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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1986. More and Better Food: An Egyptian Demonstration Project. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18455.
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REFERENCE COPY FOR LIDRARV USE Cf.'LY More and better Food AN EGYPTIAN DEMONSTRATION PROJECT A.S. ELNOCKRASHY Academy of Scientific Research and Technology Cairo, Egypt OSMAN GALAL Institute of Nutrition Ministry of Health Cairo, Egypt 7B &^~ JAY DAVENPORT Board on Science and Technology for International Development National Research Council Washington, D.C., USA NAS-NAE SEP 41986 LIBRARY

9017 ,63 NOTICE: The More and Better Food Demonstration Project in Egypt, which is the subject of this report, is the product of multidisciplinary and multi-institutional col- laboration among many Egyptian workers and institutions, with the National Research Centre (Dokki, Cairo) taking the leadership role. The project was a major component of the Applied Science and Technology Research Program, a collaborative activity in science and technology for development supported by the Government of Egypt and the United States Agency for International Development during the years 1977-1986. The report is a case study of agricultura1, nutri- tion, and health interventions in three Egyptian vil- lages; it was written to inform an interested audience of development specialists, administrators, and others concerned with the role of science and technology in socioeconomic development. The report is a product of the authors and does not necessarily represent the opinions of the sponsors or of the collaborating insti- tutions. The U.S. National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC) was contracted by the Agency for Inter- national Development to assist the National Research Centre. Funding for the NAS/NRC was provided under AID Contract NEB-0016-C-00-1058-00. Copies of the report are available as follows: In Egypt: Dr. A.S. El Nockrashy, Program Coordinator Applied Science and Technology Research Program Academy of Scientific Research and Technology 101 Kasr El Eini Street Cairo, Egypt In the United States: Board on Science and Technology for International Development National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 USA

PREFACE The More and Better Food Project began in 1977 as a collaborative effort between Egypt, represented by the National Research Centre (NRC), and the United States, represented by the U.S. Agency for International Develop- ment (USAID). The ultimate goal of the project was to demonstrate the impact of science and technology on food, agriculture, and nutrition. This report documents the integrated effort of more than 400 scientists from the NRC and other institutes concerned with problems of food and nutrition. It is a case study of a research institute (NRC) that has adapted its system and mobilized its manpower to address a major development problem. The report does not concentrate on technical details (such information is included in sepa- rate documents); instead, it focuses on aspects of plan- ning, priority selection, management, and program impacts, as well as lessons learned. Background infor- mation on the status of food, agriculture, and nutrition in Egypt and the research and development resources in these sectors is also presented. The authors wish to thank all the scientists who helped the MBF Project achieve its objectives. Special thanks are due to Dr. M. Katnel, the president of the ASRT; Dr. M.B.E. Fayez, the director of the NRC; and Dr. M. Abdel-Akher, the chairman of the steering commit- tee. It is also appropriate to thank the members of the steering committee for their efforts in managing the pro- ject for more than eight years. The authors are grateful to the organizations that made this study possible. The USAID provided financial support, and the U.S. National Research Council assisted in technical aspects including training, consultancy, documentation, and information, as well as staff support. Special appreciation is extended to the many American scientists who served as advisors or consultants. It is impossible to note here the number of U.S. universities, research institutes, and other scientific laboratories iii

that collaborated with the Egyptian team at the NRC, but their assistance is most gratefully acknowledged. The editorial assistance of Miss Nina Graybil1, Mrs. Mary- alice Risdon, Ms. Patti Lowery, and Miss Irene Martinez, and the major contribution of Miss F. R. Ruskin, who coordinated and prepared the manuscript for publication, is acknowledged with thanks. IV

CONTENTS PAGE ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMS viii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ix CHAPTER I: STATUS OF FOOD, AGRICULTURE, AND NUTRITION IN EGYPT 1 GEOGRAPHY AND DEMOGRAPHY 1 EGYPT'S AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 6 Changes in Crop Pattern 6 Changes in Crop Production 8 Standard Measures of Agricultural Production 10 Changes in Production per Feddan 10 Value of Agricultural Products 11 EGYPT'S FOOD INDUSTRIES 13 The Food Industry's Position among Other Industries 15 Changes in Size and Value 15 PRODUCTION-CONSUMPTION GAP 16 Food Gap 16 Changes in the Consumption of Food Commodities 18 Food Subsidy 23 EGYPT'S NUTRITIONAL STATUS 23 Consumption Patterns 28 Nutritional Problems 29 CHAPTER II: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT RESOURCES IN FOOD, AGRICULTURE, AND NUTRITION 33 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTES 34 The Agricultural Research Centre 34 University Research in Food and Agriculture 35

Academy of Scientific Research and Technology 35 The National Research Centre 36 Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries 36 Ministry of Irrigation 36 The Desert Research Institute 38 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT MANPOWER 38 CHAPTER III: THE NATIONAL RESEARCH CENTRE AND 41 THE MORE AND BETTER FOOD PROGRAM SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE AGRICULTURE 42 THE NATIONAL RESEARCH CENTRE 44 History and Development of the NRC 44 Research in Food, Agriculture, and Nutrition 46 THE MORE AND BETTER FOOD PROJECT 52 Project Definition 52 Goals, Objectives, and Basic Assumptions 52 Justification 54 Project Initiation 54 The Steering Committee 56 Project Management 57 Management Mechanisms 58 Village Selection 60 Baseline Data 65 Intervention Projects 69 CHAPTER IV: THE MORE AND BETTER FOOD 71 INTERVENTION PROJECTS PLANT-PRODUCTION-RELATED PROJECTS 72 Project on Improvement of Tomato Productivity 72 Project on Improvement of Maize Productivity 77 Project on Improvement of Peanut Productivity 85 ANIMAL-PRODUCTION-RELATED PROJECTS 91 Project on Improvement of Poultry Productivity 92 vi

OTHER PROJECTS OF SIGNIFICANT IMPACT 95 Improvement of Wheat Production 96 Development of Onion Production 97 Improvement of Cucumber Production 98 Improvement of Potato Production 101 Improvement of Mango and Grape Production 102 Improvement of Dairy Production 104 Development of Beekeeping and Sericulture Practices 105 HEALTH AND NUTRITION STATUS AND IMPACT 108 Village Characteristics 109 Nutritional Intervention 115 Nutritional Impact 118 BIBLIOGRAPHY 121 vii

ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMS ARC Agricultural Research Centre (MOA) Ardab A measure of capacity, equal to roughly 5.62 bushels (also spelled ardeb) ASRT Academy of Scientific Research and Technology (Egypt) FED or F Feddan - 1.038 acres FY Fiscal Year GNP Gross National Product KT Kirat - 1/24 feddan L Liter LE Egyptian Pound (1LE - 0.83 $US, official exchange rate) MBF More and Better Food MOA Ministry of Agriculture (Egypt) MOH Ministry of Health (Egypt) NIDOC National Information and Documentation Centre (ASRT) NIS National Institute of Standards (ASRT) NRC National Research Centre (Egypt) ORDEV Organization for Reconstruction and Development of the Egyptian Village PT Piaster - 1/100 LE SIC Scientific Instrumentation Centre (ASRT) STRD Science and Technology in Rural Development Program T Ton UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund USAID U.S. Agency for International Development $ U.S. Dollar viii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Egypt's demand for food has been steadily increasing. Not only is more food needed for a growing population, but a higher quality of food products is sought as more Egyptians are able to afford and appreciate the signifi- cance of improved nutrition. These dual demands led to the design and implementation of a cooperative Egypt-U.S. program in science and technology to address problems of food, agriculture, and nutrition. The More and Better Food (MBF) demonstration project is a major activity of this program. Responsibility for managing the project was assigned to the National Research Centre (NRC), the largest affiliated research institute of the Egyptian Academy of Scientific Research and Technology (ASRT). The MBF Project had two major objectives: 1. To mobilize the NRC's scientific manpower in a multidisciplinary program to increase crop pro- duction in selected demonstration villages, and to study the impact of increased productivity on the nutritional and socioeconomic status of the village community. 2. To develop the NRC's capability to manage multi- disciplinary and multi-institutional programs. This report describes how science and technology can be applied to solve the staggering problem of food short- age in Egypt. As a result of the MBF Project, the NRC has developed an effective system for mobilizing its scientific manpower to deal with problems at the village level and to influence national food policies. The document includes four sections: 1. The Status of Food, Agriculture, and Nutrition in Egypt. 2. Research and Development Resources. ix

3. The National Research Centre and the More and Better Food Project. 4. The More and Better Food Intervention Projects. Egypt, which until 1960 had been self-sufficient in all crops but wheat, now faces a steadily widening gap between production and consumption; this creates an enormous burden on the national economy. The value of food imports grew from $150 million (mostly wheat) in 1960 to $184 million in 1970, then soared to $1.9 billion in 1980. The striking increase in the demand for food during the 1970s was largely due to the increase in population, the increase in per capita consumption, and the expansion of the government's food subsidy policy. Egypt's scientific manpower in agriculture, food, and nutrition totals more than 3,300 researchers (Ph.D.) and more than 4,400 research assistants (M.Sc.) working in the areas of crop production, horticulture, soil sciences, botany, agricultural pests and plant protec- tion, agricultural economics and rural development, ani- mal production, farm mechanization and engineering, food and dairy sciences, and human nutrition. Most of these researchers (55.5 percent) are in uni- versity faculties of agriculture. The Agricultural Research Centre (ARC) of the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) employs 21.5 percent of the nation's overall science and technology manpower in its 13 institutes. The NRC has 3 divisions (9 laboratories) that specialize in agriculture, food, and nutrition, and that employ more than 400 researchers and research assistants. The authority for agricultural research and extension in Egypt rests with the ARC. In addition, the ASRT, the NRC, the universities, and the Ministry of Irrigation conduct research of direct or indirect interest to agri- culture. The NRC is by far the largest multidisciplinary research institute in Egypt. It includes 14 divisions and 41 laboratories, and employs 160 professors, 225 associate professors, 318 researchers (Ph.D.), 321 research assistants (M.Sc.), 369 research fellows (B.Sc.), and 981 special and technical assistants. More than 30 percent of NRC manpower is engaged in food, agri- culture, and nutrition research. The history of NRC research in those areas reveals that from 1957 to 1968 the major effort was to build scientific and technical manpower in various disciplines; most of the research was academic in nature, resulting in publication of theses for advanced degrees. Collabor- ation among laboratories was informal. In 1968, the NRC entered a new era when it began coordinating its activities with the Scientific Council

for Food Industries and with the El-Fayum Governorate. Two joint councils were established, and the NRC began letting contracts designed to address problems of food and agriculture (22 contracts, value LE 97,500). In 1975, the NRC management adopted a new policy that called for expansion in user-oriented research, and began to explore every possible source of funding for applied research and development. The MBF, started in 1977, therefore came at a time and in an environment that provided—and continues to provide—major prerequisites for success: availability of scientific manpower with all specialties needed to start a multidisciplinary program, an administration seeking improvement of its research and development management system, and a new policy that placed a high premium on user-oriented research. Management of the MBF Project was handled by a steer- ing committee, chaired by a former minister of agricul- ture, with representation from government sectors and the heads of NRC divisions dealing with food, agriculture, and nutrition. Several factors facilitated the work of the steering committee: o Full support by the NRC director o Independent management authority and responsi- bility o Resources to implement projects o Careful determination and application of selec- tion criteria for projects to receive R&D funding o Full participation of end users (farmers and villagers) in program design and management. The steering committee recognized that many factors, both technical and manageria1, would be essential for the success of the project. The most important of these were as follows: o The ordinary farmer, as the intended client of the project, should be a partner in the pro- cesses of decision making, execution, and choice of technology as well as a consumer of the scientific information generated. o The technology used should be simple, appropri- ate, affordable, and acceptable to the farmer. Preference should be given to technologies adapted specifically for Egyptian socioeconomic conditions. o The project should be carefully selected to ensure that farmers would quickly learn that new methods would produce substantial results.

o The plan should consider expansion and popular- ization of the activity. o The ultimate goal should be the incorporation of the activities in national programs for rural development. According to the steering committee's plan, the MBF Project proceeded in three major stages: 1. Selection of village(s) typical of rural living patterns. 2. Collection of baseline data on selected villages. 3. Design of projects that met criteria adopted by the steering committee, which included: addressing problems of agricultural produc- tivity as identified by the farmers guaranteeing that farmers would not suffer losses for their participation in any demonstra- tion activity — attempting to make all activities suitable to local conditions. The process of village selection sought to identify (Da village typical of a traditional rural area (Kafr Al-Khadra, Menufia), (2) another representing newly reclaimed land (Omar Mafcram, Beheira), and (3) one influenced by nearby urbanization (Beni-Magdoul, Giza). The selection process utilized baseline data on agricul- ture, health, utilities, social services, and public services. Final stages required field visits that gave special attention to farmers' requests for assistance. Intervention projects carried out through the MBF included: o Plant-production-related projects on peanuts, corn, wheat, onions, cucumbers, tomatoes, pota- toes, grapes, mangoes, weed contro1, insect con- tro1, soil fertility, and silkworm raising and honeybeekeeping o Animal-production-related projects on poultry farming, animal health and productivity, raising rabbits, and dairy production o Health and nutrition projects on child health and nutrition, child growth patterns, anemia, nutri- tion education, and the impact of agricultural projects on health, nutrition, and socioeconomic status. The following represent the general achievements of the MBF: xii

o The MBF was by far the largest assignment ever carried out by the NRG. The program involved the collaboration of more than 300 scientists in 13 specialties from the NRC who worked directly with about 100 scientists from the ministries and the universities. o The MBF was the vehicle through which the NRC staff gained experience in the management of large multidisciplinary, multi-institutional projects. o The MBF provided the first chance for the NRC staff to communicate and deal with the real pro- blems of the village, and to establish a long lasting researcher-farmer relationship. o The MBF created an awareness among its scientific staff of the importance of socioeconomic aspects in both project design and implementation. o The MBF led to more expanded efforts at the regional level (Al-Tahady and Al-Salheia), governorate level (Giza Governorate), ministerial level (NRC staff was represented on all ARC com- mittees), and the national level (corn project). Some specific achievements of the MBF are described below. The tomato project introduced two new practices: growing tomatoes on wire and starting seedlings under plastic tunnels. Average productivity increased from 4.0 tons/feddan* (t/f) to 27.8 t/f in Omar Makram and from 5.7 t/f to 32.4 t/f in Kafr Al-Khadra. Based on this increase and other findings of the MBF, the Giza Governorate financed a project entitled "Science and Technology in Rural Development" (STRD). In 1981, 1,000 feddans owned by 572 farmers from 14 villages reported average production of 22.8 t/f (compared with 6.74 t/f on acreage outside the project) and extra income of LE 1,614/f. In 1982, the Supreme National Committee for Policies and Economics (chaired by the prime minister) approved the expansion of the STRD to three governor- ates—Giza, Beni-Suef, and El-Fayum. Tomato planting covered 7,831 feddans owned by 6,109 farmers in 56 vil- lages, with an average production of 29.99 t/f. The corn project introduced an improved agronomic package for two high-yielding maize varieties: imported Pioneer 514 (hybrid) and local Giza. The package also included the cultivation of a summer forage crop (Sordan 77 or Millex-24) on 2 kirats** per feddan. The project was implemented in Omar Makram and Kafr Al-Khadra, and *0ne feddan = 1.038 acres. **0ne kirat = 1/24 feddan. xxn

later extended its activity to the Giza Governorate. The ASRT and the MOA launched a national campaign for growing maize (Giza 2) in more than 150,000 feddans in 23 gover- norates. Average production ranged rrom 3.32 to 4.05 t/f compared with 1.65 t/f before the project was begun. The peanut project demonstrated an integrated approach to the effective implementation of science and technology in the field, beginning with the complete pro- blem diagnosis, allocation of resources, and careful tim- ing of the proposed intervention. The achievements of this project in the Al-Tahady sector were widely recog- nized and reported in Egypt. Between 1979 and 1982, Al-Tahady had shown successive decreases in the average yield of the 6,000 feddans from 9 ardab*/f to 2.8 ardab/f. The MBF intervention began in 1982 with a complete diag- nosis of the causes and initial implementation of treat- ment. By 1984, the MBF applied the new principles of the peanut project to 1,250 feddans in Al-Tahady and 750 fed- dans in Omar Makram; average productivity reached 17 ardab/f and 26 ardab/f, respectively. In 1985, the MBF spread its methodology to all 6,000 feddans of peanut cultivation and was supported by LE 100,000 from the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). A small-scale poultry production unit (family size) was introduced in the demonstration villages to provide farmers with a good source of protein and with added income. In 1984, 58 families from Omar Makram partici- pated in the project with 100 chicks/family/rotation (5 rotations/year). Families in the neighboring villages of Omar Shaheen later implemented the project on their own. Statistics reveal that a typical unit with 100 chicks/rotation and a total of 5 annual rotations pro- duced a net profit of about LE 400. The following table shows the crop production figures of farmers in the MBF project compared with figures reported for nonparticipating farmers. Research teams currently are operating through con- tracts with privately owned mango and orange farms in Beni Magdoul and Kafr Al-Gabal (Giza Governorate), Samalout (El-Minia Governorate), and El-Santa (El-Gharbia Governorate). This reflects a significant sign of institutionalization and new mode of services by the NRC. *Ardab (ardeb): volume measure = 5.62 bushels. xiv

Comparison of MBF and Non-MBF Crop Production Average Production (T/F) Extra Crop Village* MBF Nonparticipants Income/ Feddan (LE) Wheat (Sakha 61) OM 1.64 0.75 585 Onion (Giza 20) OM/KK 17.00 4.20 1,920 BM 15.00 6.26 1,300 Cucumber OM 15.00 3.00 1,200 (Beta-Alpha) Potato KK/OM 14.50 5.60 1,335 Mango BM 2.66 0.45 1,611 *Key: OM = Omar Makram; KK = Kafr Al-Khadra; BM = Beni Magdoul.

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The More and Better Food Demonstration Project in Egypt is the product of multidisciplinary and multi-institutional collaboration among many Egyptian workers and institutions, with the National Research Centre (NRC) taking the leadership role. The ultimate goal of the project was to demonstrate the impact of science and technology on food, agriculture, and nutrition. The project was a major component of the Applied Science and Technology Research Program, a collaborative activity in science and technology for development supported by the Government of Egypt and the United States Agency for International Development during the years 1977-1986.

More and Better Food: An Egyptian Demonstration Project is a case study of agricultural, nutrition, and health interventions in three Egyptian villages; it was written to inform an interested audience of development specialists, administrators, and others concerned with the role of science and technology in socioeconomic development. This report documents the integrated effort of more than 400 scientists concerned with the problems of food and nutrition. It is a case study of a research institute (NRC) that has adapted its system and mobilized its manpower to address a major development problem. More and Better Food focuses on aspects of planning, priority selection, management, and program impacts, as well as lessons learned.

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