on what topics the forum is best positioned to address. An agreement was reached to focus the first year on interprofessional education (IPE). IPE was a particularly appropriate topic given that four members from Canada, India, South Africa, and Uganda were brought into the forum specifically because of their interprofessional work addressing leadership and professionalism—topics that received considerable attention in the Lancet Commission and The Future of Nursing reports.

Forum members came together twice in 2012 to attend workshops on IPE hosted by the Global Forum. Presentations at these events highlighted the importance of working together for improved safety and quality of

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18398.
×

health care, as well as the importance of collaboration for improving the health of communities and populations. How students and faculty acquire these skills was a key part of the discussions. Discussions also set the stage for the next workshop by grappling with whether health professionals could come together in a unified manner to engage in public discourse with society about the important topic of professionalism.

This workshop stimulated many unique ideas of how society and the health professions might work toward a unified goal and who might lead such an auspicious undertaking. As co-chairs of the forum, we are grateful to all who made this event a resounding success. These include the workshop planning committee co-chairs, Cynthia Belar and Matthew Wynia, along with the planning committee members: Liza Goldblatt, Nancy Hanrahan, Sandeep Kishore, Sally Okun, Rick Talbott, and Rick Valachovic. It goes without saying that the workshop would not have been possible without the adept skills of the IOM staff—Patricia Cuff, forum director; Rachel Taylor, associate program officer; and Megan Perez, research associate. And special thanks go to Patrick Kelley for his leadership in directing the IOM’s Board on Global Health, which oversees the Global Forum. Finally, we are deeply indebted to our 45 sponsors and 60 members of the Global Forum for making it possible to hold workshops like the one on establishing a new professionalism.

Jordan Cohen, Forum Co-Chair
Afaf Meleis, Forum Co-Chair

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18398.
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Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes is a summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education to explore the possibility of whether different professions can come together and whether a dialogue with society on professionalism is possible. Most of the 59 members making up the Global Forum were present at the workshop and engaged with outside participants in active dialogue around issues related to professionalism and how the different professions might work effectively together and with society in creating a social contract. The structure of the workshop involved large plenary discussions, facilitated table conversations, and small-group breakout sessions. In this way, the members - representing multiple sectors, countries, health professions, and educational associations - had numerous opportunities to share their own perspectives on transdisciplinary professionalism as well as hear the opinions of subject matter experts and the general public.

Efforts to improve patient care and population health are traditional tenets of all the health professions, as is a focus on professionalism. But in a time of rapidly changing environments and evolving technologies, health professionals and those who train them are being challenged to work beyond their traditional comfort zones, often in teams. A new professionalism might be a mechanism for achieving improved health outcomes by applying a transdisciplinary professionalism throughout health care and wellness that emphasizes crossdisciplinary responsibilities and accountability. Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving Health Outcomes discusses how shared understanding can be integrated into education and practice, ethical implications of and barriers to transdisciplinary professionalism, and the impact of an evolving professional context on patients, students, and others working within the health care system.

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